• Title, Summary, Keyword: Dietary AV

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Effects of Dietary Acidogenicity Values on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nutrients Digestibility

  • Choi, Y.J.;Lee, Sang S.;Song, J.Y.;Choi, N.J.;Sung, H.G.;Yun, S.G.;Ha, Jong K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1625-1633
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to observe effects of dietary acidogenicity value (AV) on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility. The AV of feedstuffs was based on the dissolution of Ca from $CaCO_3$ powder added at the end of a 24 h in vitro fermentation. Three diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with different AV. Two experiments were involved in this study. In experiment 1, it appears that pH, $NH_3-N$ concentration and A:P ratio tended to decrease, but gas production, VFA production and DM disappearance tended to increase with increasing dietary AV. In experiment 2, the rumen pH tended to decrease in order of high AV>medium AV>low AV treatment, respectively. There were no significant effects of dietary AV on $NH_3-N$ concentration, enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. In addition, total VFA and individual VFA concentrations tended to increase with increasing dietary AV without significance. In fact, we hypothesized that different dietary AV would affect rumen fermentation and nutrients digestibility because dietary AV was adjusted with fermentable carbohydrate sources. The present results indicate that differences in dietary AV between treatments were too small to affect rumen fermentation and its effects were minimal.

Antioxidative Effect of Histidine and Alanine on Oil Rancidity (Histidine과 Alanine의 유지에 대한 항산화 효과)

  • 조희숙
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and synergistic effects upon different concentrations(0.02, 0.1, l%) of histidine and alanine in soybean oil during incubation at 6$0^{\circ}C$. Acid value(AV), peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid(TBA) value of each oil was monitored. Histidine and alanine showed antioxidative effects in all concentrations. In the case of the incubating antioxidative effect of histidine was lower than that of TBHQ. That of alanine was considerably higher than that of $\alpha$-tocopherol, but was lower than that of histidine. Synergistic effects among histidine, alanine and some food antioxidants were shown to exist available in all substrates and the best effect was shown in substrate added compound of histidine and $\alpha$-tocopherol.

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The Changes of Lipid Oxidation and Fatty Acid Composition of Extruded Pellet Feed by Dietary Moisture Level and Storage Temperature (수분함량과 저장온도에 따른 배합사료의 지방산화 및 지방산 조성 변화)

  • Jang, Mi-Soon;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Kim, Kang-Woong;Lee, Jong-Yun;Kang, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary moisture level and storage temperature on lipid oxidation and fatty acids composition of the extruded pellet feed. The diets containing the moisture levels of 5%, 15% and 25% were prepared by adding moisture (water) to the commercial extruded pellets and stored at $5^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$ (room temperature) and $35^{\circ}C$. The samples for analysis were collected at every 2 days for 10 days. Acid value (AV), peroxide value (POV), 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and fatty acid composition of the feeds were measured. No differences in the AV, POV and TBA value were observed in feed containing 5% moisture at all storage temperatures for 10 days. However, the AV, POV and TBA value of diets containing 15% and 25% moisture increased rapidly at $20^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$ after 4 days. Fatty acids compositions of feeds containing 5% moisture did not change during the storage periods at $5^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$. However, 5% moisture feed stored at $35^{\circ}C$ increased monoene fatty acid content and decreased the contents of polyene fatty acid, PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and $(C_{20:5}+C_{22:6})/C_{16:0}$ after 4 days. Also, 15% moisture feed stored at $35^{\circ}C$ showed increased monoene fatty acid content and decreased $(C_{20:5}+C_{22:6})/C_{16:0}$ after 2 days. The diet containing 25% moisture showed increased monoene fatty acid content and decreased contents of PUFA, PUFA/SFA and $(C_{20:5}+C_{22:6})/C_{16:0}$ at all temperatures after 2 days. In this study, lipid oxidation can occur in the extruded pellet feeds of 15% and 25% moisture at room temperature after 2 days.

Effects of Citrus Byproduct Diet on Meat Color, Rancidity and Freshness in Korean Native Chickens during Cold Storage (감귤 부산물 급여가 냉장 중 토종 닭고기의 표면 색도, 지방산패도 및 선도에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yoon-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.551-557
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    • 2009
  • The effects of feeding citrus byproducts on the quality of Korean native chickens were investigated during cold storage. Two samples of Korean native chickens (39 weeks old, $1.30{\pm}0.5$ kg) were used for the study: T0 (chickens not fed citrus byproducts) and T1(chickens fed a 4% citrus byproduct diets since from age 17 weeks until 39 weeks old). The breast and thigh meat of each sample were vacuum-packed, and then used for experiments on change in Hunter's color values, acid values (AV), peroxide values (POV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, electron donating ability (EDA), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and total plate count during storage for two weeks at 3C. Changes in $L^*$, $a^*$ and $b^*$ values were slower in T1 than in T0. T1 showed slower increment rates for AV, POV, and TBA values during storage, as well as better antioxidant activity, than T0. T1 showed slower increment rates for VBN and total plate counts during storage than T0. Thus, feeding citrus byproducts suppressed change in Hunter's color value, rancidity, and freshness in breast and thigh meat during storage, and resulted in higher EDA value (p<0.05), which implies that the diet has positive effects in maintaining high meat quality.

