• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diazinon

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Teratogenic effects of diazinon in chick embryos I. Effects of diazinon treatment on morphology and cholinergic blocking agents (Diazinon이 계배(鷄胚)의 기형 유발에 미치는 효과 I. 계배(鷄胚) 형태와 콜린성 봉쇄약물에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-shu;Kim, Gon-sup;Kim, Yang-mi;Choi, Wong-young;Son, Sung-gi;Heo, Jung-ho;Lee, Ju-hong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1994
  • Teratogenic effects of diazinon were assessed on morphology of chick embryos cholinergic blocking agents. Diazinon at doses ranging from 25 to $2000{\mu}g/egg$, was injected on Day 3 of incubation. $TD_{50S}$, were different for the various teratogenic sings such as wry neck, micromelia, abnormal feathering, abnormal beak and curled claws. The threshold dose for wry neck was higher than the threshold dose for other signs; $40{\mu}g/egg$ produced substantial micromelia, abnormal feathering, abnormal beak and curled claws, but gave no sings of wry neck. In contrast to the teratogenic doses, the $LD_{50}$ of diazinon was very high(above $2000{\mu}g/egg$). One of the characteristics of diazinon-induced teratogenesis was reduction of body weight(78.8%) and body length(73.8%). Maximal teratogenic effects, scored as sings of retarded growth, wry neck, micromelia, abnormal feathering, abnormal beak, and curled claws, were produced when the insectcide was administered on the third or fourth day. The threshold dose for type II teratogenic sings including wry neck and short neck was higher than for type I including micromelia and abnormal feathering. Morphorlogical studies, using atropine and gallamine, suggested that nicotinc but not muscarinic receptors may be involved in the mechanism of diazinon-induced type II malformations.

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Biodegradation of Diazinon by Serratia marcescens DI101 and its Use in Bioremediation of Contaminated Environment

  • Abo-Amer, Aly E.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2011
  • Four diazinon-degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soil by using an enrichment technique. The biochemical analysis and molecular method including RFLP indicated that these isolates were identical, and one strain designated DI101 was selected for further study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that the strain DI101 clearly belongs to the Serratia marcescens group. The ability of the strain to utilize diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus was investigated under different culture conditions. The DI101 strain was able to completely degrade 50 mg/l diazinon in MSM within 11 days with a degradation rate of 0.226 $day^{-1}$. The inoculation of sterilized soil treated with 100 mg/kg of diazinon with $10^6$ CFU/g DI101 resulted in a faster degradation rate than was recorded in non-sterilized soil. The diazinon degradation rate by DI101 was efficient at temperatures from 25 to $30^{\circ}C$ and at pHs from 7.0 to 8.0. The degradation rate of diazinon was not affected by the absence of a phosphorus supplement, and addition of other carbon sources (glucose or succinate) resulted in the slowing down of the degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate ($V_{max}$) of diazinon was 0.292 $day^{-1}$ and its saturation constant ($K_s$) was 11 mg/l, as determined by a Michaelis-Menten curve. The strain was able to degrade diethylthiophosphate-containing organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, and isazofos when provided as a source of carbon and phosphorus, but not ethoprophos, cadusafos, and fenamiphos. These results propose useful information for the potential application of the DI101 strain in bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments.

Toxicity of Mixtures of Diazinon, Toxaphene and/or Endrin in Mice (Diazinon, Toxaphene, Endrin과 그 혼합물의 독성효과)

