• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diazinon

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Study of Rainfall-Runoff Variation by Grid Size and Critical Area (격자크기와 임계면적에 따른 홍수유출특성 변화)

  • Ahn, Seung-Seop;Lee, Jeung-Seok;Jung, Do-Joon;Han, Ho-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.523-532
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    • 2007
  • This study utilized the 1/25,000 topographic map of the upper area from the Geum-ho watermark located at the middle of Geum-ho river from the National Geographic Information Institute. For the analysis, first, the influence of the size of critical area to the hydro topographic factors was examined changing grid size to $10m{\times}10m,\;30m{\times}30m\;and\;50m{\times}50m$, and the critical area for the formation of a river to $0.01km^2{\sim}0.50km^2$. It is known from the examination result of watershed morphology according to the grid size that the smaller grid size, the better resolution and accuracy. And it is found, from the analysis result of the degree of the river according to the minimum critical area for each grid size, that the grid size does not affect on the degree of the river, and the number of rivers with 2nd and higher degree does not show remarkable difference while there is big difference in the number of 1st degree rivers. From the results above, it is thought that the critical area of $0.15km^2{\sim}0.20km^2$ is appropriate for formation of a river being irrelevant to the grid size in extraction of hydro topographic parameters that are used in the runoff analysis model using topographic maps. Therefore, the GIUH model applied analysis results by use of the river level difference law proposed in this study for the explanation on the outflow response-changing characters according to the decision of a critical value of a minimum level difference river, showed that, since an ogival occurrence time and an ogival flow volume are very significant in a flood occurrence in case of not undertow facilities, the researcher could obtain a good result for the forecast of river outflow when considering a convenient application of the model and an easy acquisition of data, so it's judged that this model is proper as an algorism for the decision of a critical value of a river basin.

A Study on the Men's Fashion Trend through the Statistical Analysis (통계적 분석을 통한 남성 패션 트렌드 연구)

  • Kim, Yoon-Kyoung;Lee, Kyoung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.837-847
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    • 2007
  • 1,098 pieces of photographs($1995{\sim}2002$) of men's suit style have been classified according to fashion images in order to examine features and change aspects with statistical analysis. The findings of examining features of the trend by year with test of homogeneity, correspondence analysis, biplots, correlation analysis and regression analysis are as follows: (a) there are significant differences on fashion images as the trend by yew with test of homogeneity, (b) there are remarkable differences on the fashion trend by year with correspondence analysis and biplots. (c) There are significant correlations for appearance among fashion images by its frequency through correlation analysis, and (d) it is assumed that fashion images are going to be gradually outstanding according to regression analysis.

Environmental Pollutants in Streams of Andong District and Insect Immune Biomarker (안동지역 하천의 환경오염물질과 곤충면역 생체지표 분석)

  • Ryoo Keon Sang;Ko Seong-Oon;Cho Sunghwan;Lee Hwasung;Kim Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.97-108
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    • 2005
  • Samples of water, soil, and sediment were taken from 10 streams near Andong, Korea in May 2004. To assess the degree of environmental pollution of each stream, chemical pollutants such as total notrogen (T-N), total phosphorus (T-P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals, organophosphorus pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCB congeners were analyzed by standard process tests or U.S. EPA methods. In addition, biomarkers originated from insect immune systems of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, were used to analysis of the environmental samples. Except Waya-chun stream showing T-N content of 9.12 mg/L, most streams were contaminated with relatively low levels of overall pollutants in terms of T-N, T-P, and COD, compared to their acceptable environmental levels designated by the Ministry of Environment. Contents of Pb and Cd in samples of each stream were much lower than environmentally permissible levels. However, several times higherconcentrations of Pb and Cd were found in locations at Mi-chun, Kilan-chun, and Hyunha-chun streams, in comparison with other streams. Diazinon, parathion, and phenthoate compounds among organophosphorus pesticides were detected as concentrations of 0.19, 0.40, and $1.13\;{\mu}g/g$, respectively, from soil sample collected in the vicinity of Mi-chun stream. On the other hand, 16 organochlorine pesticides and 12 dioxin-like PCB congeners, known as endocrine disrupting chemicals, selected in this study were not found above the limit of detection. Biomarker analyses using insect immune responses indicated that Waya-chun stream was suspected as exposure to environmental pollutants. Limitation and compensation of both environmental analysis techniques are discussed.

