• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diabetes

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The Anti-diabetic Effects of Kocat-D1 on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (Kocat-D1의 streptozotocin으로 유도한 당뇨모델에 대한 항당뇨 활성)

  • Won, Hye-Jin;Lee, Hyun-Sun;Kim, Jong-Tak;Hong, Chung-Oui;Koo, Yun-Chang;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of Kocat-D1, which is widely used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes in Shandong, China. Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks of age) were separated into 4 groups: a normal control, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat group (DM control), Kocat-D1-1 (diabetic rat treated with 0.25 g/kg/day hot water extract), and Kocat-D1-2 (diabetic rat treated with 1 g/kg/day hot water extract). After eight weeks of treatment, the fasting blood glucose levels of the Kocat-D1-1 ($334.3{\pm}32.9\;mg/dL$) and Kocat-D1-2 group ($259.5{\pm}35.0\;mg/dL$) were significantly lower when compared to the DM control group ($451{\pm}42.6\;mg/dL$). Furthermore, the levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), albumin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the serum of the Kocat-D1-2 group were significantly normalized when compared to the DM control group. However, significant differences were not observed between the Kocat-D1-1 group and the DM control group. Histochemical staining of the liver of the Kocat-D1-2 group revealed no fat accumulation. The insulin level was significantly upregulated in the Kocat-D1-2 group ($0.13{\pm}0.02\;ng/mL$) when compared to the DM control group ($0.05{\pm}0.04\;ng/mL$). The relative volume of $\beta$-cells in the pancreas of the Kocat-D1-2 group ($49.4{\pm}4.2%$) also increased significantly when compared to the DM control group ($12.9{\pm}7.9%$). These results suggest that Kocat-D1 exerts an anti-hyperglycemic effect through the enhancement of insulin secretion.

Preventive Effects of Rosa rugosa Root Extract on Advanced Glycation End product-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction (해당근 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 최종당화산물에 의한 혈관내피세포 기능장애 억제활성)

  • Nam, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Hyun-Sun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Koo, Yoon-Chang;Seo, Mun-Young;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2010
  • Rosa rugosa has traditionally been used as a folk remedy for diabetes. The objective of this study was therefore to demonstrate the inhibition of endothelial dysfunction activities through antioxidants and the anti-glycation of Rosa rugosa roots. Dried roots of Rosa rugosa were boiled in methanol for three hours, evaporated and lyophilized with a freeze-dryer. The methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa roots (RRE) was tested for antioxidant activities by measuring total polyphenol (TP) content, flavonoid content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH) assay, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The total TP content, flavonoid content, FRAP value, and $DPPHSC_{50}$ are $345.2\;{\mu}g$ gallic acid equivalents/mg dry matter (DM), $128.1\;{\mu}g$ quercetin equivalents/mg DM, 2.2 mM $FeSO_4$/mg DM and $34.2\;{\mu}g$ DM/mL, respectively. Treatment of RRE significantly lowered fluorescent formation due to advanced glycation reaction. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging assay, monocyte adherent assay and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay were performed to investigate the possibility that RRE improves endothelial dysfunction-induced diabetic complications. The adhesion of THP-1 to treated HUVEC with RRE ($100\;{\mu}g/mL$; 33% and $500\;{\mu}g/mL$; 75%) was significantly reduced compared to HUVEC stimulated by glyceraldehydes-AGEs (advanced glycation end product). The TEER value ($88\;{\Omega}{\cdot}cm^2$) of stimulated HUVEC by glyceraldehydes-AGEs was reduced compared to non-stimulation ($113\;{\Omega}{\cdot}cm^2$). However, normalization with RRE increased endothelial permeability in a dose-dependent manner ($100\;{\mu}g/mL$; $102\;{\Omega}{\cdot}cm^2$ and $500\;{\mu}g/mL$; $106\;{\Omega}{\cdot}cm^2$). Thus, these results suggest that Rosa rugosa roots could be a novel candidate for the prevention of diabetic complications through antioxidants and inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation.

