• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diabetes

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Comparisons of Health Status and Health Behaviors among the Elderly between Urban and Rural Areas (도시와 농촌지역 노인의 건강행태 및 건강수준 비교)

  • Chun, Jong-Duk;Ryu, So Yeon;Han, Mi Ah;Park, Jong
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.182-194
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To identify and compare the health behaviors and health status of the elderly between urban and rural areas using the data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods: The study population comprised 3,823 elderly people aged 65 years or older who participated in the $4^{th}$ KNHANES (2007-2009). The areas were classified into "large cities," "cities," and "rural areas" using the administrative and residential areas. The health behaviors and health status of the elderly between the rural and urban areas were compared using a complex sample design with the Rao-Scott chi-square test and weighted multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Compared to large cities, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of rural areas were as high as 1.58 (1.25-2.01) for the influenza vaccination and as low as 0.47 (0.37-0.59) for flexibility exercises, 0.56 (0.38-0.81) for muscular exercises, and 0.76 (0.62-0.92) for obesity. The ORs (CI) for osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus were as low as 0.81 (0.66-0.99) and 0.70 (0.55-0.89), respectively. Conclusions: The health behaviors and health status of the elderly are better in rural areas than in urban areas despite the fact that the socioeconomic conditions in rural areas are poorer that those in urban areas. These findings suggest that programs suitable for residential areas should be developed and that studies to explain the differences in residential areas are needed.

Fourteen-day Repeated-dose Oral Toxicity Study of the Ethanol Extracts Isolated from Oplopanax elatus in Sprague-Dawley Rat (흰쥐에서 땃두릅 에탈올 추출물의 14일 반복경구토여에 의한 독성시험)

  • Kwon, Hyuck-Se;Kim, Dae-Hwan;Shin, Hyun-Kyung;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Kim, Myong-Jo;Lim, Jung-Dae;Park, Jae-Kun;Kim, Jin-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.470-475
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    • 2007
  • Oplopanax elatus (O. elatus) is a tall deciduous shrub that has traditionally been used for σ eating a variety of ailments such as diabetes, coughling, rheumatism, gastro-intestinal disorders, and wounds. In order to examine the safety of the ethanol extracts of O. elatus, we performed a 14-day repeated-dose toxicity study with Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were treated with daily doses of the D. elatus ethanol extracts by gavage at 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days. We recorded clinical signs of toxicity, body weight, hematology, organ weights, gross and histological changes in target organs, and clinical chemistry analysis data for all rats. There were no significant changes in body and organ weights during the experimental period. The hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry data revealed no toxic effects from the O. elatus ethanol extracts. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed between the control and treated rats of both sexes. Collectively, these data suggest that the ethanol extracts of O. elatus have a high margin of safety.

Anti-diabetic Effect of Crude Polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa in $KK-A^{y}$ Diabetic Mouse and 3T3-L1 Adipocyte (3T3-L1지방세포 및 제2형 당뇨모델($KK-A^{y}$)에서 잎새버섯(Grifola frondosa) 조다당체 추출물의 항당뇨 효과)

  • Park, Kum-Ju;Oh, Young-Joo;Lee, Sang-Yun;Kim, Hyun-Su;Ha, Hyo-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.330-335
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic mechanism of crude polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa. We treated 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells to observe whether the crude polysaccharides isolated from Grifola frondosa would stimulate insulin sensitivity. Significant insulin sensitizing activity was observed in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and giving the crude polysaccharide of Grifola frondosa with 1 nM of insulin caused glucose uptake to increase to a similar level as giving 50 nM of insulin alone. To confirm the mechanism for the anti-diabetic effect of the crude polysaccharides, we performed further examinations within $KK-A^{y}$ mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. The crude polysaccharides reduced blood glucose levels in the $KK-A^{y}$ mice for 2 weeks after feeding, and also significantly lowered plasma insulin levels. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the crude polysaccharide of Grifola frondosa is related to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity.

A Survey on Sugar Intake in Meals from Nursery Schools in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도지역 어린이집 단체급식에서 당 섭취량 조사연구)

  • Jung, Hong-Rae;Park, Yong-Bae;Lee, Myung-Jin;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Beom;Kim, Dae-Hwan;Kang, Suk-Ho;Park, Ik-Bum;Park, Jong-Suk;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Kim, Mi-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.182-188
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    • 2011
  • Excess sugar intake by food consumption may contribute to the development of diabetes, dental caries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the sugar intake from meals at nursery schools in Gyeonggi-Do, and to construct a database for reduction policies sugar intake. A total of 601 samples were analyzed for sugar intake in summer and winter, respectively. The average sugar intake from food service was 2.22 g/meal, which was 5% of the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). Furthermore, the analysis results of sugar content were in the decreasing order of fruits (5.05 g/100 g), fried food (2.92 g/100 g), and braised food (2.31 g/100 g). The habit of excessive sugar intake in childhood can be threaten health in adulthood. Thus, it is necessary for nursery school children to consume schoolmeals that contain less sugar.