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Effect of Dietary Lipid Sources on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Immuno-hematological Parameters in Catla catla Fingerlings

  • Priya, K.;Pal, A.K.;Sahu, N.P.;Mukherjee, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1609-1616
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    • 2005
  • Ninety advanced Catla catla fingerlings (av. wt. 16 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with three replicates each for an experimental period of 60 days to study the effect of dietary lipid source on growth, enzyme activities and immuno-hematological parameters. Six isoprotein (40.0-41.9%) and isocaloric (4,260 kcal $kg^{-1}$) semi-purified diets were prepared with varying levels of soybean oil (SBO) and cod liver oil (CLO) within a total of 8% lipid viz., $D_1$ (Control), $D_2$ (8% SBO), $D_3$ (6% SBO and 2% CLO), $D_4$ (4% SBO and 4% CLO), $D_5$ (2% SBO and 6% CLO) and $D_6$ (8% CLO). Highest SGR was noted in $D_5$ (0.73${\pm}$0.03) group, which was similar with $D_3$ (0.71${\pm}$0.02) and $D_4$ (0.69${\pm}$0.01) groups. Activity of intestinal lipase, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) of the lipid treatment groups were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control group. The respiratory burst activity of the phagocytes (Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)) was highest in $D_2$ (1.95${\pm}$0.21) followed by $D_3$ (1.19${\pm}$0.15) group, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other groups. Globulin level was significantly higher in $D_3$ (1.29${\pm}$0.08) than in the other groups expect $D_4$. Hemoglobin content and total erythrocyte count did not show any significant difference. From this study, it is concluded that a diet containing 6% soybean oil and 2% cod liver oil ($D_3$) yields higher growth and immune response in Catla catla fingerlings and would be cost effective.

Antioxidative Activity of Crackers Made with a Guava(Psidium guajava Linn.) Leaf Extract Harvested in Korea (한국산 구아바 잎 추출물을 첨가한 크래커의 항산화활성)

  • Heo, Ye-Jin;Sim, Ki-Hyeon;Choi, Hae-Yeon;Kim, Sun-Im
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidative activity of crackers made with a guava(Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf extract harvested in Korea. Guava leaf extraction using boiling water showed significantly higher antioxidative activities than extracting using 70% ethanol based on the higher total phenolic contents, FRAP, and ABTS assays(p<0.05). The crackers containing 1% guava leaf extract, and 0.075% BHT were stored at $63^{\circ}C$ for 7 days for the Schaal oven test, and the oxidative stability(AV, POV), antioxidative activity(DPPH, FRAP, ABTS assay), and sensory evaluation were compared. The crackers containing 1% guava leaf extract were found to have a higher oxidative stability than the control due to a lower acid value and peroxide value after 7 days of storage. The antioxidative activities of the crackers containing 1% guava leaf extract was the highest after 7 days as determined in the DPPH and ABTS assay, and was lower than crackers containing 0.075% BHT after 4 days as assessed by the FRAP assay. In the sensory evaluation, the crackers containing the 1% guava leaf extract had the highest scores in terms of taste, texture, and overall palatability than others at increasing storage time. As a result, the addition of 1% guava leaf extract harvested in Korea increased the antioxidative effect as well as the sensory acceptability of crackers.

Mammary Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bibos banteng) Fed Grass-Legume Based Diets in Relation to the Role of Glucose

