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A Comparative Case Study on the Adaptation Process of Advanced Information Technology: A Grounded Theory Approach for the Appropriation Process (신기술 사용 과정에 관한 비교 사례 연구: 기술 전유 과정의 근거이론적 접근)

  • Choi, Hee-Jae;Lee, Zoon-Ky
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.99-124
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    • 2009
  • Many firms in Korea have adopted and used advanced information technology in an effort to boost efficiency. The process of adapting to the new technology, at the same time, can vary from one firm to another. As such, this research focuses on several relevant factors, especially the roles of social interaction as a key variable that influences the technology adaptation process and the outcomes. Thus far, how a firm goes through the adaptation process to the new technology has not been yet fully explored. Previous studies on changes undergone by a firm or an organization due to information technology have been pursued from various theoretical points of views, evolved from technological and institutional views to an integrated social technology views. The technology adaptation process has been understood to be something that evolves over time and has been regarded as cycles between misalignments and alignments, gradually approaching the stable aligned state. The adaptation process of the new technology was defined as "appropriation" process according to Poole and DeSanctis (1994). They suggested that this process is not automatically determined by the technology design itself. Rather, people actively select how technology structures should be used; accordingly, adoption practices vary. But concepts of the appropriation process in these studies are not accurate while suggested propositions are not clear enough to apply in practice. Furthermore, these studies do not substantially suggest which factors are changed during the appropriation process and what should be done to bring about effective outcomes. Therefore, research objectives of this study lie in finding causes for the difference in ways in which advanced information technology has been used and adopted among organizations. The study also aims to explore how a firm's interaction with social as well as technological factors affects differently in resulting organizational changes. Detail objectives of this study are as follows. First, this paper primarily focuses on the appropriation process of advanced information technology in the long run, and we look into reasons for the diverse types of the usage. Second, this study is to categorize each phases in the appropriation process and make clear what changes occur and how they are evolved during each phase. Third, this study is to suggest the guidelines to determine which strategies are needed in an individual, group and organizational level. For this, a substantially grounded theory that can be applied to organizational practice has been developed from a longitudinal comparative case study. For these objectives, the technology appropriation process was explored based on Structuration Theory by Giddens (1984), Orlikoski and Robey (1991) and Adaptive Structuration Theory by Poole and DeSanctis (1994), which are examples of social technology views on organizational change by technology. Data have been obtained from interviews, observations of medical treatment task, and questionnaires administered to group members who use the technology. Data coding was executed in three steps following the grounded theory approach. First of all, concepts and categories were developed from interviews and observation data in open coding. Next, in axial coding, we related categories to subcategorize along the lines of their properties and dimensions through the paradigm model. Finally, the grounded theory about the appropriation process was developed through the conditional/consequential matrix in selective coding. In this study eight hypotheses about the adaptation process have been clearly articulated. Also, we found that the appropriation process involves through three phases, namely, "direct appropriation," "cooperate with related structures," and "interpret and make judgments." The higher phases of appropriation move, the more users represent various types of instrumental use and attitude. Moreover, the previous structures like "knowledge and experience," "belief that other members know and accept the use of technology," "horizontal communication," and "embodiment of opinion collection process" are evolved to higher degrees in their dimensions of property. Furthermore, users continuously create new spirits and structures, while removing some of the previous ones at the same time. Thus, from longitudinal view, faithful and unfaithful appropriation methods appear recursively, but gradually faithful appropriation takes over the other. In other words, the concept of spirits and structures has been changed in the adaptation process over time for the purpose of alignment between the task and other structures. These findings call for a revised or extended model of structural adaptation in IS (Information Systems) literature now that the vague adaptation process in previous studies has been clarified through the in-depth qualitative study, identifying each phrase with accuracy. In addition, based on these results some guidelines can be set up to help determine which strategies are needed in an individual, group, and organizational level for the purpose of effective technology appropriation. In practice, managers can focus on the changes of spirits and elevation of the structural dimension to achieve effective technology use.