Evaluation of Macrophage Activity and Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats on Multivitamin (종합비타민의 랫드에서 반복투여독성 시험과 대식세포 기능 활성 평가)

  • Kim, Hye-Ri;Jang, Hye-Yeon;Lee, Hae-Nim;Park, Young-Seok;Park, Byung-Kwon;Kim, Byeong-Soo;Kim, Sang-Ki;Cho, Sung-Dae;Nam, Jeong-Seok;Choi, Chang-Sun;Chang, Soon-Hyuk;Jung, Ji-Youn
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.360-366
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of multivitamin on macrophage activity in Raw 264.7 cell and repeated oral dose toxicity in Sprague-Dawely rat of multivitamin. Raw 264.7 cells were treated with 50 and $100{\mu}g/mL$ multivitamin for 24 h. To measure the activity of macrophages, NO and TNF-${\alpha}$ assays were performed in Raw 264.7 cells. Treatment with 50 and $100{\mu}g/mL$ multivitamin for 24 h significantly increased production of NO and TNF-${\alpha}$ compared with control groups, indicating activation of macrophages. The female rats were treated with multivitamin of control group, low group (0.24 g/kg), medium group (1 g/kg) and high group (2 g/kg) intragastrically for 4 weeks, respectively. We examined the body weight, the feed intake, the clinical signs and serum biochemical analysis. We also observed the histopathological changes of liver, ovary, brain, adrenal gland, spleen, kidney, heart and lung in rats. No significant differences in body weights, feed intake, biochemical analysis and histopathological observations between control and multivitamin treatment group were found. In conclusion, multivitamin is physiologically safe and improve macrophage activity.

Effects of Dietary Oligosaccharide on the Blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Composition in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐의 혈당 및 혈중 지질조성에 미치는 Oligosaccharide의 영향)

  • 채영미;이순재
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.710-716
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary oligosaccharide on the blood glucose and serum lipid composition in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 150$\pm$10g were randomly assigned to one normal and four STZ-induced diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were classified to basal diet(DM group) 10% xylooligosaccharide diet(DM-XO group) 10% isomaltooligosaccharide(DM-IMO group) and 10% fructooligosaccharide (DM-FO). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg of body weight of STZ in citrate buffer (pH 4.3) after feeding of experimental diets for 4 weeks. The rats were fed with experimental diet for further 4 weeks in diabetic state. The oligosaccharide diets were not effected on the body weight food intakes and food efficiency ratio. The oligosaccharide diets were also not effected on the body weight food intakes and food efficiency ratio. The oligosaccharide diets were also not effected on the weights of liver kidney and small intestine but the weight of cecum was significantly increased on the groups of xylooligosaccharide and isomaltooligosaccharide diet. The levels of oral glucose tolerance test was more effectively improved by DM-XO group. The levels of blood glucose were markedly lower in oligosaccharide supplemented groups than that of DM group. The levels of blood glucose were markedly lower in oligosaccharide supplemented groups than that of DM group. Activities of two intestinal enzymes such as lactase and sucrase in DM-XO and DM-FO groups were lower than that of DM group while activity of maltase was lower only in DM-XO in DM-FO groups than that of DM-group respectively. The levels of serum triglyceride in DM-XO group were lower than that of DM-group respectively. The levels of serum triglyceride in DM-XO groups were lower than that of DM group however was no significant differences among the oligosaccharide groups. These results suggest that dietary oligosaccharide may act as functional food to be capable of improving carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats.

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Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Serum Lipid Level in OLETF Rats (식이 제한 급여가 OLETF 횐쥐의 혈청 지질량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이병래;차종희;박재윤;배학연;고춘남;박평심
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1210-1214
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    • 2001
  • To determine the effects of dietary restriction on obese type 2 diabetes we measured body weight, blood glucose and serum lipid level in dietary restricted Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats (obese diabetic rats) and LETO rats (control rats) were grouped into 3 groups; control (free feed) group, 20% dietary restricted (20% DR) group and 40% dietary restricted (40% DR) group. Body weight of rats was measured every weeks and the level of glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and HDL-cholesterol in blood of rats were also determined at 12 weeks after dietary restriction. Body weight of control, 20% DR and 40% DR groups were increased by 41%, 20% and 10%, respectively in LETO rats and by 24%, 10% and -2%, respectively in OLETF rats. Blood glucose level of LETO rats were decreased by 12% on 40% DR compared to control group but the differences between control group and 20% DR group was not observed. The blood glucose level of OLETF rats were decreased by 20% in 40% DR group and by 15% in 20% DR group. The levels of blood triglyceride in 20% DR and 40% DR group were decreased by 20%, 15% in LETO rats and by 37%, 32% in OLETF rats, respectively Total cholesterol revel was not changed by dietary restriction in LETO rats, but significant changes were observed in OLETF rats by both 20% and 40% dietary restriction. HDL-cholesterol levels were also increased by dietary restriction in both LETO and OLETF rats. These results suggested that body weight and blood glucose, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were decreased by dietary restriction and these changes are more susceptive in diabetic rats than non-diabetic animals.

