• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diarrhea Score

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Association between Genetic Polymorphism in the Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene and Piglet Diarrhea in Three Chinese Pig Breeds

  • Yang, Q.L.;Zhao, S.G.;Wang, D.W.;Feng, Y.;Jiang, T.T.;Huang, X.Y.;Gun, S.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1228-1235
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    • 2014
  • The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DRA locus is noteworthy among other SLA class II loci for its limited variation and has not been investigated in depth. This study was investigated to detect polymorphisms of four exons of SLA-DRA gene and its association with piglet diarrhea in Landrace, Large White and Duroc pigs. No polymorphisms were detected in exon 3, while 2 SNPs (c.178G>A and c.211T>C), 2 SNPs (c.3093A>C and c.3104C>T) and 5 SNPs (c.4167A>G, c.4184A>G, c.4194A>G, c.4246A>G and c.4293G>A) were detected in exon 1, exon 2 and exon 4 respectively, and 1 SNP (c.4081T>C) in intron 3. Statistical results showed that genotype had significant effect on piglet diarrhea, individuals with genotype BC had a higher diarrhea score when compared with the genotypes AA, AB, AC and CC. Futhermore, genotype AC had a higher diarrhea score than the genotype CC in exon 1 (p<0.05); diarrhea scores of genotype AA and BB were higher than those of genotypes AC and CC in exon 2 (p<0.05); individuals with genotype AA had a higher diarrhea score than individuals with genotype AB and BB in exon 4 (p<0.05). Fourteen common haplotypes were founded by haplotype constructing of all SNPs in the three exons, its association with piglet diarrhea appeared that Hap2, 5, 8, 10, and 14 may be the susceptible haplotypes and Hap9 may be the resistant haplotype to piglet diarrhea. The genetic variations identified of the SLA-DRA gene may potentially be functional mutations related to piglet diarrhea.

A Case of Chronic Diarrhea with Symptoms Named 'San (疝)' Every Fall (매 해 가을에 반복하는 설사를 주증으로 내원한 산증환자(疝症患者) 치험 1례)

  • Ha, Soo-jin;Lee, Jin-moo;Lee, Chang-hoon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.541-550
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The aim of this clinical study was to describe the case of a patient who experienced chronic diarrhea related to seasonal changes that improved with herbal medicine treatment. Methods: A patient with diarrhea and globus hystericus was treated following treatment with Hoehyangbanchong-san-hap-Ukgan-san and Gamisachil-tang. A defecation and urination diary, the Bristol Stool Form Scale, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Results: During treatment, the patient's Bristol Stool Form Scale score changed from Type 7 to Type 4, and the VAS score was significantly decreased. The symptoms of diarrhea and globus hystericus almost subsided. Conclusion: In this case, Korean traditional herbal medicine reduced the clinical symptoms of diarrhea and globus hystericus.

A Case Report of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Improved with Diarrhea-Inducing Treatment by Gamsui-mal and Korean Medicine Treatment (감수말 공하법을 병행한 한방치료로 호전된 요추 척추관 협착증 환자의 증례보고)

  • Nam, Suhyun;Kim, Donghoo;Choi, Hyunmin;Kang, Jun-Hyuk;Hyun, Minkyoung
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to report the effectiveness of diarrhea-inducing treatment by Gamsui-mal for lumbar spinal stenosis. During hospitalization four patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with diarrhea-inducing treatment by Gamsui-mal and acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion, cupping treatment, Bee-venom pharmacopuncture. Before treatment, we explained in detail about diarrhea-inducing treatment by Gamsui-mal and patients agreed with treatment. The symptoms appeared in patients of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting in the treatment process. We evaluated the degree of improvement by visual analogue scale (VAS), oswestry disability index (ODI). After treatment, we found that pain was reduced and patient's symptoms were improved by visual analogue scale (VAS), oswestry disability index (ODI) score. The results show that diarrhea-inducing treatment by Gamsui-mal was rapidly improving symptoms. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of diarrhea-inducing treatment by Gamsui-mal.

Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DQA Gene Variation and Its Association with Piglet Diarrhea in Large White, Landrace and Duroc

  • Yang, Q.L.;Kong, J.J.;Wang, D.W.;Zhao, S.G.;Gun, S.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1065-1071
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    • 2013
  • The swine leukocyte antigen class II molecules are possibly associated with the induction of protective immunity. The study described here was to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in exon 2 of the swine DQA gene and piglet diarrhea. This study was carried out on 425 suckling piglets from three purebred pig strains (Large White, Landrace and Duroc). The genetic diversity of exon 2 in swine DQA was detected by PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis, eight unique SSCP patterns (AB, BB, BC, CC, CD, BD, BE and DD) representing five specific allele (A to E) sequences were detected. Sequence analysis revealed 21 nucleotide variable sites and resulting in 12 amino acid substitutions in the populations. A moderate level polymorphism and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of the genotypes distribution were observed in the populations (p<0.01). The association analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in the score of piglet diarrhea between different genotypes, individuals with genotype CC showed a lower diarrhea score than genotypes AB ($0.98{\pm}0.09$), BB ($0.85{\pm}0.77$) and BC ($1.25{\pm}0.23$) (p<0.05), and significantly low than genotype BE ($1.19{\pm}0.19$) (p<0.01), CC genotype may be a most resistance genotype for piglet diarrhea.