A Study on Pullout-Resistance Increase in Soil Nailing due to Pressurized Grouting (가압 그라우팅 쏘일네일링의 인발저항력 증가 원인에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Kyeong-Han;Park, Sung-Won;Choi, Hang-Seok;Lee, Chung-Won;Lee, In-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.101-114
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    • 2008
  • Pressurized grouting is a common technique in geotechnical engineering applications to increase the stiffness and strength of the ground mass and to fill boreholes or void space in a tunnel lining and so on. Recently, the pressurized grouting has been applied to a soil-nailing system which is widely used to improve slope stability. Because interaction between pressurized grouting paste and adjacent ground mass is complicated and difficult to analyze, the soil-nailing design has been empirically performed in most geotechnical applications. The purpose of this study is to analyze the ground behavior induced by pressurized grouting paste with the aid of laboratory model tests. The laboratory tests are carried out for four kinds of granitic residual soils. When injecting pressure is applied to grout, the pressure measured in the adjacent ground initially increases for a while, which behaves in the way of the membrane model. With the lapse of time, the pressure in the adjacent ground decreases down to a value of residual stress because a portion of water in the grouting paste seeps into the adjacent ground. The seepage can be indicated by the fact that the ratio of water/cement in the grouting paste has decreased from a initial value of 50% to around 30% during the test. The reduction of the W/C ratio should cause to harden the grouting paste and increase the stiffness of it, which restricts the rebound of out-moved ground into the original position, and thus increase the in-situ stress by approximately 20% of the injecting pressures. The measured radial deformation of the ground under pressure is in good agreement with the expansion of a cylindrical cavity estimated by the cavity expansion theory. In-situ test revealed that the pullout resistance of a soil nailing with pressurized grouting is about 36% larger than that with regular grouting, caused by grout radius increase, residual stress effect, and/or roughness increase.

Delirium after Head Trauma at Psychiatric Consultation (두부 외상 후 섬망의 자문 정신 의학적 고찰)

  • Kim, Hyon-Chul;Lee, Sang-Chul;Kim, Do-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Hong, Seung-Gwan;Son, Bong-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: Delirium after head trauma results in various cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. This study aimed at developing and validating a predicitive model for clinical improvement after delirium based on precipitating factors during hospitalization Method: Data were collected on 45 patients who developed delirium after head trauma using 5 year retrospective design, based on reviews of medical charts including psychiatric consultation reports. The differences of the group who sustained residual symptoms of delirium(The RS group) and the group of full recovery(The FR group) at 4 week follow-up visits were compared by motoric type of delirium, socio-demographic variables, neuroimaging variables and clinical variables of interest. Result: There was significant difference in reason for initial consultation between two groups, in terms of hyperactivity(p<.01). The presence of compensation claim, subcortical gray matter lesion was significantly associated with the RS group(p<.05). Total length of intensive care unit(ICU) admission and of hospital stay were significantly longer in RS group than FR group(p<.01). Conclusion: This study shows that hyperactivity on initial consultation, compensation claims, specific brain lesion were altogether significant factors in explaining prolonged duration of delirium after head trauma. A simple predictive model based on the presence of precipitating factors might be used to identify delirious patients at high risk for prolonged cognitive dysfunction. Early psychiatric intervention would be required for evaluating efficacious management and shortening admission period.

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Development and Application of Scientific Inquiry-based STEAM Education Program for Free-Learning Semester in Middle School (중학교 자유학기제에 적합한 과학 탐구 중심의 융합인재교육 프로그램 개발 및 적용)

  • Jeong, Hyeondo;Lee, Hyonyong
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.334-350
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    • 2017
  • The purposes of this study are to develop scientific-inquiry based on STEAM education program and to investigate the effects of the program on middle-school students' interests, self-efficacy, and career choice about science, technology/engineering, and mathematics. In order to develop this program, the literature investigation and previous studies were conducted, so that finally the developmental direction was based on scientific inquiry and the developmental theme and model were selected. A total 92 first-graders in G middle-school of Daegu city were participated in this study. A single group pre-post test paired t-test was conducted to figure out changes of students' interest, self-efficacy, and career choices before or after applying this program. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 students to find their specific responses. The results of this study were as follows. First, STEAM education program on the theme of 'RC Airplane' was developed on the basis of the 'ADBA' model. Second, the developed STEAM educational program not only results a decisive difference statistically but also has significant effects on middle-school students' interests, self-efficacy, and career choice in science, technology/engineering, and mathematics, who are involved in the free-semester program, across the overall affective domain. In conclusion, the STEAM educational program in this study could affect significant meanings to middle-school students during the free-semester. It could contribute to facilitate middle-school students' education for happiness and to grow the creative STEAM talents.