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Effect of Chungkukjang supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant nutrients of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (청국장 식이 보충이 당뇨 쥐의 산화적 스트레스와 항산화 영양소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Heyun-Sook;Kong, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Eon-Hee;Choi, Eun-Mi;Jang, Joung-Hyeon;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Hong, Ju-Yeon;Hwang, Su-Jung;Jung, Hyeon-A;Yang, Kyung-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of a supplemented Chungkukjang diet on oxidative stress and antioxidant nutrients in Streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg of BW, IP injection)-induced diabetic rats. Diets that contained soybean Chungkukjang powder (SC), Yakkong Chungkukjang powder (YC), and Yakkong Chungkukjang powder with black food added (YCB) were administered to the STZ-induced diabetic rats for seven weeks. The increased lipid peroxide contents of their serum and liver were slightly controlled by providing them three types of Chungkukjang. The retinol level in the serum was 7.5 times higher in the STZ-induced diabetic group after the provision of YC. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level in the serum was higher in the STZ-induced diabetic group after the provision of YCB. Also, the retinol and tocopherol levels in the liver of the STZ-induced diabetic rats increased after they were provided YCB, and the decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) /oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level in their liver improved after they were fed a diet that contained YC. Moreover, the decreased anthocyanin level in the liver of the STZ-induced diabetic group improved after the provision of three types of Chungkukjang powder. These findings suggest that the Chungkukjang diet is a valuable food for the management of the health of diabetic patients and for the prevention of diabetic complications.

Inhibitory effects of advanced glycation end products formation and free radical scavenging activity of Cirsium setidens (곤드레 추출물의 최종당화산물의 생성저해 및 라디칼소거 활성)

  • Kim, Taewan;Lee, Jaemin;Jeong, Gyeong Han;Kim, Tae Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2016
  • Naturally occurring antioxidants, such as polyphenols are widely found in fruits, vegetables, wines, juices, and other plant-based dietary sources and are divided into several sub classes, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, and lignans. As part of the our ongoing search for bioactive food ingredients, the antioxidant and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Cirsium setidens were investigated in vitro bioassay system. The antioxidant properties were evaluated through radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ($ABTS^+$) radicals. In addition, the activity of C. setidens against diabetes complications was also tested via AGEs formation inhibition assay. The total phenolic contents were determined using a UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. All tested samples showed a dose-dependent radical scavenging and AGEs inhibitory activities. In particular, the n-butanol (BuOH)-soluble portion showed the most potent radical scavenging activities against DPPH and $ABTS^+$ radicals with $IC_{50}$ values of $24.3{\pm}1.7$ and $25.0{\pm}3.3{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Futhermore, the inhibition of AGEs formation by the n-BuOH-soluble portion ($IC_{50}$ value; $46.0{\pm}1.5{\mu}g/mL$) was higher than that those of the soluble portions for the other solvent. The results showed that C. setidens could be considered as an effective source of natural antioxidants and other ingredients.

In vivo Study of the Renal Protective Effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens against Streptozotocin-induced Oxidative Stress (스트렙토조토신 유발 당뇨 쥐의 산화스트레스에 대한 매생이 추출물의 신장 보호 효과)

  • Nam, Mi-Hyun;Koo, Yun-Chang;Hong, Chung-Oui;Yang, Sung-Yong;Kim, Se-Wook;Jung, Hye-Lim;Lee, Hwa;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Han, Ah-Ram;Son, Won-Rak;Pyo, Min-Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.641-647
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of Capsosiphon fulvescens extract (CFE) and its active compound, pheophorbide A (PhA), on diabetic kidney failure. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). After a week, the rats were orally administered CFE (4 and 20 mg/kg BW) or PhA (0.2 mg/kg BW) once a day for 9 weeks. After scarification, renal tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histochemical analyses. Our study showed that the treatment with CFE and PhA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation level and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase (p<0.05), but it increased glutathione level and the activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the renal tissues (p<0.05). The CFE- and PhA-treated rats with DM showed improved histochemical appearance and decreased abnormal glycogen accumulation. Therefore, we suggest that PhA-containing CFE could exert renal protective effects against STZ-induced oxidative stress.