• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diazinon

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Effectiveness of Several New Insecticides Applied on the Water-surface for the Control of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, in the 2nd Generation (이화기이화명충에 대한 살충제의 수면시용효과비교시험)

  • Paik Woon Hah;Choi Seung Yoon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.3
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    • pp.41-44
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    • 1964
  • 1. This experiment was planned to compare the effectiveness of Diazinon granular and gammadol dust with the low toxic organophosphorus insecticides applied on the water-surface for the control of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, in the 2 nd generation and to determine the proper timing of those insecticidal applications at Suwon, Korea, in 1964. 2. The hatching larvae from the eggs were inoculated on the rice plants in pots and insecticides were applied on the water-surface of pots at a given day intervals. The dose of insecticides used per pot was calculated from the 120g. as a actual ingredient per 10 a. The number of living larvae was observed at the 20 days later from the inoculation (as shown in Table 1.). 3. As shown in Table 2 and 3, there was highly significance between the chemicals and L.S.D. was 24.22. The best effectiveness was Diazinon granular and 2nd was gamma-dol dust. The organophosphorus emulsion concentrations used in this experiment were less effective than two other insecticides. Although there were some suspicious results according to the day intervals inoculated, the order of effectiveness was Diazinon>gamma-dol>Sumithion>EM>EPN> Cidial as the total moan. 4, As shown in Table 2 and 3, there was no significance between the timing of insecticidal applications, but, m the whole, Diazinon granular was most effective at a given day intervals in this experiment and gamma-dol also was effective at the day Plot inoculated. The proper timing of EPN, EM, and Cidial seemed to be at e day plot inoculated and that of Sumithion at the day plot before inoculation.

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The Toxicities of Some Soil Insecticides to the Various Larval Instars of the Common Cutworm (Agrotis fucosa Butler) in the Laboratory (거세미나방 유충의 령기에 따른 몇가지 토양살충제의 독성의 차이에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn Y.J.;Kim Y.T.;Kim H.J.;Choi S.Y.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 1980
  • The toxicities of some soil insecticides were evaluated in terms of the tolerance to various larval-ins tars of the common cutworm (Agrotis fucosa Butler) using topical application method in the laboratory. $LD_{50}$ values(ug/larva) were determined by the probit analysis and the tolerance-values were obtained with '$LD_{50}$ values for from 2nd-to 6th-instars/$LD_{50}$ values for first-instars.' The relative toxicities of the insecticides were 31so compared with the $LD_{50}$ values for the instars. The degree of tolerance was greatly increased as the larval instar advanced; the ranges of tolerance between the first-and 6th-instar larvae to the insecticides phoxim (Volaton), diazinon, chlorpyrifos (Dursban), carbofuran (Curaterr) and Mocap were 251.6, 126.6, 97.5, 44.3, and 18.7 times, respectively. The average relative toxicities of the insecticides for the instars indicated that the toxicity of phoxim was the greatest and following carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, Mocap and diazinon.

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On the preparation of new formulation of Diazinon and its residual pattern in submerged soil (새로운 Diazinon입제의 제조 및 담수토양중의 잔류특성에 관하여)

  • Choi, Jong-Woo;Ryoo, Jong-Gook;Shin, Dong-Lin;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1992
  • New formulation of diazinon as granule preparing with piperonyl butoxide(PBO) and triphenyl phosphate(TPP) known as the inhibitor of monooxygenase(mo) and esterase was tested with the mortality of rice leaf hopper. Also, the mixed formulation of diazinon with tricyclazole, carbofuran and EPN were investigated about the residual pattern of diazinon in submerged soil condition at $30{\pm}2^{\circ}C$. Although the mortality about rice leaf hopper was higher only 10% on new formulation of diazinon than commercial at recommended dose but was 30-60% at half dose. Half life of diazinon in the formulation with 0.1% of PBO+TPP was 4.53 days in sterilized soil and 2.33 days in non-sterilized soil, and it was delayed about 0.74 and 0.45 respectively in contrast with the commercial granule. Also, half life of the new formulation with 1% PBO and PBO+TPP was delayed 0.44(PBO) and 0.65day(PBO+TPP) in non-sterilized soil condition, respectively. Half life of mixed formulation with tricyclazole, carbofuran, EPN or EPN+Carbofuran was delayed 2.61, 1.04, 0.43 or 2.7 days, respectively. As a result, the persistence rate of new formulation and mixed formulation was increased by inhibition of two enzymes affecting to the dgradation of diazinon in submerged soil.