Inhibitory Effects of Sasa borealis Leaves Extracts on Carbohydrate Digestive Enzymes and Postprandial Hyperglycemia (조릿대잎 추출문의 탄수화물 소화효소활성 저해 및 식후혈당강하효과)

  • Hwang, Ji-Young;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.989-994
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to investigate whether Sasa borealis leaves extracts (SLE) may inhibit yeast ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ activities and postprandial hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Freeze-dried SLE was extracted with 70% methanol and followed by a sequential fractionation with dicholoromethan, ethylacetate, butanol, and water. Both ethylacetate and butanol fractions showed high inhibitory activities against the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ and ${\alpha}-amylase$ enzymes. The $IC_{50}$ of ethylacetate and butanol fractions against ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ were 0.54 and 0.63 mg/mL, respectively, indicating a greater inhibition effect than acarbose (0.68 mg/mL) (p<0.05). Likewise, the two fractions exhibited a smaller $IC_{50}$ against ${\alpha}-amylase$, compared with acarbose (p<0.05). However, the yield of ethylacetate fraction of SLE was relatively small. Postprandial blood glucose testing of normal mice and STZ-induced diabetic mice by starch soln. loading (2 g/kg B.W.) showed that postprandial blood glucose level at 30, 60, and 120 min were markedly decreased by single oral administration of SLE butanol fraction (200 mg/kg B.W.) in both normal (p<0.0l) and diabetic mice (p<0.0l). Furthermore, the incremental area under the curve (AUC) was significantly lowered via SLE administration (5,745 versus 12,435 $mg{\cdot}mim/dL$) in the diabetic mice (p<0.0l). The incremental AUC in normal mice corroborated the hypoglycemic effect of SLE (p<0.0l) found in the diabetic mice. These results suggest that SLE may delay carbohydrate digestion and thus glucose absorption. In addition, SLE may have the potential to prevent and treat diabetes via its ability on lowering postprandial hyperglycemia.

Effect of the Ethanol Extract from Citrus Peels on Oxidative Damage in Alloxan-induced HIT-T15 Cell (진피 에탄올 추출물이 Alloxan에 의해 유도된 HIT-T15 세포의 산화적 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hee-Kyoung;Jeong, Yoo-Seok;Park, Chi-Deok;Park, Chang-Ho;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.1102-1106
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol extract from citrus peels (CP-Et) against the alloxan-induced oxidative damage on HIT-T15, Hamster pancreatic $\beta$-cell. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in CP-Et were $57.00{\pm}2.91\;mg/g$ and $8.11{\pm}2.83\;mg/g$, respectively. Cell toxicity on HIT-T15 by CP-Et (0.125~0.75 mg/mL) was not observed. CP-Et (0.125 mg/mL) increased cell proliferation rate of HIT-T15, which was treated alloxan ($IC_{50}=11.58\;mM$) (cell viability=$80.52{\pm}3.29%$ of normal cell, p<0.05). In comparison with insulin secretion of oxidative damaged HIT-T15, 1.5 fold ($116.93{\pm}2.11\;{\mu}g/mg$ protein) was increased by treatment CP-Et treatment (0.125 mg/mL) in HIT-T15 (p<0.05). These results showed that CP-Et contribute to repairing cells and improvement of insulin expression on oxidative stress pancreatic $\beta$-cell, and also suggested application of CP-Et as a functional food material for type 2 diabetes.

Survey on the Sodium Contents of Nursery School Meals in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도지역 어린이집의 단체급식 중 나트륨 함량 실태조사 연구)

  • Jung, Hong-Rae;Lee, Myung-Jin;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Boem;Kim, Dae-Hwan;Kang, Suk-Ho;Park, Jong-Suk;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Kim, Mee-Hye;Park, Yong-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.526-534
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    • 2010
  • The prevalence rate for chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension etc. caused by the increment of national income and the change of food life according to the globalization in Korea have been increased. Especially excess sodium intake may contribute to the development of hypertension, increasing cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate sodium intake of nursery school meals in Gyeonggi-Do, and to construct database for lesser sodium intake policy. Survey consisted of 601 sample intakes of sodium in summer and in winter. A food weighed record method was used for measuring food intakes. Average intakes of ten children per nursery school were measured. The sodium contents of meals were analyzed by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer) after acid digestion by microwave. The sodium contents on food groups showed that sources (693 mg/100 g), grilled foods (689 mg/100 g) and kimchies (643 mg/100 g) had respectively higher sodium contents and the average sodium intake per meal was $582\pm204$ mg. The sodium contents of soups & hot soups and kimchies had 37.5% and 15.8% of total sodium intakes per meal, respectively. Sodium intakes per meal in summer and winter showed 572.3 mg and 592.3 mg, respectively. Regional ranking of sodium intakes showed the ascending order of apartment (514.3 mg/meal), rural region (540.5 mg/meal), multiplex house (635.9 mg/meal) and industrial complex (696.4 mg/ meal). A habit of excessive sodium intakes in childhood will threaten their health when they grow up to be adults; thus lesser intake of sodium per meal is needed for children in nursery school.

