• Title, Summary, Keyword: Diabetes

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Anti-inflammatory properties of chloroform extracts from GW10-45, a new cultivar derived from Pleurotus ferulae, in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. (아위느타리 신품종 GW10-45 클로로포름 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Choi, Hyung-Wook;Kim, Eun-Joo;Kim, Keun-Ki;Shin, Pyung-Gyun;Kim, Gun-Do
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.220-224
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    • 2016
  • Chronic inflammation, which results from continuous exposure to antigens, is one of major reasons for tissue damage and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts (hexane, $CHCl_3$, MeOH, $MeOH/H_2O$, and $H_2O$) from GW10-45, which is our new cultivar of an edible mushroom Pleurotus ferulae (ASI 2803 and ASI 2778), in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells and the hexane, CHCl and H extracts reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, an important inflammatory marker, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Particularly, the extract (CG45) inhibited NO production more than the other extracts did. To elucidate the effects of CG45 on molecular targets involved in pro-inflammatory responses, we performed western blot analysis. Expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) significantly decreased in LPS and CG45 co-incubated cells compared to that in LPS only-treated cells. Additionally, another protein thatplays a critical role in inflammation, was down-regulated in cells treated with both LPS and CG45. In the nuclear factor $(NF)-{\kappa}B$ pathway, phosphorylation of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ decreased in RAW264.7 cells treated with both LPS and CG45. Furthermore, CG45 inhibited the phosphorylation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusively, CG45 could suppress pro-inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by down-regulating not only the phosphorylation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ but also the expression of iNOS and COX-2 without any cytotoxicity.

Association of Serum Vitamin D with Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Korean Health Checkup Examinees (건강검진 수검자에서 혈청 Vitamin D 수준과 인슐린저항성 및 β-세포 기능과의 관련성)

  • Kim, Han-soo;Ryu, So Yeon;Park, Jong;Han, Mi-Ah;Choi, Seong-Woo;Shin, Min-Ho
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.18-30
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the association of serum Vitamin D with insulin resistance and ${\beta}-cell$ function in Korean health checkup examinees. Methods: This study subjects were 374 healthy adults (199 males, 175 females) over the age of 20, who visited a general hospital medical center located in Haenam-gun, Jeollanam-do. To find the association of Vitamin D with HOMA-IR and $HOMA-{\beta}$, the used statistical analysis were ANOVA and ANCOVA. Results: Of the study subjects, the level of serum Vitamin D defined by deficient group, insufficient group and sufficient group was 38.5%, 48.1% and 13.4%, respectively. According to the level of serum Vitamin D, the mean values of HOMA-IR were $1.92{\pm}1.08$ in sufficient group, $1.99{\pm}1.04$ in the insufficient group and $2.91{\pm}1.05$ in deficient group and there were statistically significant different(p<0.001). The mean values of $HOMA-{\beta}$ were $84.69{\pm}1.07$ in sufficient group, $78.41{\pm}1.04$ in the insufficient group and $80.48{\pm}1.04$ in deficient group, and there were not significant. As a result of ANCOVA, adjusted mean of HOMA-IR were statistically significant different (p<0.001), but those of $HOMA-{\beta}$ were not statistically significant according to the level of serum Vitamin D. Conclusion: The insufficient level of serum Vitamin D was relatively high in healthy adults who live in rural area, and it was found that HOMA-IR significantly increased when Vitamin D was deficient. To prevent insulin resistance or diabetes, it is necessary to provide sufficient information related to sufficient production of Vitamin D such as Vitamin D supplement, sun exposure, food intake and etc.

Memory improvement effect of Artemisia argyi H. fermented with Monascus purpureus on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (스트렙토조토신으로 유도된 당뇨 마우스에서 Monascus purpureus을 이용한 발효 쑥의 기억력 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Chang Jun;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kang, Jeong Eun;Kwon, Bong Seok;Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Su Bin;Ha, Gi-Jeong;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.550-558
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    • 2017
  • The effect of Artemisia argyi H. under liquid-state fermentation by Monascus purpureus (AAFM) on cognitive impairments has been studied in a mice model of diabetes-associated cognitive decline induced by streptozotocin (STZ). C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks of age, male) were separated into four groups: a normal control, STZ-induced diabetic mouse group (STZ group), Artemisia argyi H. (AA) 10 group (diabetic mouse+AA 10 mg/kg/day), AAFM 10 group (diabetic mouse+AAFM 10 mg/kg/day). Administration of AA and AAFM significantly improved glucose tolerance, as shown by the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and ameliorated cognitive deficit, as shown by the behavioral tests including passive avoidance, Morris water maze, and Y-maze tests. After behavioral tests, the cholinergic system was examined by assessment of the acetylcholine (ACh) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the antioxidant system was also assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the brain and liver.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Allium hookeri Root on Hepatic Enzyme Contents in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats (삼채 보충식이가 당뇨흰쥐 간의 항산화효소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Wha
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Allium hookeri (AH) root on hepatic antioxidative enzyme contents in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats through injection of STZ dissolved in citrate buffer into tail veins at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93 recommended diet, and the experimental groups were fed a modified diet containing 5% and 10% of AH root powder for 4 weeks. The experimental groups were divided into four groups: a normal control (N-control), STZ-control, STZ-AH 5%, and STZ-AH 10% supplemented groups. The STZ-AH 5% group showed a significant increase in liver glycogen compared to the STZ-control group. Muscle glycogen and liver protein contents significantly increased in the AH-supplemented groups compared to the STZ-control group. The liver malondialdehyde content of the AH-supplemented group was significantly lower than that of the STZ-control group. Xanthine oxidase content was significantly reduced in all experimental groups. Glutathione-S-transferase content was significantly elevated in the AH-treated groups compared to the STZ-control group. Superoxide dismutase content was not significantly different among the experimental groups. Catalase content was significantly higher in the STZ-AH 10% group compared to the STZ-control group. These results show that supplementation with AH root may be useful for diabetic therapy and damage from oxidative stress.