  • 김종수;하대식;손성기
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 1996
  • The toxicity of the mixture of diazinon, toxaphene(TOX) and/or endrin was studied in ICR male mice(18-22 g) by oral intubation, in corn oil, daily for up to 14 days. On day 15, the exposure was discontinued and animals were monitored for an additional period of 7 days for the possible reversibility of the toxicity. The body weight gain decreased with the mixtures, as well as with the individual pesticides, during the 14-day period. TOX and TOX containing mixtures significantly increased the liver/body weight ratio. The serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase level increased at 23~374% in diazinon, TOX, and endrin or their mixture group. The cholinesterase(ChE) activity in the serum and brain was inhibited in the animals of the group of diazinon(5, 10 mg/kg) and diazinon(5 mg/kg) containing mixtures. TOX(40, 80 mg/kg) caused initial inhibitory effects on the serum ChE Day 1. but there is little effects on the brain ChE levels. endrin(5,10 mg/kg) results in significantly elevated levels of the serum ChE, with substantial decreases in the brain ChE activity. TOX and TOX containing mixtures decreased the pentobarbital(60 mg /kg, ip., in saline) induced sleep. The effects produced by this pesticides singly, as well as by their mixtures, appeared to be reversible in nature. The toxic effects exhibited by the mixtures of diazinon(5 mf/kg), TOX(40 mg/kg), and /or endrin(5 mg/kg) were found to be the resultant of the effect showed by their components individually.

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A Study on the Evaluation of Teratogenecity of Chemical by Korean Brown Frog Embryo, Rana dybowskii (산개구리 배아를 활용한 화학물질의 기형성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Ko Sun-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2004
  • The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus(FETAX) protocol was recently adopted as a valuable tool fur evaluating chemical toxicity and the effect of environmental contaminants in frogs. In this study, the teratogenecity of NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran, Diazinon were determined in the Korean frog, Rana dybowskii using the FETAX protocol. The mortality rate and the percentage of malformed larvae were investigated by probit analysis, The teratogenic concentrations(EC$_{50}$) of NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon were 0.4 and 1.6 and 1.9 mg/1. The embryolethal concentrations(LC$_{50}$) of NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon were 17.6 and 41.5 and 20.2mg/1. The teratogenic indices (TI=LC$_{50}$/EC$_{50}$) were 43.8 for NiCl$_2$, 26.0 for Carbofuran and 10.6 for Diazinon. NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon were shown to be potent teratogens for Rana dybowskii embryo, causing concentration related increase of edema, tail and abdomen. The study results reveal that NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon suppress the development of embryos at relatively low concentrations. Therefore, the Rana dybowskii embryo teratogenesis assay system was proven to be a useful tool to evaluate the toxicity of environmental pollutants.lutants.

Decomposition Characteristics of DDVP , Malathion and Diazinon Emusifiable Concentrates (DDVP, Malathion 및 Diazinon유제의 경시변화 특성)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun;Park, Chang-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.146-154
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    • 1992
  • DDVP, malathion and diazinon ECs which differ in chemical compositions and moisture contents were formulated with nine emulsifiers, three solvents(xylene, cyclohexanone and DMF) and epichlorohydrin. For the studies of decomposition characteristics, these technicals and ECs were subjected to the test under elevated temperature at $54^{\circ}C$ for 15 days and $38^{\circ}C$ for 90 days respectively. DDVP technical was rapidly decomposed in early stage of thermoaccelerated test at $54^{\circ}C$, but the decomposition rate slowed down with time. As for malathion and diazinon technicals, the longer they were incubated, the more decomposed. The decomposed AI in ECs increased with solvent polarity. The increment of moisture content in ECs accelerated the decomposition of AI, and that was remarkable especially in diazinon ECs. Addition of emulsifiers increased the moisture content to be accelerated the decomposition of AI, but the decomposition of AI was more affected by the kind of emulsifier than by the moisture content of emulsifier, Stabilizing effect by epichlorohydrin was distingished in malathion and diazinon ECs, but there was no effect in other solvent-based formulation except xylene.