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Acute Oral Toxicity Test in Japanese Quail (일본 메추리를 이용한 급성 경구독성시험법의 확립)

  • 최은실;박종환;홍정주;박재학
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2001
  • The acute oral LD5O toxicity values of isazofos, pyraclofos, diazinon and methomyl were determined for Japanese quail based on OECD guideline. The $LD_{50}$ of isazofos, pyraclofos and diazinon was 16.26 mg/kg, and 7.11mg/kg body weight In female respectively. And the $LD_{50}$ of each chemical in male was 21.44, 35.64, 8.28 mg/kg body weight respectively. Diazinon was the most susceptible compounds to Japanese quail in both sexes. The $LD_{50}$ of methomyl was 21.24 mg/kg body weights in female, and 28.28 mg/kg body weight in male respectively. Diazinon, isazofos and methomyl were more toxic In the female than male. The symptoms of poisoning were similar in quails administrated with each chemicals. The clinical sign in Japanese quail were ataxia, salivation, diarrhea, ruffled feather and convulsion at dead point. There were severe hemorrhage and catarrhal inflammation from duodenum to ileum In all compounds. In Japanese quail treated with organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, brain acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by 88-96. The recovery was not observed after 5 h in sublethal dose.

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Removal of Diazinon and Heavy Metals in Water by Benthic Macroinvertebrate (저서성 대형무척추동물을 이용한 수중의 다이아지논 및 중금속 제거)

  • Lee, Hwa-Sung;Ryoo, Keon-Sang
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 2012
  • The midge samples were undertaken at three streams, representing different surrounding environments, to investigate the contaminant exposure of midge. The content of heavy metals in midge collected in Singil stream were generally higher as a result of input to the industrial effluents with respect to other streams. Adsorption experiments were done to evaluate the possibility of removing contaminants from water with midge. Diazinon and heavy metals were contaminant target compounds in this study. The removal rate of diazinon in water by midge was 60-75%. In the case of Cu, the removal rate was reached around 90% at the lower initial concentration of 1.87 and 0.81 ppm rather than 4.25 ppm. The reduction of concentration of Cr and Cd according to the lapse of time was similar to the Cu, but their removal rates were shown 50% and 60-74%, respectively. The removal rate of Zn by midge represented relatively high level within the experimental condition. No change in concentration of Cr and As with time were occurred at all experimental conditions. It accounts for the fact that the reduction of Cr and As could not be achieved through the adsorption process, using midge.

Adsorption and Leaching of Organophosphorus Pesticides in the Soil of Cheju Island (제주도 토양에서 유기인계 농약의 흡착 및 용탈)

  • 감상규;고병철;오윤근;이용두;김정호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.379-386
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    • 1999
  • The adsorption and leaching of organophosphorus pesticides (phenthoate, diazinon, methidathion) were investigated in Namwon soli(black volcanic soil), Aewol soil(very dark brown volcanic soil) and Mureung soil(dark brown nonvolcanic soil) sampled in Cheju Island. The Freundlich constant, K value, was 52.4, 31.3 and 27.7 for phenthoate, diazinon and methidathion in Namwonsoil, respectively and decreased in the order of phenthoate, diazinon and methidathion among the pesticides. The K value of phenthoate was 52.4, 15.9 and 5.9 for Namwon, Aewol and Mureung soil, respectively and was the highest for Namwon soil with very high organic matter content and cation exchange capacity(CEC). The Freundlich constant, 1/n, showed a high correlation with organic matter content, i.e., its value was less than unity for organic matter rich soil(Namwon soil) and greater than unity for organic matter poor soil(Mureung soil). Total recoveries of pesticides in soil and leachate with leaching in soil column, were in the range of about 74~86%. The leaching of pesticides was less for phenthate with high K values, and more for methidathion with low K values among the pesticides. It was slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and more for methidathion with low K values among the pesticides. It was slower for Namwon soil with high K values, and faster for Mureung soil with low K values among the soils.

