• Title, Summary, Keyword: Design Characteristic

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Dose Distribution of Co-60 Photon Beam in Total Body Irradiation (Co-60에 의한 전신조사시 선량분포)

  • Kang, Wee-Saing
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 1991
  • Total body irradiation is operated to irradicate malignant cells of bone marrow of patients to be treated with bone marrow transplantation. Field size of a linear accelerator or cobalt teletherapy unit with normal geometry for routine technique is too small to cover whole body of a patient. So, any special method to cover patient whole body must be developed. Because such environments as room conditions and machine design are not universal, some characteristic method of TBI for each hospital could be developed. At Seoul National University Hospital, at present, only a cobalt unit is available for TBI because source head of the unit could be tilted. When the head is tilted outward by 90$^{\circ}$, beam direction is horizontal and perpendicular to opposite wall. Then, the distance from cobalt source to the wall was 319 cm. Provided that the distance from the wall to midsagittal plane of a patient is 40cm, nominal field size at the plane(SCD 279cm) is 122cm$\times$122cm but field size by measurement of exposure profile was 130cm$\times$129cm and vertical profile was not symmetric. That field size is large enough to cover total body of a patient when he rests on a couch in a squatting posture. Assuming that average lateral width of patients is 30cm, percent depth dose for SSD 264cm and nominal field size 115.5cm$\times$115.5cm was measured with a plane-parallel chamber in a polystyrene phantom and was linear over depth range 10~20cm. An anthropomorphic phantom of size 25cm wide and 30cm deep. Depth of dose maximum, surface dose and depth of 50% dose were 0.3cm, 82% and 16.9cm, respectively. A dose profile on beam axis for two opposing beams was uniform within 10% for mid-depth dose. Tissue phantom ratio with reference depth 15cm for maximum field size at SCD 279cm was measured in a small polystyrene phantom and was linear over depth range 10~20cm. An anthropomorphic phantom with TLD chips inserted in holes on the largest coronal plane was bilaterally irradiated by 15 minute in each direction by cobalt beam aixs in line with the cross line of the coronal plane and contact surface of sections No. 27 and 28. When doses were normalized with dose at mid-depth on beam axis, doses in head/neck, abdomen and lower lung region were close to reference dose within $\pm$ 10% but doses in upper lung, shoulder and pelvis region were lower than 10% from reference dose. Particulaly, doses in shoulder region were lower than 30%. On this result, the conclusion such that under a geometric condition for TBI with cobalt beam as SNUH radiotherapy departement, compensators for head/neck and lung shielding are not required but boost irradiation to shoulder is required could be induced.

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A basic research for evaluation of a Home Care Nursing Delivery System (가정간호 서비스 질 평가를 위한 도구개발연구)

