• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diazinon

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Remediation of Insecticides (Parathion, Diazinon) Contaminated Soil by Washing Process (토양 세척을 통한 살충제 (파라티온, 다이아지논)로 오염된 토양의 정화)

  • 현재혁;백정선;조미영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.3-6
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    • 1999
  • Several chemical washing procedures were applied to Parathion and Diazinon contaminated soil. Batch and column tests were performed to determine the insecticides extraction efficiency as a function of pH. Washing efficiency of methanol is more higher than that of water and HCl when washed parathion and diazinon are. Those are completely miscible with most organic solvents. For parathion, release trend is increased as pH is increased because it is hydrolyzed easily at the condition of alkali. But diazinon shows reverse because diazinon is decomposed rapidly at the condition of acidic So, diazinon is more released than parathion is because this experiment is peformed in acidic and weak acidic conditions. Generally, parathion and diazinon are classified as having low mobility, so they can be easily controlled if the proper washing process are applied.

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Regulation of Acetylcholine Esterase and Neurotransmitters in Oryzias latipes by Diazinon (다이아지는 처리에 의한 송사리의 아세틸콜린에스터라제 활성 및 신경전달물질 함량의 변화)

  • Kim, Jong-Sang;Koh, Sung-Cheol;Lee, Sung-Kyu;Chon, Tae-Soo
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 1999
  • Diazinon, an organophosphate pesticide, is relatively highly toxic to fish and causes vertebral malformation and behavioral change of fish at relatively low concentrations. To elucidate biochemical mechanism of the behavioral change of Oryzias latipes (killifish) caused by diazinon, the effect of the insecticide on acetylcholine esterase activities and the levels of some neurotransmitters were evaluated. Acetylcholine esterase activities in both head and body were significantly lowered at the concentration of 10 ppb of diazinon and acetylcholine contents in head tended to be upregulated with increasing concentration of diazinon. Exposure of killifish to 5000 ppb diazinon resulted in gradual decrease in acetylcholine content in body part with exposure time. Norepinephrine and serotonin concentrations in killifish head and body were highest at 1000 ppb of diazinon while neurotransmitter were relatively low in fish unexposed or exposed to lower dose of the pesticide, suggesting that increased norepinephrine and serotonin can partially account for diazinon-induced behavioral abnormality.

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Effect of activities of monooxygenase, ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}-esterase$ on the degradation of diazinon and dursban in submerged soil (담수토양중 Diazinon과 Dursban의 분해에 미치는 Monooxygenase와 Esterase의 활성)

  • Choi, Jong-Woo;Rhee, Young-Ha;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 1990
  • In order to determine the major biochemical degradation factors of the two organophosphorus insecticides, diazinon and dursban, the activities of monooxygenase(m. o.) and ${\alpha}$, ${\beta}-esterase$ were studied in submerged soil under laboratory conditions at $30{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ The degradation rate of diazinon by microorganism showed 1.5 times higher than dursban. The m. o. activity increased from 12hrs and 3days after application of diazinon and dursban, respectively. But the ${\beta}-esterase$ activity showed maximum at one day after application of dursban and $5{\sim}8$ days after diazinon application. Also, the ${\beta}-esterase$ activity was about 10 times higher than ${\alpha}-esterase$. Hence, it was concluded that the biological degradation of diazinon was mainly attributed to m. o. activity and the degradation of dursban to ${\beta}-esterase$ activity.

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Teratogenic Effects of Diazinon in Chick Embryos 1. Effects of Diazinon Treatment on Morphology and Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Diazinon이의 계배 기형 유발에 미치는 영향 1. 계배형태와 콜린성 봉쇄약물과의 관계)