Effect of Fermented Yacon (Smallanthus Sonchifolius) Leaves Tea on Blood Glucose Levels and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Mice (야콘잎 발효차가 고지방식이와 스트렙토조토신으로 유도한 제2형 당뇨마우스의 혈당 및 당대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, In-Sook;Lee, Jin;Lee, Jeom-Sook;Shin, Dong-Young;Kim, Myung-Joo;Lee, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.333-341
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolgycemic activity of water extract of fermented yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves tea (Yacon LWE) in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Male ICR mice were fed with a HFD (37% calories from fat) for 4 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection with STZ (100 mg/kg body weight). Diabetic mice were supplemented with two doses of Yacon LWE (0.16% and 0.8%, wt/wt) for 6 weeks. The supplementation of high-dose Yacon LWE significantly lowered blood glucose levels and plasma ALT and AST activities compared with the control group. High-dose Yacon LWE also improved the insulin tolerance without any changes in plasma and pancreatic insulin concentrations in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice. Yacon LWE supplementation increased the insulin staining of pancreatic $\beta$-cells in a dose-dependent manner. Both 0.16% and 0.8% of Yacon LWE significantly elevated plasma leptin concentration, hepatic glucokinase activity and glucokinase/glucose-6-phosphatase ratio compared with the control group. However, glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was not different among the groups. These results suggest that high-dose Yacon LWE lowers the blood glucose level partly by enhancing insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice.

Comparison of chronic disease risk by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio in Korean elderly: Using the 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 노인 식사의 탄수화물 에너지비에 따른 만성질환 위험성 비교: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Park, Min Seon;Suh, Yoon Suk;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.247-257
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: It is reported that most senior people consume a high carbohydrate diet, while a high carbohydrate diet could contribute to the risk of chronic disease. The aim of this study is to determine whether a high carbohydrate diet can increase the risk of chronic disease in elderly Koreans. Methods: Using the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Nutrition Examination Survey data, out of a total of 3,917 individuals aged 65 and above, final 1,535 subjects were analyzed, divided by dietary carbohydrate energy ratio into two groups of moderate carbohydrate ratio (MCR, 55-70%) and excessive carbohydrate ratio (ECR, > 70%). All data were processed after the application of weighted value, using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: Eighty one percent of elderly Koreans consumed diets with carbohydrate energy ratio above 70%. The ECR group included more female subjects, rural residents, lower income, and lower education level. The ECR group showed lower waist circumference, lower diastolic blood pressure, and lower frequency of consumption of meat and egg, milk, and alcohol. The intake of energy and most nutrients, with the exception of fiber, potassium, vitamin A, and carotene, was lower in the ECR group compared to the MCR group. When analyzed by gender, the ECR group showed lower risk of dyslipidemia in male and obesity in female subjects, even though the ECR group showed low intake of some nutrients. No difference in the risk of hypertension, diabetes, and anemia was observed between the two groups in male or female subjects. Conclusion: This result suggested that a high carbohydrate diet would not be a cause to increase the risk of chronic disease in the elderly. Further study is needed in order to determine an appropriate carbohydrate energy ratio for elderly Koreans to reduce the risk of chronic disease.

Associations of Metabolic Syndrome with Glaucoma in Korean - Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005, 2007-9, 2010 (한국인의 대사증후군과 녹내장 간의 상관관계 -2005, 2007-9, 2010국민건강영양조사 이용)

  • Park, Sang Shin;Kim, Taehun;Pak, Yun-Suk;Lee, Sang-Yoon;Lee, Hae Jung;Lee, Eun-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with glaucoma. Methods: We investigated the associations of metabolic syndrome and its components (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia) with glaucoma using data from 19,162 adults aged 40 or above among the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (2005), IV (2007-9), V (2010). The logistic regression analysis was used for assessing those associations after adjusting demographic, lifestyle, and social economic status and for assessing the association of metabolic medication intakes with glaucoma risks. Results: After adjusting for age and sex, the risk of glaucoma was significantly higher in the subjects with impaired fasting glucose(Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.78 (1.25, 2.53)) and metabolic syndrome (1.45 (1.01, 2.08)) than subjects without those. These associations increased when additional adjusting for smoking, alcohol use, regular physical activity, income, education status(impaired fasting glucose: 1.89 (1.29, 2.77), metabolic syndrome: 1.52 (1.03, 2.25)). Glaucoma prevalence was borderline significantly increased according to the number of metabolic abnormalities(age and sex adjusted p for trend = 0.055). Use of antihypertensive medication was significantly associated with the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose were significantly associated with the increased glaucoma risk. Use of antihypertensive medication was also significantly associated with the increased glaucoma risk.