Extraction Characteristics of Flavonoids from Lonicera flos by Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide ($SF-CO_2$) with Co-solvent (초임계유체 $CO_2$ 및 Co-solvent 첨가에 따른 금은화(Lonicera fles)의 Flavonoid류 추출특성)

  • Suh, Sang-Chul;Cho, Sung-Gill;Hong, Joo-Heon;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 2005
  • Effects of co-solvent polarity, citric acid, pressure, temperature, run time, and co-solvent ratio on extraction of major flavonoids from Lonicera Flos were investigated using supercritical fluid $CO_{2}(SF-CO_{2})$. HPLC analysis revealed addition of pure methanol resulted in low extraction yield of major flavonoids, luteoloin (Lu), Quercetin (Qu), Apigenin (Ap). Under same condition, as co-solvent polarity increased, yields of major flavonoids increased gradually, At optimum co-solvent extraction condirion of 60% aqueous methanol (10%, v/v), yields of Lu, Qu, and Ap were 42.09, 28.18, and 3.49 mg/100 g, respectively. Addition of citric acid to 60% aqueous methanol gave higher, with addition of 1% citrie acid resulting in highest yields of 63.2 (Lu), 39.35 (Qu), and 5.79 (Ap) mg/100 g. Optimum extraction conditions of major flavonoids were 200 bar, $50^{\circ}C$, 60 min, and $CO_{2}$-methanol-water(20: 1.8: 1.2).

Total Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts from Vegetables produced in Ullung Island (울릉도산 산채류 추출물의 총 폴리페놀 함량 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Syng-Ook;Lee, Hyo-Jung;Yu, Mi-Hee;Im, Hyo-Gwon;Lee, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2005
  • To discover new functional materials using edible plants, antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from various parts of seven wild vegetables were investigated in vitro. Total polyphenol contents, determined by Folin-Denis method, varied from 16.74 to $130.22{\mu}g/mg$. Radical-scavenging activities of methanol extracts were examined using ${\alpha},\;{\alpha}-diphenyl-{\beta}-pirrylhydrazyl$ (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay. Inhibition effects on peroxidation of linoleic acid determined by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method and on oxidative degradation of 2-deoxy-D-ribose in Fenton-type reaction system were dose-dependent. Athyrium acutipinulum Kodama (leaf and rood), Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai (seed), and Solidago virga-aurea var. gigantea Nakai (root) showed relatively high antioxidant activities in various systems.

A Study on Block Patterns for of Korean fashion Models (졸업작품 패션쇼 모델의 치수에 적합한 원형 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Hee;Kang, Kyoung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.999-1011
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    • 2008
  • To most of the students studying fashion related major, the graduation fashion show is a big challenge. They have to put together all they learn and show what they can do to their future employers. They design, pattern work, and make up garments for the show all by themselves. Unfortunately. while they make up their garments, they usually don't Dow exactly body measurements of the models. So quite often they have to alter their art works up to the last minute of the fashion show opening. Sometimes such unadequate work process ruins their work. The purpose of this study is to suggest block patterns of Korean fashion models measurements for basic items, such as jacket and pants for male models and torso length block pattern, skirt and pants for female models. 20 male and 20 female professional models were measured. The block patterns were based on their measurements. After the first fitting test, patterns were corrected by their body characteristic. For both male and female models, it was found desirable to fix the shoulder width and make an adjustment to the patterns with a deviation of width and girth items. In case of the resultant patterns the satisfaction was made better. Model sizes proposed in this study are considered closer to the size of average models, since they were based on A-grade models who are currently working in Korea. The resultant patterns can be produced by simply making a slight adjustment to the width of the proposed pattern in this study.

Developing a Model for Crime Prevention Hardware Performance Test and Certification System (방범하드웨어의 침입범죄 저항성능 시험·인증 체계에 관한 모형 연구)

  • Park, Hyeon-ho
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.36
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    • pp.255-292
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    • 2013
  • Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is a crime, the essence of which is illegal entry into a building for the purposes of committing an offence. It is one of the most common types of crime and also a serious issue for every society. A house that is left insecure is an accessible and attractive target for burglars and therefore burglary resistance test & certification system for doors and windows has been developed in many countries. This paper explores several advanced foreign burglary resistance test/certifcation cases (the British SBD, the Dutch KOMO SKH/SKG, the Japanese CP mark, the Australian Standard Certification) for security products and domestic test/certification systems for fire safety products as a comparative study so that any improvement points can be gained for South Korea in the field of security product performance. The comparative analysis results show that South Korea is far behind the security product certification system and needs a lot of improvement in the system by benchmarking foreign cases. The domestic test/certification systems for fire safety products also give some insights for burglary-related security products' performance certification system in Korea. Overall, the need for relevant rules and regulations, the establishment of standards regarding testing and certification, including certified security +hardware product in building security certification system, performance testing as well as production testing (i.e. quality management system evaluation), the basic competency of testers, incentive system for certified/high quality security products were suggested in order to make an optimal model for the security production performance testing and certification system in Korea.