  • 허정호;손성기;이주홍;김종수
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.122-129
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    • 1994
  • Teratogenic effects of diazinon were assessed morphologically and cholinergic blocking agents. Diazinon at doses ranging from 25 to 2000 ug /egg, was Injected on day 3 of incubation. TD50s were different for the various teratogenic signs (wry neck, micromelia, abnormal feathering, abnormal beak and curled claws). The threshould dose for wry neck was higher than threshould dose for other signs; 40 ug/egg produced substantial micromelia, abnormal feathering. abnormal beak and curled claws, but gave no signs of wry neck. In contrast to the teratogenic doses, the LD50 of diazinon was very high (above 2000 ug /egg). One of the characteristics of diazinon-induced teratogenesis was reduced body weight (78.7%) and body length (73.8%). Maximal teratogenic effects, scored as signs of retarded growth, wry neck micromelia, abnormal feathering, abnormal beak, and curled claws, were produced when the insectcide was administered on the third or fourth day. The threshold dose for type II teratogenic signs(such as wry neck and short neck) was higher than for type I (such as micromelia and abnormal feathering). Morphological studies, using atropine and gallamine, suggested that nicotine but not muscarinic receptors may be involved in the mechanism of diazinon induced type II malformations.

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Evaluation of Diazinon Residues in Paddy Soil, Brown Rice and Rice Straw (답토양(畓土壤) 및 수도체중(水稻體中) Diazinon의 잔류평가(殘留評價))

  • Lee, Young-Deuk;Lee, Seong-Hee;Park, Young-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1983
  • A study was undertaken to investigate the persistence of diazinon in two different soils under field conditions. Half-life of diazinon granule(5%) incorporated into soils at a rate of 0.15 ㎏ a.i./l0a was 11 and $9{\sim}12$ days in Suweon and Iri soil under field conditions, respectively. Diazinon residues in brown rice and rice straw harvested from Suweon field were also evaluated by scheduled application intervals. On the basis of maximum residue limit of diazinon in brown rice, it is recommended that the insecticide could be applied upto 15 days before harvest at the limit of 4 spraying times.

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Removal of Diazinon Using Recombinant Biocatalyst (재조합 생촉매를 이용한 Diazinon 제거)

  • Choi, Suk Soon;Seo, Sang Hwan;Kang, Dong Gyun;Cha, Hyung Joon;Kwon, Inchan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.486-489
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    • 2011
  • In the present work, diazinon which is known as nondegradable and environmental toxic material was efficiently treated by the cell surface-displayed organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) biocatalyst. The culture temperature of $25^{\circ}C$ culture temperature and the addition of 0.2 mM ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) were effective conditions for the production of recombinant OPH in Escherichia coli. 25 and 50 ppm diazinon were treated with removal rate of 4.5 and $7.2mg/g{\cdot}min$, respectively and with all over 90% removal efficiencies using recombinant cell lysates through ultrasonication disruption process. Thus, these experimental results could be utilized in environmental friendly biological treatment system for toxic chemicals such as diazinon.

The study for photodegradation of diazinon using $TiO_2$ photocatalyst ($TiO_2$ 광촉매를 처리한 Diazinon의 광분해에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Seong-Pil;O, Yun-Geun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2000
  • Considerable interest has been shown in recent years towards utilizing $TiO_2$ particles as a photocatalyst in the degradation of harmful organic contaminants. In this study, photocatalytic degradation of diazinon which is extensively used as a pesticide in the agriculture field, has been investigated with UV-illuminated $TiO_2$ weight, UV wavelength, pH of the solution. Photodegradation rate increased with decreasing initial concentration of diazinon and with increasing pH of the solution. Photodegradation rate increased with increasing $TiO_2$ weight, but was nearly the same at $TiO_2$ weight of 1g/$\ell$, 2 g/$\ell$, i.e., for initial diazinon concentratin of 5 mg/$\ell$. UV wavelength affecting on the degradation rate of diazinon decreased in the order of 254 nm>312 nm> 365 nm. For $TiO_2$ weight of 1 g/$\ell$and initial diazinon concentration of 5 mg/$\ell$, the photodegradation removal of diazinon was 100% after 130 min in the case of 254 nm, but 95% in the case of 312 nm, and 84% in the case of 365nm, after 180 min. The photodegradation of diazinon followed a first order or a pseudo - first order reaction rate. For initial diazinon concentration of 5 mg/$\ell$, the rate constants(k) in UV and $TiO_2$(1 g/$\ell$)/UV system were $0.006 min^{-1} and 0.0252 min^{-1} at 254 nm, 0.0055 min^{-1} and 0.0104 min^{-1} at 312 nm, and 0.004 min^{-1}$ at 365 nm respectively.

