• Title, Summary, Keyword: Developmental Stage

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Study of The Area of Nursing Need by the Family Developmental Stage (가족발달단계에 따른 간호요구영역에 관한 연구)

  • 최부옥
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.43-59
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    • 1977
  • The Community Health Service considers the family as a service unit and places the emphasis of its service on the health problems and the nursing needs of the family rather than the individual. From the conceptual point of view that tile community health service is both health maintenance and health promotion of the family, the community health nurse should have a knowledge of the growth and development of the family and be responsible for the comprehensive support of normal family development. The community health nurse often is in a position to make a real contribution to normal family development. In order to investigate the relationship between the areas of nursing need and family development, the following objectives were established 1. To discover the general characteristics of the study population by the stage of family development. 2. To discover specific nursing needs in relation to the family developmental stage, and to determine the intensity of the nursing needs and the ability of the family to cope with these needs. 3. To discover overall family health nursing problems in relation to the family developmental stage and determine the intensity of the nursing need and the problem solving ability of family. Definitions : The family developmental stages as classified by Dually were used stage 1. Married couples(without children) stage 2. Childbearing Families (oldest child birth to 30 months of age) stage 3. Families with preschool children (oldest child 2½-to 6 years) stage 4. Families with schoolchildren (oldest child 6 to 13 years). stage 5. Families with teenagers (oldest child 13 to 20 years) stage 6. Families as launching centers (first child gone to last child′s leaving home). stage 7. Middle- aged parents (empty nest to retirement) stage 8. Aging family member (retirement to death of both spouses) The areas of nursing need were defined as those used in the study, "A Comprehensive Study about Health and Nursing Need and a Social Diagram of the Community", by tile Nursing research Institute and Center for population. and Family Planning, July 1974. The study population defiled and selected were 260 nuclear families ill two myron of Kang Hwa Island. Percent, mean value and F- test were utilized in tile statistical analysis of the study result. Findings : 1. General characteristics of the study population by tile family developmental stage ; 1)The study population was distributed by the family developmental stage as follows : stage 1 : 3 families stage 2 : 13 families stage 3 : 24 families stage 4 : 41 families stage 5 : 50 families stage 6 : 106 families stage 7 : 13 families stage 8 : 10 families 2) Most families had 4 or 5 members except for those in stage, 1, 7, and 8. 3) The parents′ present age was older in the higher developmental stage and their age at marriage was also younger in the higher developmental stages. 4) The educational level of parents was primarily less than elementary school irrespective of the developmental stage. 5) More than half of parents′ occupations were listed as laborers irrespective of the developmental stage, 6) More than half of the parents were atheists irrespective of the developmental stage. 7) The higher the developmental stage(from stage 2 to stage 6 ), the wider the distribution of children′s ages. 8) More than half of the families were of middle or lower socio-economic level. 2. Problems in specific areas of nursing need by family developmental stage, the intensity of nursing need and the problem solving ability of the family : 1) As a whole, many problems, irrespective of the developmental stage, occurred in tile areas of Housing and Sanitation, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping, Preventive Measures and Dental care. Problems occurring ill particular stages included the following ; stage 1 : Prevention of Accident stage 2 : Preventive Vaccination, Family Planning. stage 3 : Preventive Vaccination, Maternal Health, Family Planning, Health of Infant and Preschooler. stage 4, 5 : Preventive Vaccination, Family Planning, Health of School Children. stage 6 : Preventive Vaccination, Health of School Children. 2) The intensity of the nursing need in the area of Acute and Chronic Diseases was generally of moderate degree or above irrespective of the developmental stages except for stage 1. Other areas of need listed as moderate or above were found in the following stages: stage 1 : Maternal Health stage 3 . Horsing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident. stage 4 . Housing and Sanitation. stage 5 : Housing and Sanitation, Diagnostic and Medical Care. stage 6 : Diagnostic and Medical care stage 7 : Diagnostic and Medical Care, Housekeeping. stage 8 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Dental Care, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping. 3) Areas of need with moderate problem solving ability or less were as follows : stage 1 : Diagnostic and Medical Care, Maternal Health. stage 2 : Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Dental Care. stage 3 : Housing and Sanitation, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Maternal Health, Health of Infant and preschooler, Eating Patterns. stage 4 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Maternal Health, Health of New Born, Health of Infant and Preschooler, Health of school Children, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping. stage 5 . Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Preventive Vaccination, Maternal Health, Eating Patterns. stage 7, 8 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measures, Dental Care, Preventive Vaccination, Eating Patterns , Housekeeping. Problem occurrence, the degree of nursing need and the degree of problem solving ability 1 nursing need areas for the family as a whole were as follows : 1) The higher the stages(except stage 1 ), the lower the rate of problem occurrence. 2) The higher the stage becomes, the lower the intensity of the nursing need becomes. 3) The higher the stages (except stages 7 and 8), the higher. the problem solving ability. Conclusions ; 1) When the nursing care plan for the family is drawn up, depending upon the stage of family development, higher priority should be give to nursing need areas ① at which problems were shown to occur ② where the nursing need is shown to be above moderate degree and ③ where the problem solving ability was shown to be of moderate degree. 2) The priority of the nursing service should be Placed ① not on those families in the high developmental stage but on those families in the low developmental stage ② and on those areas of need shown in stages 7 and 8 where the degree nursing need was high and the ability to cope low.