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Analysis of Structural Types and Design Factors for Fruit Tree Greenhouses (과수재배용 온실의 구조유형과 설계요소 분석)

  • Nam, Sang-Woon;Ko, Gi-Hyuk
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2013
  • In order to provide basic data for the development of a controlled environment cultivation system and standardization of the structures, structural status and improvement methods were investigated for the fruit tree greenhouses of grape, pear, and peach. The greenhouses for citrus and grape cultivation are increasing while pear and persimmon greenhouses are gradually decreasing due to the advance of storage facilities. In the future, greenhouse cultivation will expand for the fruit trees which are more effective in cultivation under rain shelter and are low in storage capability. Fruit tree greenhouses were mostly complying with standards of farm supply type models except for a pear greenhouse and a large single-span peach greenhouse. It showed that there was no greenhouse specialized in each species of fruit tree. Frame members of the fruit tree greenhouses were mostly complying with standards of the farm supply type model or the disaster tolerance type model published by MIFAFF and RDA. In most cases, the concrete foundations were used. The pear greenhouse built with the column of larger cross section than the disaster tolerance type. The pear greenhouse had also a special type of foundation with the steel plate welded at the bottom of columns and buried in the ground. As the results of the structural safety analysis of the fruit tree greenhouses, the grape greenhouses in Gimcheon and Cheonan and the peach greenhouses in Namwon and Cheonan appeared to be vulnerable for snow load whereas the peach greenhouse in Namwon was not safe enough to withstand wind load. The peach greenhouse converted from a vegetable growing facility turned out to be unsafe for both snow and wind loads. Considering the shape, height and planting space of fruit tree, the appropriate size of greenhouses was suggested that the grape greenhouse be 7.0~8.0 m wide and 2.5~2.8 m high for eaves, while 6.0~7.0 m wide and 3.0~3.3 m of eaves height for the pear and peach greenhouses.

Pressure Drop Predictions Using Multiple Regression Model in Pulse Jet Type Bag Filter Without Venturi (다중회귀모형을 이용한 벤츄리가 없는 충격기류식 여과집진장치 압력손실 예측)

  • Suh, Jeong-Min;Park, Jeong-Ho;Cho, Jae-Hwan;Jin, Kyung-Ho;Jung, Moon-Sub;Yi, Pyong-In;Hong, Sung-Chul;Sivakumar, S.;Choi, Kum-Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.2045-2056
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    • 2014
  • In this study, pressure drop was measured in the pulse jet bag filter without venturi on which 16 numbers of filter bags (Ø$140{\times}850{\ell}$) are installed according to operation condition(filtration velocity, inlet dust concentration, pulse pressure, and pulse interval) using coke dust from steel mill. The obtained 180 pressure drop test data were used to predict pressure drop with multiple regression model so that pressure drop data can be used for effective operation condition and as basic data for economical design. The prediction results showed that when filtration velocity was increased by 1%, pressure drop was increased by 2.2% which indicated that filtration velocity among operation condition was attributed on the pressure drop the most. Pressure was dropped by 1.53% when pulse pressure was increased by 1% which also confirmed that pulse pressure was the major factor affecting on the pressure drop next to filtration velocity. Meanwhile, pressure drops were found increased by 0.3% and 0.37%, respectively when inlet dust concentration and pulse interval were increased by 1% implying that the effects of inlet dust concentration and pulse interval were less as compared with those changes of filtration velocity and pulse pressure. Therefore, the larger effect on the pressure drop the pulse jet bag filter was found in the order of filtration velocity($V_f$), pulse pressure($P_p$), inlet dust concentration($C_i$), pulse interval($P_i$). Also, the prediction result of filtration velocity, inlet dust concentration, pulse pressure, and pulse interval which showed the largest effect on the pressure drop indicated that stable operation can be executed with filtration velocity less than 1.5 m/min and inlet dust concentration less than $4g/m^3$. However, it was regarded that pulse pressure and pulse interval need to be adjusted when inlet dust concentration is higher than $4g/m^3$. When filtration velocity and pulse pressure were examined, operation was possible regardless of changes in pulse pressure if filtration velocity was at 1.5 m/min. If filtration velocity was increased to 2 m/min. operation would be possible only when pulse pressure was set at higher than $5.8kgf/cm^2$. Also, the prediction result of pressure drop with filtration velocity and pulse interval showed that operation with pulse interval less than 50 sec. should be carried out under filtration velocity at 1.5 m/min. While, pulse interval should be set at lower than 11 sec. if filtration velocity was set at 2 m/min. Under the conditions of filtration velocity lower than 1 m/min and high pulse pressure higher than $7kgf/cm^2$, though pressure drop would be less, in this case, economic feasibility would be low due to increased in installation and operation cost since scale of dust collection equipment becomes larger and life of filtration bag becomes shortened due to high pulse pressure.