Studies on the Occurrence, Host Range, Transmission, and Control of Rice Stripe Disease in Korea (한국에서의 벼 줄무늬잎마름병의 발생, 피해, 기주범위, 전염 및 방제에 관한 연구)

  • Chung Bong Jo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.181-204
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    • 1974
  • The study has been carried out to investigate the occurrence, damage, host range, transmission and control of rice stripe virus in Korea since 1965. 1 Disease occur「once and damage : The virus infection during the seedling stage ranged from 1.3 to $8\%$. More symptom expression was found in regrowth of clipped rice than infected intact plants, and the greater infection took place in early seasonal culture than in ordinary seasonal culture. A higher incidence of the disease was found on the rows close to the bank, and gradually decreased toward the centre of the rice paddy. Disease occurrence and plant maturity was highly correlated in that the most japonica rice types were diseased when they were inoculated within 3 to 7 leaf stage, and$50\%$, $20\%$ and no diseaseb were found if they were inoculated at 9, 11 and 13 leaf stages, respectively. Symptom expression required 7-15 days when the plants were inoculated during 3-7 leaf stages, while it was 15-30days in the plants inoculated during 9-15 leaf stages. On Tongil variety the per cent disease was relatively higher when the plants were infected within 1.5-5 leaf stages than those at 9 leaf stage, and no disease was found on the plants infected after 15 leaf stage. The disease resulted in lowered growth rates, maturity and sterility of Tongil variety although the variety is known as tolerant to the virus. 2. Host range: Thirty five species of crops, pasture grasses and weeds were tested for their susceptibility to the virus. Twenty one out of 35 species tested were found to be susceptible. and 3 of them, Cyperus amuricus Maximowics var. laxus, Purcereus sanguinolentus Nees and Eriocaulon robustius Makino, were found as new hosts of the virus. 3. Transmission: The vector of the virus, Laodelphax striatellus, produces 5 generations a year. The peak of second generation adults occurred at June 20th and those of third was at about July 30th in Suweon area. In Jinju area the peak of second generation adult proceeded the peak at Suweon by 5-7 days. The peaak of third generation adult was higher than the second at Jinju, but at Suweon the reverse was true. The occurrence of viruliferous Laodelphax striatellus was 10-15, 9, 17, 8 and about $10\%$ from overwintered nymph, 1st generation nymph, 2nd generation adult, End generation nymph and the remaining generations, respectively. More viruliferous L. striatellus were found in the southern area than in the central area of Korea. The occurrence of viruliferous L. striatellus depended on the circumstances of the year. The per cent viruliferous vectors gin 2nd and 3rd generation adult, however, was consistantly higher than that of other generations. Matings of viruliferous L. striatellus resulted in $90\%$ viruliferous progenies, and the 3rd, 4th and 5th instars of the vector had higher infectiviey than the rest of the vector stages. The virus acquisition rate of non-viruliferous L. striatellus was $7-9\%$, These viruliferous L. striatellus, however, could not transmit the virus for more than 3 serial times. The optimum temperature for the transmission of the viru3 was $25-30^{\circ}C$, while rare transmission occurred when the temperature was below $15^{\circ}C$. The per cent of L. striatellus parasitization by Haplogonatopus atratus were $5-48\%$ during the period from June to the end of August, and the maximum parasitization was $32-48\%$ at around July 10. 4. Control: 1) Cultural practices; The deeper the depth of transplanting more the disease occurrence was found. The higher infection rate, $1.5-3.5\%$, was observed during the late stages of seedling beds, and the rate became lower, $1.0-2.0\%$, in the early period of paddy field in southern area. Early transplanting resulted in more infection than early seasonal culture, and the ordinary seasonal culture showed the lowest infection. The disease also was favored by earlier transplanting even under tile ordinary seasonal culture. The higher the nitrogen fertilizer level the more the disease occurrence was found in the paddy field. 2) Resistant varieties; Tongil varieties shelved the resistant reaction to the virus in greenhouse tests. In the tests for resistance on 955 varieties most japonica types shelved susceptible reactions, while the resistant varieties were found mostly from introduced varietal groups. 3) Chemical control; Earlier applications of chemicals, Disyston and Diazinon, showed better results when the test was made 4 days after inoculation in the greenhouse even though none of the insecticides shelved the complete control of the disease. Three serial applications of chemicals on June 14, June 20 and June 28 showed bettor results than one or two applications at any other dates under field conditions.

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