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Comparative Study on Adsorptive Characteristics of Diazinon in Water by Various Adsorbents

  • Ryoo, Keon Sang;Jung, Sun Young;Sim, Hun;Choi, Jong-Ha
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.2753-2759
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    • 2013
  • The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of utilizing fly ash and loess, as alternative to activated carbon, for the adsorption of diazinon in water. Batch adsorption experiment was performed to evaluate the influences of various factors like initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of diazinon. The adsorption data shows that fly ash is not effective for the adsorption of diazinon. The equilibrium data for both activated carbon and loess were fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model appeared to be the better-fitting model because it has higher $R^2$ compared to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (${\Delta}G$), the enthalpy (${\Delta}H$) and the entropy (${\Delta}S$) were calculated. Contrary to loess, the ${\Delta}G$ values of activated carbon were negative at the studied temperatures. It indicates that the adsorption of diazinon by activated carbon is a favorable and spontaneous process. The positive ${\Delta}H$ values of activated carbon and loess suggest that the diazinon adsorption process is endothermic in nature. In addition, the positive ${\Delta}S$ values show that increased randomness occurs at the solid/solution surface during the adsorption of diazinon.

Effect of Diazinon, an Organophosphate Insecticide, on Plasma Lipid Constituents in Experimental Animals

  • Ibrahim, Nagi A.;El-Gamal, Basiouny A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.499-504
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    • 2003
  • There has been increasing interest in studying the various effects of organophosphate insecticides in humans and experimental animals. Only a few data are available on the effect of the organophosphate insecticide, diazinon, on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diazinon on plasma lipid constituents in mammalian animals. The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and phospholipids (PL) were measured in albino rats that were orally treated with a single dose of diazinon at a level of $LD_{50}$ or with repeated daily doses at the levels of $\frac{1}{2}$, $\frac{1}{8}$, and $\frac{1}{32}$ $LD_{50}$ for 2, 8, and 32 days, respectively. After a 24 h post-treatment with a single $LD_{50}$ dose of diazinon, TC was not significantly changed, the HDL-C and PL levels were significantly decreased, but the LDL-C and TG levels were significantly increased. Separate daily oral administrations of diazinon at $\frac{1}{2}$ $LD_{50}$, $\frac{1}{8}$ $LD_{50}$, and $\frac{1}{32}$ $LD_{50}$ doses resulted in a significant decrease in HDL-C and PL, with no significant change in TG. The LDL-C levels were significantly increased and TC showed no significant change with $\frac{1}{2}$ $LD_{50}$ and $\frac{1}{32}$$LD_{50}$ doses of diazinon, whereas a significant decrease in the levels of TC, HDL-C, as well as LDL-C, was observed with the $\frac{1}{8}$ $LD_{50}$ dose. These data suggest that diazinon may interfere with lipid metabolism in mammals.

Joint Toxic Action of Carbofuran and Diazinon Mixture Against the Larvae of the Common Cutworm (Agrotis fucosa Butler) (거세미나방 유충에 대한 $Carbofuran{\cdot}Diazinon$혼합의 연합독작용)

  • Ahn Y.J.;Kim Y.T.;Kim H.J.;Choi S.Y.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 1980
  • Some experiment were conducted to evaluate the joint toxic action of carbofuran(2,3-Dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-benzofuranyl methyl carbamate) and diazinon (0.0-Diethyl-0-(2-isopropyl-6-methyl-e-pyrimidinyl)-0-thionophosphate) against 3rd-instar larvae of the common cutworm, Agrotis fucosa (Butler). Acetone solutions of carbofuran or diazinon or mixture of these two insecticides, were topically applied to the mesonotum of the insect in a constant volume of $1.0{\mu}l$ per larva by means of Burkard microapplicator. Joint toxic action of carbofuran and diazinon for 3rd-instar larva of common cutworm was synergistic. The maximum synergistic effect might be obtained when the ratio of carbofuran to diazinon was 4.8 : 5.2.

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