Effects of pathogenic E. coli on diarrhea, growth performance, and blood profile of weaned pigs

  • Song, Minho;Jang, Yoontack;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Kim, Younghoon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2015
  • The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pathogenic Escherichia coli on diarrhea, growth performance, and blood profile of weaned pigs. A total of 48 pigs were used and housed in individual pens of disease containment chambers for 16 d (4 d before and 12 d after the first challenge [d0]). The treatments were with or without the pathogenic E. coli challenge (F-18 E. coli strain; heat-labile, heat-stable, and Shiga-like toxins). Pigs were orally inoculated with a dose of $10^{10}cfu$ E. coli per 3 mL PBS daily for 3 days. The common nursery diet and water were available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, G:F, diarrhea score, ratio of fecal ${\beta}$-hemolytic coliforms from total coliforms (RHT), and blood profile were measured. The pathogenic E. coli reduced (P < 0.05) ADG from d0 to 6 (117 vs. 297 g/d) and from d0 to 12 (377 vs. 238 g/d) compared with the control. Meanwhile, the pathogenic E. coli increased (P < 0.05) diarrhea score (average 3.4 vs. 1.4) and RHT (average 82 vs. 11%) on d3, 6, and 9 and the number of white blood cells (17.59 vs. $13.48{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$) on d6 compared with the control. No differences were found on ADFI and others in the blood profile (total protein and hematocrit). In conclusion, pathogenic E. coli used in this experiment successfully caused mild diarrhea, increased number of white blood cells, and adversely affected growth rate of weaned pigs.

Phytobiotics and Organic Acids As Potential Alternatives to the Use of Antibiotics in Nursery Pig Diets

  • Kommera, S.K.;Mateo, R.D.;Neher, F.J.;Kim, S.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1784-1789
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    • 2006
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of phytobiotics and organic acids on growth performance of nursery pigs as an alternative to antibiotics. Phytobiotics refer bioactive compounds from plant materials including essential oils and herbal extracts. In Exp. 1,144 pigs, weaned at 23.4${\pm}$0.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments. Treatment diets were: 1) NC (no antibiotics and no phytobiotics); 2) PC (NC+carbadox, 50 mg/kg); and 3) PB (NC+phytobiotics; 0.1% PEP1000-$1^{(R)}$. Each treatment had six replicates with eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 5 wks in 3 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 2 wk; phase 3 for 1 wk). In Exp. 2, 192 pigs, weaned at 19.2${\pm}$0.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments: 1) NC; 2) PC; and 3) PBO (NC+phytobiotics; 0.2% or 0.1% PEP1000-$1^{(R)}$ and organic acids; 0.4% or 0.2% $Biotronic^{(R)}$for the phase 1 and 2, respectively) with eight replicates per treatment and eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the assigned diets for 5 wks in 2 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 3 wk). Body weights were measured at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Feed intake was measured at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Diarrhea score was measured daily during the entire period for Exp. 1 and during the phase 1 for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the PC had a higher (p<0.05) overall ADG than the NC, but the overall ADG of the PB did not differ (p>0.05) from the NC or the PC. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period. The overall ADFI and the overall gain:feed ratio did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period in both Exp. 1 and 2. The PC had a higher (p<0.05) overall diarrhea score (harder stools) than the NC and the PB in Exp. 1, and a higher (p<0.05) overall diarrhea score than the NC in Exp. 2. The overall diarrhea score of the PB and the PBO did not differ (p>0.05) from the NC or the PC in Exp. 1 and 2. Results from this study show that the growth of pigs fed the diets with phytobiotics or the combination of phytobiotics and organic acids did not differ from those both with antibiotics and without antibiotics when tested in an environmentally controlled research facility. Further experiments are required to study the growth performance in disease challenged conditions.