  • Kim, Mo-Im;Cho, Won-Jung;Kim, Eui-Sook;Kim, Sung-Kyu;Chang, Soon-Bok;Ryu, Ho-Sihn
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.6
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    • pp.33-45
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a basic framework and criteria for evaluation of quality care provided to patients with the attributes of disease in the home care nursing field, and to provide measurement tools for home health care in the future. The study design was a developmental study for evaluation of hospital-based HCN(home care nursing) in Korea. The study process was as follows: a home care nursing study team of College of Nursing. Yonsei University reviewed the nursing records of 47 patients who were enrolled at Yonsei University Medical Center Home Care Center in March, 1995. Twenty-five patients were insured at that time, were selected from 47 patients receiving home care service for study feasibility with six disease groups; Caesarean Section (C/S), simple nephrectomy, Liver cirrhosis(LC), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), Lung cancer or cerebrovascular accident(CVA). In this study, the following items were selected : First step : Preliminary study 1. Criteria and items were selected on the basis of related literature on each disease area. 2. Items were identified by home care nurses. 3. A physician in charge reviewed the criteria and content of selected items. 4. Items were revised through preliminary study offered to both HCN patients and discharged patients from the home care center. Second step : Pretest 1. To verify the content of the items, a pretest was conducted with 18 patients of which there were three patients in each of the six selected disease groups. Third step : Test of reliability and validity of tools 1. Using the collected data from 25 patients with either cis, Simple nephrectomy, LC, COPD, Lung cancer, or CVA. the final items were revised through a panel discussion among experts in medical care who were researchers, doctors, or nurses. 2. Reliability and validity of the completed tool were verified with both inpatients and HCN patients in each of field for researches. The study results are as follows: 1. Standard for discharge with HCN referral The referral standard for home care, which included criteria for discharge with HCN referral and criteria leaving the hospital were established. These were developed through content analysis from the results of an open-ended questionnaire to related doctors concerning characteristic for discharge with HCN referral for each of the disease groups. The final criteria was decided by discussion among the researchers. 2. Instrument for measurement of health statusPatient health status was measured pre and post home care by direct observation and interview with an open-ended questionnaire which consisted of 61 items based on Gorden's nursing diagnosis classification. These included seven items on health knowledge and health management, eight items on nutrition and metabolism, three items on elimination, five items on activity and exercise, seven items on perception and cognition, three items on sleep and rest, three items on self-perception, three items on role and interpersonal relations, five items on sexuality and reproduction, five items on coping and stress, four items on value and religion, three items on family. and three items on facilities and environment. 3. Instrument for measurement of self-care The instrument for self-care measurement was classified with scales according to the attributes of the disease. Each scale measured understanding level and practice level by a Yes or No scale. Understanding level was measured by interview but practice level was measured by both observation and interview. Items for self-care measurement included 14 for patients with a CVA, five for women who had a cis, ten for patients with lung cancer, 12 for patients with COPD, five for patients with a simple nephrectomy, and 11 for patients with LC. 4. Record for follow-up management This included (1) OPD visit sheet, (2) ER visit form, (3) complications problem form, (4) readmission sheet. and (5) visit note for others medical centers which included visit date, reason for visit, patient name, caregivers, sex, age, time and cost required for visit, and traffic expenses, that is, there were open-end items that investigated OPD visits, emergency room visits, the problem and solution of complications, readmissions and visits to other medical institution to measure health problems and expenditures during the follow up period. 5. Instrument to measure patients satisfaction The satisfaction measurement instrument by Reisseer(1975) was referred to for the development of a tool to measure patient home care satisfaction. The instrument was an open-ended questionnaire which consisted of 11 domains; treatment, nursing care, information, time consumption, accessibility, rapidity, treatment skill, service relevance, attitude, satisfaction factors, dissatisfaction factors, overall satisfaction about nursing care, and others. In conclusion, Five evaluation instruments were developed for home care nursing. These were (1)standard for discharge with HCN referral. (2)instrument for measurement of health status, (3)instrument for measurement of self-care. (4)record for follow-up management, and (5)instrument to measure patient satisfaction. Also, the five instruments can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the service to assure quality. Further research is needed to increase the reliability and validity of instrument through a community-based HCN evaluation.

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A Study on the Visual Characteristics and The Principal of Formation of ChangSayng-Do in the Late Chosun Dynasty (조선 후기 장생도(長生圖)의 구성원리와 조형적 특성)

  • Kim Jun-Keun
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.8
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    • pp.63-94
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    • 2005
  • ChangSayng-Do in the late Chosun dynasty was a kind of traditional painting which sublimated the philosophy and emotion of everyday life into an aesthetic consciousness through a long history of Korean people . It would represent a human wish and desire to live a long and healthy life, which was implicated by way of Taoism. The major themes of ChangSayng-Do - mountains, the sun, cloud, water, rock, deer, tortoises, cranes, pine trees, bamboos, peaches, and herbs of eternal youth - were all symbols used. to wish for a long-life and immortality in real world. All or some of these items were represented in paintings, which resulted in the various kinds of ChangSayng-Do. The main concern of this thesis will be centered around the naturalistic subjects shown in ChangSayng-Do. This thesis consists of four chapters. The first chapter describes the purpose of and need for the research, and its method and scope. The second chapter deals with the origin and style of ChangSayng-Do, and the background of its formation. It is found out that the formative characteristic of ChangSayng-Do lies in the archetype, the unity of man and nature following the traditional view of nature. It is also found out that ChangSayng-Do implied the notions of Supernatural Being, Yin-Yang and Five Elements, Taoism, and Confucianism as well as Korean shamanism. Third chapter is largely about an analytic investigation into symbolic visualization of ChangSayng-Do. Firstly, the subject matters shown in ChangSayng-Do consist of items of wishful omen for long-life and good luck, and any motif in a picture implies a symbolism of eternal youth and long-life. Secondly, the view of colors shown in ChangSayng-Do is closely connected to Five Elements and Five Direction, a traditional oriental philosophy of universe, and these symbolic colors are based on shamanism and Yin/Yang-Five Elements. According to an iconological analysis, it is confirmed that these viewpoints are consistent with formative principles and expressive methods of ChangSayng-Do to some extent. The fourth chapter is one of the most important elements for visualization of ChangSayng-Do. The symbolic meaning of long life and good luck is the major source of its popularity inside the palace as well as among the people in general. The fact that ChangSayng-Do was used to ornament the palace was documented in $\lceil$UiGuey(documents about Chosun dynasty$\rfloor$. Also during the late period of Chosun dynasty, the appreciators of arts had begun to spread from high level class to lower level class, and many pictures represented in $\lceil$Hanyang-Ga$\rfloor$ were the ones produced and circulated for those increased consumers. As for the folk-artistic characteristics, the anonymity and arbitrary naturalness of ChangSayng-Do demonstrates that the folk-artistic elements were fully soaked into the life styles of people in general. ChangSayng-Do further shows that a human being is located in the center of the universe, and that all the natural phenomena and ecology are observed to happen around human beings, and that the results of those happenings are connected to man's course of life. It is discovered that the subject matters of ChangSayng-Do in the late Chosun dynasty imply another idea inside metaphors and symbols. With regard to the arrangement of time and space, the unity or oneness of oneself with the world is more highly regarded than one's individual subjectivity: there exist multiple times and spaces in a single picture This reveals a wholistic view of oneness which does not permit the division between phenomenon and substance. To conclude, this thesis inquired into ChangSayng-Do in the late Chosun dynasty focusing on the expression of archetype-symbols. And through the analysis and demonstration, this thesis re-established constructional principles and formative characteristics of ChangSayng-Do and then settled a new phase of ChangSayng-Do, with a deep under-standing of fundamental thoughts of Korean people underlying ChangSayng-Do.