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, Djokowoerjo;Nusada, N.;Mahardika, I.G.;Kiranadi, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.615-623
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    • 2001
  • A study of mammary function in relation to glucose metabolism of first lactation Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 primiparous cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) for 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. On a DM basis R1 contained 70% elephant grass (PP, Penicetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 25% GS supplemented with 55% Hibiscus tilliacius leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, with R4 supplemented with zinc-diacetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weights were monitored, an energy and protein balance trial conducted, overall glucose kinetics parameters assessed, mammary blood flow (MBF) and metabolite arteriovenous differences (${\Delta}AVs$) measured to get uptake data and mammary performance relationships. Parameters of glucose kinetics at peak lactation or during dry condition were not affected by ration quality. Glucose pool size, space of distribution and flux increased by 61.77, 62.26 and 82.08%, respectively, during lactation compared to the dry period. Mean glucose flux of lactating Bali cows was $5.52mg/min.kgBW^{0.807}$ which resembles the range of values of temperate dairy cows. Calculation showed that glucose requirements for maintenance, milk lactose and fat-glycerol synthesis, and the formation of NADPH reached 461.69 g for a yield of 1 kg/d or equal to 320.62 mg/min, which was less than the average glucose flux of lactating Bali cows of 481.35 mg/min. Mammary blood flow (MBF) values ranged from 56 to 83 l/h for the different treatments and the ratio MBF per kg milk produced improved from av. 1540 l/kg for R1 to av. 967 l/kg for R4 treated cows. Mammary glucose uptake ranged from 6.27 to 12.03 g/h or 120 to 140 g/kg milk. Glucose uptake was mass-wise 2 to 4 times the amount secreted as lactose, which indicated values less than the calculated mammary glucose needs and that little lactose was synthesized. The excess glucose taken-up was used for other metabolic processes. Linear relationships between metabolite ${\Delta}AVs$ and arterial blood plasma concentration [A] showed that in Bali cows triglycerides (TG), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) have high coefficients of determination, i.e. 0.77, 0.81 and 0.69, respectively. For glucose, the relationship is quadratic with an $R^2$ value of 0.49. It was concluded that lactose synthesis was inadequate, which led to a speculation that milk yield could be improved by increased lactose synthesis.

Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Lactation Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bos sondaicus) on Grass-Legume Based Diets

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, D.;Sutardi, T.;Mahardika, IG.;Budiarta, IG.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1681-1690
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    • 2000
  • A study on energy and protein utilization, and milk production of Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 first lactation cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) during a period of 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allotted into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, graded improved rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. R1 contained on a DM basis 70% elephant grass (PP, Penisetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 55% GS supplemented with 15% Hibiscus tilliactus leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, where R3 was not and R4 supplemented with zinc di-acetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weight were monitored throughout the experimental period. In vivo body composition by the urea space technique validated by the body density method and supported by carcass data was estimated at the start and termination of the experiment. Nutrient balance and rumen performance characteristics were measured during a balance trial of 7 days during the 3rd and 4th week of the lactation period. Results indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of ruminal total VFA concentration, increments being 52 to 65% for R2, R3 and R4 above R1, with increments of acetate being less (31 to 48%) and propionate being proportionally more in comparison to total VFA increments. Similarly, ammonia concentrations increased to 5.24 to 7.07 mM, equivalent to 7.34 to 9.90 mg $NH_3-N/100ml$ rumen fluid. Results also indicated that feed quality did not affect DE and ME intakes, and heat production (HP), but increased GE, UE, energy in milk and total retained energy (RE total) in body tissues and milk. Intake-, digestible- and catabolized-protein, and retained-protein in body tissues and milk (Rprot) were all elevated increasing the quality of ration. Similar results were obtained for milk yield and components with mean values reaching 2.085 kg/d (R4) versus 0.92 kg/d (R1) for milk yield, and 170.22 g/d (R4) vs 71.69 g/d (R1), 105.74 g/d (R4) vs 45.35 g/d (R1), 101.34 g/d (R4) vs 46.36 g/d (R1) for milk-fat, -protein, and -lactose, respectively. Relatively high yields of milk production was maintained longer for R4 as compared to the other treatment groups. There were no significant effects on body mass and components due to lactation. From the relationship $RE_{total}$ (MJ/d)=12.79-0.373 ME (MJ/d); (r=0.73), it was found that $ME_{m}=0.53MJ/kgW^{0.75}.d$. Requirement of energy to support the production of milk, ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kg/d, follows the equation: Milk Prod. ($Q_{mp}$, kg/d)=[-2.48+4.31 ME($MJ/kg^{0.75}.d$)]; (r=0.6) or $Q_{mp}$=-3.4+[0.08($ME-RE_{body\;tissue}$)]MJ/d]; (r=0.94). The requirement for protein intake for maintenance ($IP_m$) equals $6.19 g/kg^{0.75}.d$ derived from the relationship RP=-47.4+0.12 IP; (r=0.74, n=9). Equation for protein requirement for lactation is $Q_{nl}$=[($Q_{mp}$)(% protein in milk)($I_{mp}$)]/100, where $Q_{nl}$ is g protein required for lactation, $Q_{mp}$ is daily milk yield, Bali cow's milk-protein content av. 5.04%, and $I_{mp}$ is metabolic increment for milk production ($ME_{lakt}/ME_{m}=1.46$).