Clinical Significance of Tumor Markers in Gastric Cancer Patients after Curative Resection (근치적 절제술을 시행한 위암 환자에서 종양 표지자의 임상적 의미)

  • Kim, Sa-Young;Ha, Tae-Kyung;Kwon, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This clinical study was conducted to evaluate the predictive value of tumor markers for recurrence and the clinical significance of false positive findings after curative gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy with curative intent were evaluated retrospectively. We analyzed the correlations between changes in tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9, AFP, and CA-125) and clinicopathologic data, and basis for changes in tumor markers without recurrence during the follow-up period. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of tumor markers for recurrence were 75.0%, 64.6%, 23.1%, 94.8%, and 65.9% respectively. Among 36 patients with recurrences, 10 patients (27.8%) had elevated tumor markers prior to positive findings on imaging studies, while 13 patients (36.1%) had concomitant elevation in tumor markers. At least 1 of the 4 tumor markers increased in 90 of 290 patients during the follow-up period; however, there was no evidence of tumor recurrence. Twenty patients had persistently elevated tumor markers, while the tumor marker levels in 70 patients returned to normal level within $9.08\pm7.2$ months. The patients with pulmonary disease, hepatobiliary disease, diabetes, hypertension, or herbal medication users had elevated tumor markers more frequently than patients without disease (P<0.001). Conclusion: Although detecting recurrence of gastric cancer with tumor markers may be useful, false positive findings of tumor markers are common, so surgeons should consider other chronic benign diseases and medical conditions when tumor markers increase without evidence of recurrence.

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Effect of Phenolic Extract of Dry Leaves of Lespedeza cuneata G. Don on Antioxidant Capacity and Tyrosinase Inhibition (야관문 잎 페놀 추출물의 항산화능 및 미백 효과)

  • Cho, Eun-Jung;Ju, Hyun-Mi;Jeong, Chang-Ho;Eom, Seok-Hyun;Heo, Ho-Jin;Kim, Dae-Ok
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.358-365
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    • 2011
  • Lespedeza cuneata G. Don is a plant commonly grown in Asian countries, which has been widely used as an oriental medicinal herb to treat diabetes, diarrhea and various other inflammatory diseases. The phenolics of dry leaves of L. cuneata G. Don were extracted by using 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol in assistance with homogenization and sonification. The phenolic extract and its five different fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) were used to evaluate the levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity as well as the inhibitory effect of tyrosinase activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (1 g) had the highest levels of total phenolics at 240.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), total flavonoids as 90.4 mg catechin equivalents (CE) as well as antioxidant capacity at 523.4 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE) on ABTS assay and 329.5 mg VCE on DPPH assay among fractions. One g of water fraction contained total phenolics at 133.1 mg GAE, total flavonoids at 34.5 mg CE, and antioxidant capacity at 333.4 mg VCE for ABTS assay and 313.2 mg VCE for DPPH assay. Inhibition of tyrosinase activity of water fraction at 300 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ was at 47.2% and 21.1% for L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as its substrate, respectively. On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction at 300 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mL^{-1}$ showed tyrosinase inhibition of 10.2% for L-tyrosine and 11.9% for L-DOPA. These results suggested that the phenolics from dry leaves of L. cuneata G. Don may be utilized as a potent source of antioxidants and skin whitening agents.

The Association between Family Support, Activities of Daily Living and Depression among Hospitalized Older Patients with Chronic Diseases (만성질환 입원노인의 가족지지 및 일상생활 수행능력과 우울과의 관련성)

  • Kim, Jeong Yi;Ryu, So Yeon;Han, Mi Ah;Choi, Seong Woo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was performed to identify the association between family support, activities of daily living (ADL) and depression among hospitalized older patients with chronic diseases. Methods: This study subjects were 100 elderly patients with chronic diseases including chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus and et al. in a general hospital. The collected data were patient characteristics, family support, ADL, and depression by structured questionnaire and medical chart review. The used statistical analyses were t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean scores of family support, ADL and depression were $49.95{\pm}8.68$, $8.65{\pm}2.65$, $6.66{\pm}3.78$, respectively. The prevalence rate of depression was 64.0%. In simple analysis, the statistically significant associated factors with depression were age, spouse, economic status, social activity, subjective health status, and number of pain. Depression had statistically a significant positive correlation with ADL and a negative correlation with family support. The final result of hierarchial multiple regression analysis (Model 3), the factors related to depression were family support (b=-.135, p<.001), subjective health status (b=2.510, p=.001). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop and apply the program for controlling the depression of elderly patients with health education, reinforcement of supportive systems in hospital. And, further multidisciplinary studies should be done.