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Development and Application of Home Economics Teacher Training Program for Elevating The Recognition of Han Culture - Based on Clothing Life Culture in Three Kingdoms Period - (한(韓)문화 인식 증진을 위한 가정과교사 연수 프로그램의 개발 및 적용 - 의생활 문화 영역 삼국 시대 복식을 중심으로 -)

  • Bae, Hyun-Young;Park, Mi-Jeong;Lee, Hye-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.33-50
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted as a preparation for the operation of 2007 revised curriculum and an effort towards professional development for Home Economics teachers in clothing life culture area. The aim of this study was to develop an teacher training program based on the clothing life culture in three kingdoms period, apply it to teacher training, and evaluate the program by analyzing the purpose of participation, trainee expectation and gratification, change of recognition level about Han culture, trainee satisfaction, and willingness to apply to teaching and attend further training program. The characteristic of the training program was that it consisted of both highly qualified lectures on professional contents and practices with school classroom level, and it dealt with the ancient korean clothing as its central subject. The purpose of the training program was to elevate the recognition of Han culture and increase the possibility of application in the classroom situation. It showed that the trainees participated with high intrinsic motivations, aiming to improve their professionalism in subject content and expecting various subject content. It also showed that the trainee gratification was very high in professional knowledge of clothing culture area, and the trainees were gratified in most evaluation items. As to the recognition level of korean culture, even before the training program, it was generally higher than average. After the program, it increased meaningfully. Through the training program, the trainees became feel prouder of Han culture and people and themselves as Home economics teachers. The contents of the program were considered very helpful for the improvement of professionalism and the design of instruction and learning activity. It was revealed that Home Economics teachers had very high expectations of the development of instruction-learning models which could enable them to experience new and interesting ideas, help enhance their professionalism, and be applied to their teaching. Therefore, continuous development and operation of the teacher training program relating to the life culture such as clothing, food, and housing life are needed.

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Experiment of Flexural Behavior of Composite Beam with Steel Fiber Reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete Deck and Inverted-T Steel Girder (강섬유로 보강된 초고성능 콘크리트 바닥판과 역T형 강거더 합성보의 휨거동 실험)

  • Yoo, Sung-Won;Ahn, Young-Sun;Cha, Yeong-Dal;Joh, Chang-Bin
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.761-769
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    • 2014
  • Ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) has been developed to overcome the low strengths and brittleness of conventional concrete. Considering that UHPC, owing to its composition and the use of steel fibers, develops a compressive strength of 180 MPa as well as high stiffness, the top flange of the steel girder may be superfluous in the composite beam combining a slab made of UHPC and the steel girder. In such composite beam, the steel girder takes the form of an inverted-T shaped structure without top flange in which the studs needed for the composition of the steel girder with the UHPC slab are disposed in the web of the steel girder. This study investigates experimentally and analytically the flexural behavior of this new type of composite beam to propose details like stud spacing and slab thickness for further design recommendations. To that goal, eight composite beams with varying stud spacing and slab thickness were fabricated and tested. The test results indicated that stud spacing running from 100 mm to 2 to 3 times the slab thickness can be recommended. In view of the relative characteristic slip limit of Eurocode-4, the results showed that the composite beam developed ductile behavior. Moreover, except for the members with thin slab and large stud spacing, most of the specimens exhibited results different to those predicted by AASHTO LRFD and Eurocode-4 because of the high performance developed by UHPC.

Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Composite Beam with Steel Fiber Reinforced Ultra High Performance Concrete Deck and Inverted-T Shaped Steel with Tension Softening Behavior (인장연화거동을 고려한 강섬유 보강 초고성능 콘크리트 바닥판과 역T형 강재 합성보의 휨거동 해석)

  • Yoo, Sung-Won;Yang, In-Hwan;Jung, Sang-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2015
  • Ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) has been developed to overcome the low tensile strengths and brittleness of conventional concrete. Considering that UHPC, owing to its composition and the use of steel fibers, develops a compressive strength of 180 MPa as well as high stiffness, the top flange of the steel girder may be superfluous in the composite beam combining a slab made of UHPC and the steel girder. In such composite beam, the steel girder takes the form of an inverted-T shaped structure without top flange in which the studs needed for the composition of the steel girder with the UHPC slab are disposed in the web of the steel girder. This study investigates experimentally and analytically the flexural behavior of this new type of composite beam to propose details like stud spacing and slab thickness for further design recommendations. To that goal, eight composite beams with varying stud spacing and slab thickness were fabricated and tested. The test results indicated that stud spacing running from 100 mm to 2 to 3 times the slab thickness can be recommended. In view of the relative characteristic slip limit of Eurocode-4, the results showed that the composite beam developed ductile behavior. Moreover, except for the members with thin slab and large stud spacing, most of the specimens exhibited results different to those predicted by AASHTO LRFD and Eurocode-4 because of the high performance developed by UHPC.

A Study on History and Archetype Technology of Goli-su in Korea (한국 고리수의 역사와 원형기술의 복원 연구)

  • Kim, Young-ran
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2013
  • Goli-su is the innovative special kind of the embroidery technique, which combines twining and interlacing skill with metal technology and makes the loops woven to each other with a strand. The loops floating on the space of the ground look like floating veins of sculpture and give people the feeling of the openwork. This kind of characteristic has some similarities with the lacework craft of Western Europe in texture and technique style, but it has its own features different from that of Western Europe. It mainly represents the splendid gloss with metallic materials in the Embroidered cloth, such as gold foil or wire. In the 10th century, early days of Goryo, we can see the basic Goli-su structure form of its initial period in the boy motif embroidery purse unearthed from the first level of Octagonal Nine-storied Pagoda of Woljeong-sa. In the Middle period of Joseon, there are several pieces of Goli-su embroidered relic called "Battle Flag of Goryo", which was taken by the Japanese in 1592 and is now in the Japanese temple. This piece is now converted into altar-table covers. In 18~19th century, two pairs of embroidered pillows in Joseon palace were kept intact, whose time and source are very accurate. The frame of the pillows was embroidered with Goli-su veins, and some gold foil papers were inserted into the inside. The triangle motif with silk was embroidered on the pillow. The stitch in the Needle-Looped embroidery is divided into three kinds according to comprehensive classification: 1. Goli-su ; 2. Goli-Kamgi-su ; 3. Goli-Saegim-su. From the 10th century newly establishing stage to the 13th century, Goli-su has appeared variational stitches and employed 2~3 dimensional color schemes gradually. According to the research of this thesis, we can still see this stitch in the embroidery pillow, which proves that Goli-suwas still kept in Korea in the 19th century. And in terms of the research achievement of this thesis, Archetype technology of Goli-su was restored. Han Sang-soo, Important Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 80 and Master of Embroidery already recreated the Korean relics of Goli-su in Joseon Dynasty. The Needle-Looped embriodery is the overall technological result of ancestral outstanding Metal craft, Twining and Interlacing craft, and Embroidery art. We should inherit, create, and seek the new direction in modern multi-dimensional and international industry societyon the basis of these research results. We can inherit the long history of embroidering, weaving, fiber processing, and expand the applications of other craft industries, and develop new advanced additional values of new dress material, fashion technology, ornament craft and artistic design. Thus, other crafts assist each other and broaden the expressive field to pursue more diversified formative beauty and beautify our life abundantly together.