Effect of feed flavor and sweetener on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and diarrhea score in weaning pigs

  • Lei, Yan;Kim, Jong Keun;Tran, Hoai Nam;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2017
  • A total of 120 weaning pigs [(Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) ${\times}$ Duroc] with an average body weight of $8.95{\pm}0.88kg$ were used in this study to investigate the influence of supplementation of combined flavor and sweetener. The diets included: 1) TRT1, basal diet, 2) TRT2, TRT1 + 500 mg/kg flavor, 3) TRT3, TRT1 + 150 mg/kg sweetener, and 4) TRT4, TRT1 + 500 mg/kg flavor + 150 mg/kg sweetener. The TRT4 treatment produced a higher average daily gain (ADG) than that in the other treatments on d 0 - 14 and the whole experimental period (p < 0.05). The TRT1 and TRT2 treatments gave a lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) than that of TRT4 on d 0 - 14 and d 0 - 42 (p < 0.05). On d 15 - 42, TRT4 had a higher ADFI than that of TRT1 (p < 0.05). Compared to TRT1, dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and nitrogen (N) digestibility increased in pigs fed the TRT4 diet (p < 0.05) on d 14. Serum norepinephrine concentration in TRT1 treatment was higher (p < 0.05) than that in TRT4 treatment at 72 h after weaning. On d 0 - 7, diarrhea score decreased in TRT4 treatment compared with TRT1 and TRT2 treatments. In conclusion, flavor and sweetener complex addition improved ADG and ADFI as well as DM, N, and GE digestibility in weanling pigs. This supplementation in pigs' diets decreased the serum norepinephrine concentration at 72 h after weaning and the diarrhea score during the first week of weaning.

Effect of Feeding Direct-fed Microbial as an Alternative to Antibiotics for the Prophylaxis of Calf Diarrhea in Holstein Calves

  • Kim, Min-Kook;Lee, Hong-Gu;Park, Jeong-Ah;Kang, Sang-Kee;Choi, Yun-Jaie
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding direct-fed microbials (DFM) on the growth performance and prophylaxis of calf diarrhea during the pre-weaning period as an alternative to antibiotics. A multi-species DFM was formulated including three lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius Ls29, Pediococcus acidilactia Pa175, and L. plantarum Lp177), three Bacillus strains (B. subtilis T4, B. polymyxa T1 and SM2), one yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii, and a nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917. Lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus strains were selected based on the antibacterial activity against various animal pathogens, especially pathogenic E. coli using agar diffusion methods in vitro. Test and control groups were fed milk replacer and calf starter supplemented with DFM ($10^9$ cfu each of eight species/d/head, n = 29) or with antibiotics (0.1% neomycin sulfate in milk replacer and Colistin 0.08% and Oxyneo 110/110 0.1% in calf starter, n = 15), respectively. Overall fecal score and the incidence rate of diarrhea were reduced in the DFM group compared to the antibiotics one. About 40% of calves in antibiotic group suffered from diarrhea while in DFM group only 14% showed diarrhea. There was no difference in the average daily gain and feed efficiency of two groups. The hematological levels of calves were all within the normal range with no significant difference. In conclusion, the feeding of multispecies DFM during the pre-weaning period could reduce calf diarrhea and there was no difference in the growth performance between the groups, thus showing the potential as an alternative to antibiotics.

Two Case Reports of Patients with Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treated with Jeoreongchajeonja-tang (설사형 과민성대장증후군 환자에 대한 저령차전자탕의 효과 2례)

  • Kim, Ki-tae
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.948-956
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the effectiveness of Jeoreongchajeonja-tang as a treatment for patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Methods: Two irritable bowel syndrome patients who had visited Semyung University Korean Medical Hospital were enrolled. The patients were diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria, and the treatment effect was assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the colon transit time. Results: After treatment with Jeoreongchajeonja-tang for 4 weeks, the GSRS score was improved and colon transit time was delayed. Conclusions: This study suggests that Jeoreongchajeonja-tang is effective for improving diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. More extensive study is needed in the future.

A Case Study of a Soyangin Patient with Crohn's Disease who Reported Symptomatic Improvement after Being Treated with Dojeokgangki-tang (도적강기탕(導赤降氣湯)으로 호전된 크론병 환자 1례)

  • Lee, Mi-Suk;Hwang, Mim-Woo;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2012
  • 1. Objectives : The aim of this study was to report significant improvement of chronic diarrhea and hematochezia after treatment with Dojeokgangki-tang in a Soyangin Patient with Crohn's Disease. 2. Methods : The patient's subjective and objective symptoms were observed daily throughout the hospitalization period, and the Crohn's disease activity index(CDAI) was calculated to gauge the progress or lack of progress. 3. Results : The symptoms of diarrhea and hematochezia disappeared by the end of the hospitalization period without recurrence, and the CDAI score dropped from 92.5 to 47. 4. Conclusions : A patient with Crohn's disease, who was in the state of repetitive relapse and remission after long term clinical courses was treated with Dojeokgangki-tang in a short period and the the symptoms of diarrhea and hematochezia disappeared without recurrence. Then the patient could stop taking corticosteriods and taper off immune-suppressing drugs.