• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Dietary AV

검색결과 8건 처리시간 0.07초

Effects of Dietary Acidogenicity Values on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nutrients Digestibility

  • Choi, Y.J.;Lee, Sang S.;Song, J.Y.;Choi, N.J.;Sung, H.G.;Yun, S.G.;Ha, Jong K.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1625-1633
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to observe effects of dietary acidogenicity value (AV) on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility. The AV of feedstuffs was based on the dissolution of Ca from $CaCO_3$ powder added at the end of a 24 h in vitro fermentation. Three diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with different AV. Two experiments were involved in this study. In experiment 1, it appears that pH, $NH_3-N$ concentration and A:P ratio tended to decrease, but gas production, VFA production and DM disappearance tended to increase with increasing dietary AV. In experiment 2, the rumen pH tended to decrease in order of high AV>medium AV>low AV treatment, respectively. There were no significant effects of dietary AV on $NH_3-N$ concentration, enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. In addition, total VFA and individual VFA concentrations tended to increase with increasing dietary AV without significance. In fact, we hypothesized that different dietary AV would affect rumen fermentation and nutrients digestibility because dietary AV was adjusted with fermentable carbohydrate sources. The present results indicate that differences in dietary AV between treatments were too small to affect rumen fermentation and its effects were minimal.

Histidine과 Alanine의 유지에 대한 항산화 효과 (Antioxidative Effect of Histidine and Alanine on Oil Rancidity)

  • 조희숙
    • 동아시아식생활학회지
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and synergistic effects upon different concentrations(0.02, 0.1, l%) of histidine and alanine in soybean oil during incubation at 6$0^{\circ}C$. Acid value(AV), peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid(TBA) value of each oil was monitored. Histidine and alanine showed antioxidative effects in all concentrations. In the case of the incubating antioxidative effect of histidine was lower than that of TBHQ. That of alanine was considerably higher than that of $\alpha$-tocopherol, but was lower than that of histidine. Synergistic effects among histidine, alanine and some food antioxidants were shown to exist available in all substrates and the best effect was shown in substrate added compound of histidine and $\alpha$-tocopherol.

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수분함량과 저장온도에 따른 배합사료의 지방산화 및 지방산 조성 변화 (The Changes of Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acid Composition of Extruded Pellet Feed by Dietary Moisture Level and Storage Temperature)

  • 장미순;김경덕;김강웅;이종윤;강용진
    • 한국양식학회지
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구는 시중에 판매되고 있는 상품사료에 물을 첨가하여 수분함량이 5%, 15% 및 25%가 되게 조절한 배합사료를 5, 20(실온) 및 $35^{\circ}C$의 각각 다른 온도에 10일 동안 저장하면서 이틀 간격으로 시료를 채취하여, 지방산화 정도를 알아보기 위해 AV, POV, TBA값 및 지방산 조성의 변화를 측정하였다. 또한, 이를 활용하여 수분함량에 따른 배합사료의 적절한 사용기한을 예측해 보고자 하였다. 5% 수분함유 배합사료의 경우는 모든 저장온도에서 저장 10일째까지 AV, POV 및 TBA값에 별다른 차이가 없었다. 그러나, $35^{\circ}C$에 저장한 수분함유 15% 및 25% 배합사료의 경우는 각각 저장 4일 및 2일 이후부터 AV, POV 및 TBA값이 급격하게 증가하였으며 그 변화 폭도 컸다. 한편, 수분함량이 5%인 배합사료를 $5^{\circ}C$$20^{\circ}C$에 10일간 저장하는 동안 SFA, monoene 및 polyene의 지방산 함량에 별다른 변화는 없었으나, 수분함량이 15% 및 25%인 배합사료의 경우는 저장온도가 높고 저장일이 경과함에 따라 monoene의 함량은 지속적으로 증가하고, polyene의 함량은 급속하게 감소 하였다. 또한, 수분함량 5% 배합사료를 $20^{\circ}C$에 저장한 경우는 PUFA/SFA 비율 및 불포화지방산 잔존율($C_{20:5}+C_{22:6}/C_{16:0}$)에는 거의 변화가 없었으나, 수분함량 15% 및 25%인 배합사료는 저장 4일 이후부터 감소하였다. 35에 저장한 배합사료는 수분함량에 상관없이 저장 2일 이후부터 불포화지방산 잔존율이 급격하게 감소하였다. 이상의 결과로부터 수분함량 5%인 배합사료는 지질산화의 영향을 적게 받아 저장온도에 상관없이 다소 긴 기간동안 사용이 가능할 것으로 예측되었고, 수분함량이 15% 및 25%인 배합사료의 경우는 가급적이면 저온에서 사용하고, $20^{\circ}C$(실온)에서 사용하는 경우라면 2일 이내에 사용하는 것이 지질산화에 의한 영양적 손실을 최소화 할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.