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Effects of the Developmental Stage of Extract Donor Embryos on the Culture of Marine Medaka Oryzias dancena Embryonic Stem Cell-like Cells (배아추출물 공여 배아의 발생단계가 바다송사리(Oryzias dancena) 배아 줄기세포 유사세포의 배양에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Jun Hyung;Gong, Seung Pyo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2017
  • Optimizing the conditions for stem cell culture is an essential prerequisite for the efficient utilization of stem cells. In the culture of fish embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or ESC-like cells, embryo extracts are important for stable growth, but there is no rule for determining the developmental stage of the embryos used to obtain extracts. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the developmental stage of extract donor embryos on the culture of Oryzias dancena ESC-like cells. O. dancena ESC-like cells were cultured in different media containing each of four types of embryo extract depending on the developmental stage of the extract donor embryos. Growth, morphology, colony-forming ability, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and embryoid body (EB) formation of the cells were investigated. While the developmental stage of the extract donor embryos did not influence the growth, morphology, AP activity, or EB formation of ESC-like cells, colony-forming ability was affected and the pattern of the effects differed completely between the two ESC-like cells investigated. These results suggest that the developmental stage of extract donor embryos should be selected carefully for the culture of ESC-like cells, according to the research purpose and type of cell line.

Adenosine Modulate the Oocyte Developmental Competence by Exposing Stages and Synthetic Blocking during In Vitro Maturation

  • Cheon, Yong-Pil
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2016
  • Purine metabolism is known factor for nuclear maturation of oocytes through both follicle cells and oocyte itself. However, it is largely unknown the roles of purine metabolism in the oocyte competence for fertilization and early development. In this study, the effects of adenosine in oocyte competence for development were examined using adenosine and its synthetic inhibitors. Adenosine treatment from GV intact stage for 18 hr (fGV) caused of decrease the fertilization rate but of increase the cleavage rate compared from the other stage treatment groups. Hadacidin did not effect on fertilization rate but increased cleavage rate without stage specificity. Adenosine did not block the effects of hadacidin with the exception of fGV group. Inhibition of purine synthetic pathways the fertilization rate was decreased in the fGV and fGVB groups but increased in the fMII group. Exogenous adenosine caused of decrease fertilization rate in the fGVB group but increase in the fMII group. Cleavage rate was dramatically increased in the adenosine treatment with synthetic inhibitors. It means that the metabolism of purine has stage specific effects on fertilization and cleavage. Exogenous adenosine had only can improve oocyte developmental competence when it treated at GV intact stage. On the other hand, endogenous synthesis in all maturation stage cause of increase the cleavage rate without effects on fertilization. These data suggest that adenosine at GV stage as a paracrine fashion and inhibitions of endogenous adenosine in all stage improve oocyte developmental competence.