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Decomposition rate of iprobenfos, isoprothiolane, and diazinon by some environmental factors in aqueous systems (몇가지 수중 환경요인에 의한 iprobenfos, isoprothiolane 및 diazinon의 분해속도)

  • Park, Byung-Jun;Choi, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Byung-Moo;Im, Geon-Jae;Kim, Chan-Sub;Park, Kyung-Hun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 1998
  • Three pesticides for paddy rice, iprobenfos, isoprothiolane, and diazinon were examined on some environmental factors, their hydrolysis, microbial degradation, and photolysis in aqueous systems. Iprobenfos was mainly degraded by microorganisms and its half-life was 5.7 days at $28^{\circ}C$ in aqueous systems. Hydrolysis of iprobenfos was accelerated by the higher temperature, but its photodegradation was accelerated by the lower pH. Isoprothiolane was rapidly decomposed by two factors, microorganisms and sunlight. The half-life of isoprothiolane by sunlight was 91 days at pH 9.0, while it was 13 days at pH 4.0 and 16 days at pH 7.2. However, it was shortened under low pH condition. In aqueous system, diazinon was degraded by all of three factors and its degradation rate was remarkably accelerated by acidic solution. Main degradation factors of iprobenfos, isoprothiolane, and diazinon in the aqueous system were investigated by microbial degradation, photolysis, and hydrolysis, respectively. The strains of microbial degradation for iprobenfos, isoprothiolane, and diazinon in the aqueous environment were identified as Pseudomonas putida, Alcaligenes xylosoxydans ss, Klebsiella planticola/ornithinllytica, respectively. The similarity rates of identity were $54.8{\sim}86.2%$ with biolog-system.

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Removal Effects of Organic-Phosphorus Pesticide Residue in lettuce by washing methods (세척방법에 따른 상추중 유기인 잔류농약의 제거효과)

  • Ko, Bok-Sil;Jeon, Tae-Hwan;Jung, Kyu-Saeng;Lee, Sung-Kook
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.159-171
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    • 1996
  • It is investigated to determine the removal efficiency of organic - phosphorus insecticide residues in lettuce by washing processes, the 5 washing solution (stagnant tap water, flowing tap water, alkaline solution, acidic solution) were used with the washing time(10, 30, 50sec) and frequencies(1, 2, 3 washing, 2 rinsing). The removal efficiency of residual pesticides by 5 washing methods was increased on the more washing time and frequency, and also was the highest on the 3 times washing for each 50 sec. The removal rate with stagnant tap water was 33.7% of Diazinon, 45.7% of Dimethoate and 24.6% of Fenitrothion, but 29.4% of Diazinon, 37.7% of Dimethoate and 24.5% of Fenitrothion with flowing tap water. Therefore, the former was significantly higher effective than the latter one. The removal rate of residual pesticides with alkaline solution showed 32.1% of Diazinon, 49.5% of Dimethoate and 29.9% of Fenitrothion, and 30.4% of Diazinon, 36.4% of Dimethoate and 21.0% of Fenitrothion with acidic solution. The washing efficiency of neutral detergent showed the most effective result than others with 47.1% of Diazinon, 58.0% of Dimethoate and 39.5% of Fenitrothion. Consequently, it's appeared that the neural detergent washing was the most effective method on the 3 times washing for each 50 sec.

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Selective Toxicity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Diazinon and Carbofuran to Killifish(Oryzias latipes) and Loach(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) (Diazinon과 Carbofuran의 송사리(Oryzias latipes)와 미꾸리(Misqurnus anguillicaudatus)에 대한 선택적 독성과 Acetylcholinesterase저해)

  • Kim, Young-Bae;Lee, Sung-Kyu;Kim, Yong-Hwa;Roh, Jung-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 1988
  • This study was initiated to understand the mechanism of selective toxicity of diazinon and carbofuran to killifish and loach. Conventional LC50 was calculated from fish test. IC50 with acetylcholinesterase activity was estimated using whole body and wet brain homogenate of the two fish species. Acetylcholinesterase activity of killifish was approximately twice as high as that of loach. The selective toxicity of diazinon to killifish and loach was partly (14 : 4) explained by the IC50 of diazoxon, a toxic metabolite of diazinon. IC50 of carbofuran also partly (14 : 3.4) contributed to the selectivity. These result suggested that the enzymatic method might be utilized as a screening tool for the chemicals affecting fish species of environmental concern with certain limitations which should be overcome in future studies.