감귤 부산물 급여가 냉장 중 토종 닭고기의 표면 색도, 지방산패도 및 선도에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Citrus Byproduct Diet on Meat Color, Rancidity and Freshness in Korean Native Chickens during Cold Storage)

  • 문윤희
    • 동아시아식생활학회지
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.551-557
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    • 2009
  • 감귤 부산물 급여가 냉장 중 토종닭고기의 품질에 미치는 영향을 검토하였다. 실험에 이용한 토종닭고기(39주령, $1.30{\pm}0.5$ kg)는 감귤 부산물을 급여하지 않은 T0구, 17주령부터 39주령까지 감귤 부산물을 4% 급여한 T1구로 나누었다. 각각 가슴살과 다리살을 진공포장하고 $3^{\circ}C$에서 2주일간 냉장하면서 표면 색도, 지방산패도, 항산화력 및 선도 변화에 대하여 실험하였다. 감귤 부산물 급여구(T1구)는 T0구보다 냉장 중 표면 색도의 $L^*$ 값, $a^*$ 값, $b^*$ 값의 변화가 느리게 나타났다. T1구는 T0구보다 냉장 중 산가, 과산화물가, TBA 값의 상승 속도가 늦었으며 항산화력이 우수하였다. T1구는 T0구보다 냉장 중 휘발성 염기질소 함량 및 일반 세균수의 증가 현상이 느리게 나타났다. 결론적으로 감귤 부산물 급여에 의하여 냉장 중 토종닭고기의 표면 색도, 지방산패도, 선도의 변화가 억제되고 전자공여능 값이 높게 나타나서(p<0.05) 품질 유지에 좋은 효과가 있는 것을 확인할 수 있었다.

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Effect of Dietary Lipid Sources on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Immuno-hematological Parameters in Catla catla Fingerlings

  • Priya, K.;Pal, A.K.;Sahu, N.P.;Mukherjee, S.C.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1609-1616
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    • 2005
  • Ninety advanced Catla catla fingerlings (av. wt. 16 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with three replicates each for an experimental period of 60 days to study the effect of dietary lipid source on growth, enzyme activities and immuno-hematological parameters. Six isoprotein (40.0-41.9%) and isocaloric (4,260 kcal $kg^{-1}$) semi-purified diets were prepared with varying levels of soybean oil (SBO) and cod liver oil (CLO) within a total of 8% lipid viz., $D_1$ (Control), $D_2$ (8% SBO), $D_3$ (6% SBO and 2% CLO), $D_4$ (4% SBO and 4% CLO), $D_5$ (2% SBO and 6% CLO) and $D_6$ (8% CLO). Highest SGR was noted in $D_5$ (0.73${\pm}$0.03) group, which was similar with $D_3$ (0.71${\pm}$0.02) and $D_4$ (0.69${\pm}$0.01) groups. Activity of intestinal lipase, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) of the lipid treatment groups were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control group. The respiratory burst activity of the phagocytes (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)) was highest in $D_2$ (1.95${\pm}$0.21) followed by $D_3$ (1.19${\pm}$0.15) group, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other groups. Globulin level was significantly higher in $D_3$ (1.29${\pm}$0.08) than in the other groups expect $D_4$. Hemoglobin content and total erythrocyte count did not show any significant difference. From this study, it is concluded that a diet containing 6% soybean oil and 2% cod liver oil ($D_3$) yields higher growth and immune response in Catla catla fingerlings and would be cost effective.

한국산 구아바 잎 추출물을 첨가한 크래커의 항산화활성 (Antioxidative Activity of Crackers Made with a Guava(Psidium guajava Linn.) Leaf Extract Harvested in Korea)

  • 허예진;심기현;최해연;김순임
    • 한국식품조리과학회지
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidative activity of crackers made with a guava(Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf extract harvested in Korea. Guava leaf extraction using boiling water showed significantly higher antioxidative activities than extracting using 70% ethanol based on the higher total phenolic contents, FRAP, and ABTS assays(p<0.05). The crackers containing 1% guava leaf extract, and 0.075% BHT were stored at $63^{\circ}C$ for 7 days for the Schaal oven test, and the oxidative stability(AV, POV), antioxidative activity(DPPH, FRAP, ABTS assay), and sensory evaluation were compared. The crackers containing 1% guava leaf extract were found to have a higher oxidative stability than the control due to a lower acid value and peroxide value after 7 days of storage. The antioxidative activities of the crackers containing 1% guava leaf extract was the highest after 7 days as determined in the DPPH and ABTS assay, and was lower than crackers containing 0.075% BHT after 4 days as assessed by the FRAP assay. In the sensory evaluation, the crackers containing the 1% guava leaf extract had the highest scores in terms of taste, texture, and overall palatability than others at increasing storage time. As a result, the addition of 1% guava leaf extract harvested in Korea increased the antioxidative effect as well as the sensory acceptability of crackers.