Relationship between Plastochrone and Development Indices Estimated by a Nonparametric Rice Phenology Model

  • Lee, Byun-Woo;Nam, Taeg-Su;Yim, Young-Seon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 1999
  • Prediction of rice developmental stage is necessary for proper crop management and a prerequisite for growth simulation as well. The objectives of the present study were to find out the relationship between the plastochrone index(PI) and the developmental index(DVI) estimated by non-parametric phenology model which simulates the duration from seedling emergence(DVI=0) to heading(DVI=l) by employing daily mean air temperature and daylength as predictor variables, and to confirm the correspondency of developmental indice to panicle developmental stages based on this relationship. Four japonica rice cultivars, Kwanakbyeo, Sangpungbyeo, Dongjinbyeo, and Palgumbyeo which range from very early to very late in maturity, were grown by sowing directly in dry paddy field five times at an interval of two weeks. Data for seedling emergence, leaf appearance, differentiation stage of primary rachis branch and heading were collected. The non-parametric phenology model predicted well the duration from seedling emergence to heading with errors of less than three days in all sowings and cultivars. PI was calculated for every leaf appearance and related to the developmental index estimated for corresponding PI. The stepwise polynomial analysis produced highly significant square-rooted cubic or biquadratic equations depending on cultivars, and highly significant square-rooted biquadratic equation for pooled data across cultivars without any considerable reduction in accuracy compared to that for each cultivar. To confirm the applicability of this equation in predicting the panicle developmental stage, DVI at differentiation stage of primary rachis branch primordium was calculated by substituting PI with 82 corresponding to this stage, and the duration reaching this DVI from seedling emergence was estimated. The estimated duration revealed a good agreement with that observed in all sowings and cultivars. The deviations between the estimated and the observed were not greater than three days, and significant difference in accuracy was not found for predicting this developmental stage between those equations derived for each cultivar and for pooled data across all cultivars tested.

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The Effect of Cryopreservation Condition on Developmental Rate of Pronuclear Stage Embryos and Vitrification of Mouse Oocytes (생쥐 난자의 유리화 동결과 전핵기 배아의 동결 조건이 배아의 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ji-Chul;Park, Sung-Baek;Nam, Yoon-Sung;Seo, Byoung-Boo;Kim, Jae-Myeoung;Song, Hai-Bum
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2011
  • The present study was performed to investigate the survival and subsequent embryonic developmental rate of immature and mature oocytes after vitrification and pronuclear stage embryos after slow-freezing and vitrification. We have also tried to examine the dependency of concentrations (7.5, 15%) and exposure time (5, 10, 20 min) of ED cryoprotectant on developmental rate of pronuclear stage embryos. The developmental rates of 2-ce1l and blastocyst embryos at mature oocytes were significantly (p<0.05) higher than immature oocytes. After slow freezing, vitrification and thawing of pronuclear stage embryo, the survival and developmental rates of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts were significantly (p<0.05) higher after vitrification than after slow-freezing. On contrary, the developmental rates of 2-cell embryos were significantly (p<0.05) higher after slow freezing than after vitrification. The cryopreservation methods of pronuclear stage embryos vitrified by exposed to 7.5% ED solution for 5 minutes was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other experimental group. The results of our study suggest 1hat the developmental rates of mature oocytes have been more successful than immature oocytes during vitrification. Vitrification was more efficient than slow freezing in case of pronuclear stage embryos. The effective cryopreservation method of pronuclear stage embryos was vitrified by exposed to 7.5% ED solution for 5 minutes.

Selection of Lecanicillium Strains with High Virulence against Developmental Stages of Bemisia tabaci

  • Park, Hee-Yong;Kim, Keun
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.210-214
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    • 2010
  • Selection of fungal strains with high virulence against the developmental stages of Bemisia tabaci was performed using internal transcribed spacer regions. The growth rate of hyphae was measured and bioassay of each developmental stage of B. tabaci was conducted for seven days. All of the fungal strains tested were identified as Lecanicillium spp., with strain 4078 showing the fastest mycelium growth rate (colony diameter, 16.3 $\pm$ 0.9 mm) among the strains. Compared to strain 4075, which showed the slowest growth rate, the growth rate of strain 4078 was increased almost 2-fold after seven days. Strains 4078 and Btab01 were most virulent against the egg and larva stages, respectively. The virulence of fungal strains against the adult stage was high, except for strains 41185 and 3387. Based on the growth rate of mycelium and level of virulence, strains 4078 and Btab01 were selected as the best fungal strains for application to B. tabaci, regardless of developmental stage.

Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

  • Kang, Hee Woong;Cho, Jae-Kwon;Son, Maeng-Hyun;Park, Jong Youn;Hong, Chang Gi;Chung, Jae Seung;Chung, Ee-Yung
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2015
  • The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage.

Seasonal Growth Chrateristics of Perennial ryegrass varieties II. Varietal differences in summer growth (Perennial Ryegrass 품종의 계절적 생육특성 II. 여름철 생육의 품종간 차이)

  • 김성규;이주삼;조익환
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was carried out to study the biological yields(BY) of varieties by the developmental growth stages and shoot weight(SHW), leaf area(LA), root dry weight(RW), number of tillers(NT), shoot and root ratio(S/R), weight of a tiller(WT) as factors of yield components with 5 varieties of perennial ryegrass. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The biological yields in summer were about 115 of spring yield. 2. The biological yields of Manhattan were the highest until1 third developmental growth stage among perennial ryegrasses, and those for Maprima and P-2 varieties were the highest in the following stages. In terms of shoot dry weight, the similarly tendency appeared in the fifth developmental growth stage. 3. The shoot dry weight increased highly with the root dry weight. 4. The Tempo variety of biological yield was generally low but the weight of a tiller was the highest. 5. The highest increasing stage of biological yields was between fifth and sixth developmental growth stage, but the lowest increasing stage of biological yields was between first and second developmental growth stage, respectively. The dominant factors of biological yields were influenced to shoot and root dry weight.

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Changes in Biochemical Composition of the Digestive Gland of the Female Purple Shell, Rapana venosa, in Relation to the Ovarian Developmental Phases

  • Chung, Ee-Yung;Kim, Sung-Yeon;Park, Kwan-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2001
  • The Ovarian developmental phases of the reproductive cycle of Rapana venosa can be classified into five successive stages by histological study: early active stage (September to February), late active stage (December to April), ripe stage (March to July), partially spawned stage (May to August), and recovery stage (June to September). To understand the characteristics of nutrient storage and utilization in the digestive gland cells with ovarian developmental phases, we examined the digestive gland - which is the major nutrient supply organ associated with ovarian development of the female purple shell - by biochemical methods. Total protein contents in the digestive gland tissues increased in March (late active stage) and reached the maximum in May (ripe and partially spawned stages), and then their levels sharply decreased in July (partially spawned and recovery stages). Total lipid contents in the digestive gland tissues reached the maximum in January (early active stage). Thereafter, their levels rapidly decreased from May (ripe and partially spawned stages) and reached a minimum in July (partially spawned and recovery stages). The total DNA contents did not significantly change regardless of the different developmental stages of the ovary. However, it was also found from biochemical analysis that changes in total RNA content follow the same seasonal cycling to protein. These results indicate that the digestive gland is an important energy storage and supply organ in purple shells, and that the nutrient contents of the digestive gland change in response to gonadal energy needs.

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Morphological Study on the Correlation of Prenatal and Postnatal Development between Mouse Parotid Salivary Gland and Tooth

  • Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Jeong, Moon-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.242-250
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the prenatal and postnatal development of the mouse parotid salivary gland and tooth, and to investigate the relationship between the developmental timing of the two organs. Development of parotid salivary gland begins on embryonic day 15 (E15), which is the prebud stage; E17 is the initial bud stage; E21 to postnatal day 3 (PN3) is the pseudoglandular stage; PN5 to PN10 is the canalicular stage; and PN21 is the terminal bud stage. At E15, the developing maxillary molar tissue is at the bud stage; at E17, it is at the cap stage; at E21, it is at the early bell stage; PN3 to PN5 comprises the advanced bell stage; at PN10, it is at the crown stage; at PN21, it is at the functional stage. Therefore, unlike the other major salivary glands, the development of mouse parotid salivary gland is completed through a process of prenatal and postnatal morphogenesis and becomes functional at about the same time as the developing tooth. The developmental completion times of the parotid salivary gland and tooth are closely related to the weaning time of animal.