Effects of Fermented Soybean Paste Chungkukjang on the Immunoreactivity in Ovariectomized Mice (청국장이 난소적출 마우스의 면역 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyunjin;Yoon, Leena;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.1930-1939
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    • 2013
  • It has been reported that Chungkukjang, one of Korean traditional fermented soybean products, may improve hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we sought to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Chungkukjang in ovariectomized mice. For the first period, female SLC ddy mice were either sham-operated (Sham; n=27) or ovariectomized (OVX; n=27). As a basal diet, ovariectomized mice were fed low-calcium diet for faster induction of osteoporosis for six weeks, and those in the Sham group were fed AIN-76 diet. For the second period, half of the OVX group (n=9) and the Sham group (n=9) were fed a Chungkukjang-based diet (CKJ); whereas the other half (OVX; n=9/ Sham; n=9) were fed a casein-based diet (CSI) for 8 weeks. After a second period, we collected the blood via heart puncture and measured the splenocytes proliferation, T lymphocyte subsets by flowcytometry, and levels of serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-${\gamma}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$) by ELISA assay. The OVX+CKJ group showed higher splenocytes proliferation, higher ratio of CD4/CD8, and lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ cytokines compared to the OVX+CSI group. The Sham+CKJ group showed cytokine productions, such as higher levels of IL-10 and IFN-${\gamma}$, and lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ compared to the Sham+CSI group. The result of this study suggests that Chungkukjang may lower the proinflammatory cytokine levels in both the OVX and Sham groups. In addition, Chungkukjang could make a balance of T cell subset proliferations and enhance the splenocyte proliferations in the OVX group.

Quality Characteristics of Ssukgaen Dduk Made with High-Dietary Fiber Rice 'Goami' Focused on Yam and Glutinous Rice (마와 찹쌀의 첨가 비율에 따른 고아미 쑥갠떡의 품질 특성)

  • Ha, Hyun-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.1571-1578
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    • 2014
  • This study compared the production of functional Ssukgaen Dduk containing yam, mugwort, glutinous rice and Goami 2 rice, which is rich in dietary fiber and prevents diabetes and adult disease. To enhance the chewiness and softness of Goami Ssukgaen Dduk, the dough was kneaded various times. When Ssukgaen Dduk was made with various amounts of yam and glutinous rice (25:5%, 20:10%, 15:15%, 10:20%, and 5:25%) to Goami 2 rice, the control group (non-glutinous rice Ssukgaen Dduk) showed the highest preference level in sensory test. Of the yam and glutinous rice additives groups, YG4 (10% yam and 20% glutinous rice) showed higher preference. As glutinous rice additives increased and yam additives decreased, preference level significantly increased. Of the yam and glutinous rice groups, G40 kneaded 40 times, showed a significant difference (4.17 compared to control group). G40 also indicated appropriate characteristics in terms of taste, texture, chewiness, softness, and delicacy of texture. G60 and G80 kneaded 60 and 80 times, respectively, showed remarkably lower scores than other samples in terms of general preference. Thus, quality characteristics of Ssukgaen Dduk decreased when amount of kneading increased, hardness significantly decreased. In conclusion, Ssukgaen Dduk should contain 10% yam and 20% glutinous rice added to 70% Goami 2 rice powder mixed with mugwort, kneaded about 40 times.