Mammary Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bibos banteng) Fed Grass-Legume Based Diets in Relation to the Role of Glucose

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, Djokowoerjo;Nusada, N.;Mahardika, I.G.;Kiranadi, B.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.615-623
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    • 2001
  • A study of mammary function in relation to glucose metabolism of first lactation Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 primiparous cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) for 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. On a DM basis R1 contained 70% elephant grass (PP, Penicetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 25% GS supplemented with 55% Hibiscus tilliacius leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, with R4 supplemented with zinc-diacetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weights were monitored, an energy and protein balance trial conducted, overall glucose kinetics parameters assessed, mammary blood flow (MBF) and metabolite arteriovenous differences (${\Delta}AVs$) measured to get uptake data and mammary performance relationships. Parameters of glucose kinetics at peak lactation or during dry condition were not affected by ration quality. Glucose pool size, space of distribution and flux increased by 61.77, 62.26 and 82.08%, respectively, during lactation compared to the dry period. Mean glucose flux of lactating Bali cows was $5.52mg/min.kgBW^{0.807}$ which resembles the range of values of temperate dairy cows. Calculation showed that glucose requirements for maintenance, milk lactose and fat-glycerol synthesis, and the formation of NADPH reached 461.69 g for a yield of 1 kg/d or equal to 320.62 mg/min, which was less than the average glucose flux of lactating Bali cows of 481.35 mg/min. Mammary blood flow (MBF) values ranged from 56 to 83 l/h for the different treatments and the ratio MBF per kg milk produced improved from av. 1540 l/kg for R1 to av. 967 l/kg for R4 treated cows. Mammary glucose uptake ranged from 6.27 to 12.03 g/h or 120 to 140 g/kg milk. Glucose uptake was mass-wise 2 to 4 times the amount secreted as lactose, which indicated values less than the calculated mammary glucose needs and that little lactose was synthesized. The excess glucose taken-up was used for other metabolic processes. Linear relationships between metabolite ${\Delta}AVs$ and arterial blood plasma concentration [A] showed that in Bali cows triglycerides (TG), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) have high coefficients of determination, i.e. 0.77, 0.81 and 0.69, respectively. For glucose, the relationship is quadratic with an $R^2$ value of 0.49. It was concluded that lactose synthesis was inadequate, which led to a speculation that milk yield could be improved by increased lactose synthesis.

Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Lactation Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bos sondaicus) on Grass-Legume Based Diets

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, D.;Sutardi, T.;Mahardika, IG.;Budiarta, IG.A.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1681-1690
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    • 2000
  • A study on energy and protein utilization, and milk production of Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 first lactation cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) during a period of 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allotted into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, graded improved rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. R1 contained on a DM basis 70% elephant grass (PP, Penisetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 55% GS supplemented with 15% Hibiscus tilliactus leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, where R3 was not and R4 supplemented with zinc di-acetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weight were monitored throughout the experimental period. In vivo body composition by the urea space technique validated by the body density method and supported by carcass data was estimated at the start and termination of the experiment. Nutrient balance and rumen performance characteristics were measured during a balance trial of 7 days during the 3rd and 4th week of the lactation period. Results indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of ruminal total VFA concentration, increments being 52 to 65% for R2, R3 and R4 above R1, with increments of acetate being less (31 to 48%) and propionate being proportionally more in comparison to total VFA increments. Similarly, ammonia concentrations increased to 5.24 to 7.07 mM, equivalent to 7.34 to 9.90 mg $NH_3-N/100ml$ rumen fluid. Results also indicated that feed quality did not affect DE and ME intakes, and heat production (HP), but increased GE, UE, energy in milk and total retained energy (RE total) in body tissues and milk. Intake-, digestible- and catabolized-protein, and retained-protein in body tissues and milk (Rprot) were all elevated increasing the quality of ration. Similar results were obtained for milk yield and components with mean values reaching 2.085 kg/d (R4) versus 0.92 kg/d (R1) for milk yield, and 170.22 g/d (R4) vs 71.69 g/d (R1), 105.74 g/d (R4) vs 45.35 g/d (R1), 101.34 g/d (R4) vs 46.36 g/d (R1) for milk-fat, -protein, and -lactose, respectively. Relatively high yields of milk production was maintained longer for R4 as compared to the other treatment groups. There were no significant effects on body mass and components due to lactation. From the relationship $RE_{total}$ (MJ/d)=12.79-0.373 ME (MJ/d); (r=0.73), it was found that $ME_{m}=0.53MJ/kgW^{0.75}.d$. Requirement of energy to support the production of milk, ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kg/d, follows the equation: Milk Prod. ($Q_{mp}$, kg/d)=[-2.48+4.31 ME($MJ/kg^{0.75}.d$)]; (r=0.6) or $Q_{mp}$=-3.4+[0.08($ME-RE_{body\;tissue}$)]MJ/d]; (r=0.94). The requirement for protein intake for maintenance ($IP_m$) equals $6.19 g/kg^{0.75}.d$ derived from the relationship RP=-47.4+0.12 IP; (r=0.74, n=9). Equation for protein requirement for lactation is $Q_{nl}$=[($Q_{mp}$)(% protein in milk)($I_{mp}$)]/100, where $Q_{nl}$ is g protein required for lactation, $Q_{mp}$ is daily milk yield, Bali cow's milk-protein content av. 5.04%, and $I_{mp}$ is metabolic increment for milk production ($ME_{lakt}/ME_{m}=1.46$).