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Degradation of Diazinon and Dursban in Submerged Soil (담수양중(湛水壤中) Diazinon 과 Dursban 의 분해(分解)에 관(關)하여)

  • Choi, Jong-Woo;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1987
  • The degradation of two chemicals seem to be clearly affected by soil microbial activity in submerged soil $conditions(30{\pm}1^{\circ}C)$. The Active ingredient of Diazinon disappeared about 5 times faster than that of Dursban. By Applying 300% higher concentrations of both chemicals. under the above soil conditions, however, degradation was retarded by about one day. Some of the metabolites of Diazinon were as follows: 0.0-diethyl phosphorothioate and sulfotep as hydrolytic products, and diazoxon, 0.0-diethyl-0-[2-(1-hydroxy-1, 1-dimethyl)-6-methyl]-pyrimidinyl phosphorothioate and 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-pyrimidine-4-one as degradation products of monooxygenase. But 0. 0-diethyl phosphorothioate was the only methabolite of Dursban.

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Runoff of Diazinon and Metolachlor by Rainfall Simulation and from Soybean Field Lysimeter (인공강우와 콩재배 포장 라이시메타를 이용한 diazinon과 metolachlor의 유출량 평가)

  • Kim, Chan-Sub;Lee, Byung-Moo;Park, Byung-Jun;Jung, Pil-Kyun;Choi, Ju-Hyeon;Ryu, Gab-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.279-288
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    • 2006
  • Three different experiments were undertaken to investigate the runoff and erosion loss of diazinon and metolachlor from sloped-field by rainfall. The mobility of two pesticides and which phase they were transported by were examined in adsorption study, the influence of rainfall pattern and slope degree on the pesticide losses were evaluated in simulated rainfall study, and the pesticide losses from soybean field comparing with bare soil were measured in field lysimeter study. Freundlich adsorption parameter (K) ranged $1.6{\sim}2.0$ for metolachlor and $4.0{\sim}5.5$ for diazinon. The K values of pesticides by the desorption method were higher than those ones by the adsorption method. Another parameter (1/n) in Freundlich equation for the pesticides tested ranged $0.96{\sim}1.02$ by desorption method and $0.87{\sim}1.02$ by adsorption method. By the SSLRC's classification for pesticide mobility of diazinon and metolachlor were classified as moderately mobile ($75{\leq}Koc$ <500). Runoff and erosion losses of pesticides by three rainfall scenarios were $0.5{\sim}1.0%$ and $0.1{\sim}0.7%$ for metolachlor and $0.1{\sim}0.6%$ and $0.1{\sim}0.2%$ for diazinon. Distribution of pesticides in soil polite were investigated after the simulated rainfall events. Metolachlor was leached to $10{\sim}15$ cm soil layer and diazinon was leached to $5{\sim}10$ cm soil layer. Losses of each pesticide in the 30% of sloping degree treatment were $0.2{\sim}1.9$ times higher than those ones in the 10% of sloping degree treatment. Pesticide losses from a series of lysimeter plots in sloped land by rainfall ranged $1.0{\sim}3.1%$ for metolachlor and $0.23{\sim}0.50%$ for diazinon, and were $1/3{\sim}2.5$ times to the ones in the simulated rainfall study. The erosion rates of pesticides from soybean-plots were $21{\sim}75%$ lower than the ones from bare soil plots. The peak runoff concentration in soybean-plots and bare soil plots were $1{\sim}9{\mu}gL^{-1}$ and $3{\sim}16{\mu}gL^{-1}$ for diazinon, $7{\sim}31{\mu}gL^{-1}$ and $5{\sim}40{\mu}gL^{-1}$ for metolachlor, respectively.