Anti-adipogenic Effect of Fermented Coffee with Monascus ruber Mycelium by Solid-State Culture of Green Coffee Beans (3T3-L1 지방전구세포에서 홍국균 균사체-고체발효 원두커피 추출물의 지방축적 억제효과)

  • Lim, Yongrae;Shin, Ji-Young;Kim, Hoon;Baek, Gil-Hun;Yu, Kwang-Won;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Junsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.624-629
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    • 2014
  • Obesity is the leading metabolic disease in industrialized countries and is closely associated with coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-adipogenic effects of two roasted coffee beans, Vietnam robusta (VR) and Ethiopia Mocha Sidamo G2 (ES), as well as fermented coffee beans with Monascus ruber (MR) mycelium on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatments with 1,000 ${\mu}g/mL$ of hot water extract from coffee beans significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation. In addition, VR more effectively inhibited transcription factors such as $PPAR{\gamma}$, $C/EBP{\alpha}$, FAS, and aP2 compared to ES. Further, ES fermented with MR showed more effective anti-adipogenic activity than non-fermented ES. These results suggest that VR and ES inhibit adipocyte differentiation which may contribute to their anti-adipogenic properties.

Antiadipogenic Effect of Korean Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Water Extract on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (세포배양 모델을 통한 함초(Salicornia herbacea L.) 물 추출물의 항비만 효과 탐색)

  • Kim, Mi Joung;Jun, Hyun Young;Kim, Jung Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.814-821
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    • 2014
  • As a natural plant ingredients, glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) contains various physiological activities, mainly anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic activities. However, only a few studies have been carried out on its anti-adipogenic effect. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Salicornia herbacea L. on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As adipogenesis of preadipocytes to adipocytes involves proliferation and differentiation of cells, we treated three concentrations (125, 250, and $500{\mu}g/mL$) of Salicornia herbacea L. water extracts (SLW) in both pre-processing and post-processing stages. When 3T3-L1 adipocytes were differentiated and dyed with Oil Red O, adipocytes size and the value of relative Oil Red O staining were reduced by all concentrations of SLW in post-processing stage. Following adipogenic differentiation, the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) in the cell supernatant significantly increased upon treatment with $125{\mu}g/mL$ of SLW and further rose at concentrations of 250 and $500{\mu}g/mL$ during post-processing stage. There was no significant difference in glycerol production upon SLW treatment. Leptin production significantly decreased at all SLW concentrations during post-processing stage, whereas peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-${\gamma}$ (PPAR-${\gamma}$) and adiponectin secretions were significantly enhanced. Overall results showed that SLW might have an anti-adipogenic effect via enhancement of TNF-${\alpha}$ production, which causes dedifferentiation and inhibits lipid accumulations in adipocyte. Furthermore, SLW might prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as it reduces leptin secretion and enhances production of both PPAR-${\gamma}$ and adiponectin. However, further research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and bioactive compounds of glasswort.

Active Aging: Roles of Physical Activity and Immunity (건강한 노후 : 운동활동과 면역반응을 중심으로)

  • Park, Chan Ho;Kim, Ji-Seok;Kwak, Yi Sub
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.621-626
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    • 2018
  • We introduced the physiological responses of aging, active aging and also suggest the impact of physical exercise on body health status and elderly immunity. In this purpose, we searched the Pub Med data base for the articles (include our experimental papers) and review papers having the terms 'Aging', 'Active aging' and 'Physical activity and elderly' in the title, published from 1999 until 2018. The results were as follows: Exercise training has been extensively studied about the reduction of inflammation, oxidative stress, disease, and aging in syndrome X patients and elderly. Combined and aerobic or resistance exercise training could reduce obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Exercise training has been extensively studied in cancer settings as part of prevention or treatment strategies. From this research, regular exercise has the potential to target tumor growth through regulation of inflammation and immune responses such as lactate clearance, NK cell activation (innate immunity), activation of cytotoxic immune cells, T cell activation (adaptive immunity), and immune surveillance. However, Endurance physical activity not only induces thermogenesis and diverse sports injuries but also elicits mobilization and functional enhancement of monocytes, neutrophils (which is caused by the cytokine changes such as TNF-alpha, IL-1) whereas it suppresses cell mediated immunity causing to increased susceptibility to inflammation and infections like cough and URTIs (upper respiratory track infections) in young and especially in elderly people. Therefore, Strategies to prevent physical fatigue, sports injuries include avoid overtraining, Adequate recovery and various type of rest during and after physical activity and assuring adequate nutrition supplementation such as glutamine, vitamin B, vitamin C, carbohydrate, ion or berry-contain sports beverages is helpful in physically active elderly.