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하수슬러지의 토양개량재 적용시 유기인계 농약의 흡착능력에 관한 연구

  • 임은진;이재영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2004
  • This study has been assessed the influence of applying sewage sludge to soil amendments on the sorption properties, and leaching potential of three commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, Diazinon, Fenitrothion, and Chlorpyrifos. A sandy soil with a low content of organic carbon was treated with sewage sludge with a ratio sandy soil : sludge ratio of 30:1. The sorption was determined with the batch equilibrium technique. The sorption isotherms could be described by Freundlich equation. The Freundlich constant, K value which measures sorption capacity, were 3.97, 9.94, 22.48 for Diazinon, Fenitrothion, Chlorpyrifos in non-amended soil. But in amended soil, K value was 12.58, 28.47, and 61.21 for Diazinon, Fenitrothion, and Chlorpyrifos. The overall effect of sewage sludge addition to soil was to increase pesticides adsorption, due to the high sorption capacity of the organic matter. The effect of sludge on tile leaching of pesticides in the soil was studied using packed soil columns. Total recoveries of pesticides in soil and leachate with leaching in soil column, were in the range of about 73~84%, was reduced with the passage of time. Diazinon moved more rapidly than Chlorpyrifos in the unamended soil due to greater sorption and lower water solubility of Chlorpyrifos. Total amounts of pesticides leached from the sewage sludge amended soils were significantly reduced when compared with unamended soils. This reduction may be mainly due to and increase in sorption in amended soils, as a consequence of the increase in the organic matter content.

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Molecular Biological Analysis of Fish Behavior as a Biomonitoring System for Detecting Diazinon

  • Shin, Sung-Woo;Chon, Tae-Soo;Kim, Jong-Sang;Lee, Sung-Kyu;Koh, Sung-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.156-156
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    • 2002
  • The goal of this study is to develop a biomarker used in monitoring abnormal behaviors of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model organism caused by hazardous chemicals that are toxic and persistent in the ecosystem. A widely used insecticide, diazinon (O, O-diethyl O- (2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate), is highly neurotoxic to fish, and it is also well known that it causes vertebral malformation and behavioral changes of fish at relatively low concentrations. The fish behaviors were observed on a real time basis using an image processing and automatic data acquisition system. The genes potentially involved in the abnormal behaviors were cloned using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. The untreated individuals showed common behavioral characteristics. When the test fish was affected by diazinon at a concentration of 0.1 and 1 ppm, some specific patterns were observed in its behavioral activity and locomotive tracks. The typical patterns were enhanced surfacing activity, opercular movement, erratic movement, tremors and convulsions as reported previously. The number of genes up-regulated tty diazinon treatment were 97 which includes 27 of unknown genes. The number of down-regulated genes were 99 including 60 of unknown genes. These gene expression patterns will be analyzed by the artificial neural networks such as self organization map (SOM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP), revealing the role of genes responsible for the behaviors. These results may provide molecular biological and neurobehavioral bases of a biomonitoring system for diazinon using a model organism such as fish.

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Changes in Esterase Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Sensitivity of Insecticide-selected Strains of the Brown Planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens Stal) (저항성 벼멸구의 효소활성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 박형만;최승윤
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 1991
  • Acetylcholinesterase(AChE) and esterase activities as mechanisms of resistance to fenobucarb, carbofuran and diazinon in the insecticide-selected brown planthopper strains were investigated. Although there was no significant difference in AChE activity from suscept tible and resistant strains, AChE insensitivity was highly increased in the carbam없e insecticide-selected strains. On the other hand, esterase activity was moderately increa잃d in all the s selected strains. It is concluded that the cross-resistance and the level of resistance in the b brown planthopper can be explained by the combination of altered AChE and high esterase a activity, although a possible involvement of other factor(s) can not be excluded.

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Comparison of Relative Crystallinities, Saccharification Effeciency and Diazinon Residue of Varietal Puffed Paddy (팽화 처리한 나락의 결정화도, 당화효율,농약잔류량 비교)

  • Kim, Joong-Man;Kim, Dong-Han;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Baek, Duck-Soon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.487-491
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    • 1994
  • Relative crystallinities, saccharification efficiency, and diazinon(pesticide) residues of rice and rice hull puffed by hot air puffer were investigated. Crystallinities of rice starch in the puffed rice were decreased as compared to those in cooked rice, and those of rice hull were slightly decreased as compared to those in raw hull. By puffing of glutinous rice, the saccharification efficiency treated with malt amylase was higher than in cooked rice, and hydrolysis ratio of rice hull by cellulase was also increased from 14% to 30% by puffing. The residual contents of diazinon of the puffed rice and rice hull were decreased to 42.7% and 47.6%, respectively. In addition, its decreasing rate in nonglutinous rice were higher than that of glutinous rice.

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