Effects of high energy diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood constituents of final fattening Hanwoo steers (고에너지 사양이 비육후기 거세한우의 성장, 도체, 및 혈액성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Ki Yong;Chang, Sun Sik;Lee, Eun Mi;Kim, Hyun Ju;Park, Bo Hye;Kwon, Eung Gi
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high energy diet on growth 26mon, 28mon, and 30mon in Hanwoo at different ages. High energy diet required not only an amount of concentrate on days of fattening periods but also induced cost for the management. We hypothesized that high energy diet was able to reduce a fattening period to reach a certain quality grade. A $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement (High energy, control vs 26, 28, 30month endpoints) in a completely random design was used to feed 48 Hanwoo steers. Four steers were fed in same pen and 12 pens were used for treatment. Blood was drawn from each steers on every other months during early, middle, and final fattening periods. Over all ADG and feed efficiency were not different between high energy and control diet (P > 0.05). Dry matter intake was induced 30 mo-old early and final fattening periods at high energy diet. Serum glucose concentration were increased (P < 0.05) at 30 and 26month old steers. Marbling scores were greater at 30 month old than 26 and 28 month old Hanwoo steers. Carcass weight of Hanwoo steers were greater at 30 mon-old groups than other groups. These result indicated that high energy diet (+3% TDN) and slaughter endpoint collectively contribute to the observed quality grade compositional differences among three final fattening periods of Hanwoo steers.

Grain-Size Trend Analysis for Identifying Net Sediment Transport Pathways: Potentials and Limitations (퇴적물 이동경로 식별을 위한 입도경향 분석법의 가능성과 한계)

  • Kim, Sung-Hwan;Rhew, Ho-Sahng;Yu, Keun-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.469-487
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    • 2007
  • Grain-Size Trend Analysis is the methodology to identify net sediment transport pathways, based on the assumption that the movement of sediment from the source to deposit leaves the identifiable spatial pattern of mean, sorting, and skewness of grain size. It can easily be implemented with low cost, so it has great potentials to contribute to geomorphological research, whereas it can also be used inadequately without recognition of its limitations. This research aims to compare three established methods of grain-size trend analysis to search for the adequate way of application, and also suggest the research tasks needed in improving this methodology 1D pathway method can corporate the field experience into analyzing the pathway, provide the useful information of depositional environments through X-distribution, and identify the long-term trend effectively. However, it has disadvantage of the dependence on subjective interpretation, and a relatively coarse temporal scale. Gao-Collins's 2D transport vector method has the objective procedure, has the capability to visualize the transport pattern in 2D format, and to identify the pattern at a finer temporal scale, whereas characteristic distance and semiquantitative filtering are controversial. Le Roux's alternative 2D transport vector method has two improvement of Gao-Collins's in that it expands the empirical rules, considers the gradient of each parameters as well as the order, and has the ability to identify the pattern at a finer temporal scale, while the basic concepts are arbitrary and complicated. The application of grain sire trend analysis requires the selection of adequate method and the design of proper sampling scheme, based on the field knowledge of researcher, the temporal scale of sediment transport pattern targeted, and information needed. Besides, the relationship between the depth of sample and representative temporal scale should be systematically investigated in improving this methodology.

The Landscape Meaning and Literary Group Culture Carved in Danguedae and Samgaeseokmun of Imshil (임실(任實) 단구대(丹丘臺)와 삼계석문(三溪石門)에 새긴 의미경관과 단구구로회(丹丘九老會)의 아회(雅會)문화)

  • Lee, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Jung-Han;Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.170-181
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    • 2011
  • This Research will explore the meaning indicated in the landscape meaning and feature of literary group culture, focusing in Gurujeong(九老亭: pavilion for nine elders) and Samgaeseokmun(三溪石門: stone gate in three valleys) located in Dundeok-myun, Imshil-gun, and will seek to understand the implications by studying the cultural landscape spread out in the area. The place where Gurojeong and Samgaeseokmun is located is the meeting point of the three valleys, Dunnam stream, Osu stream, and Yul stream, which is the main location to view the beautiful scenery, which has the nickname as the dwelling place of a celestial being. Especially, based on the description of old maps, "Samgae(three valleys)" and "Samgaeseokmun" possesses significance as a landmark and shows a characteristic feature of landscape structures of low hills. Dangugurohwe(丹丘九老會: nine elders gathering on the dwelling of a celestial being) originated from Hyangsangurohwe(香山九老會: gathering of nine elders on a fragrant mountain), where Baekgeoi(白居易) of China was one of the main people. This group was organized by nine elders over the age of 60 desiring to view the scenery of Doyeonmyeong. The group enhanced the literary spirit on the low hill, erecting a tower, and enjoying the beautiful scenery changing every season with scholars from the same region. This phenomenon seems to have been formed upon the positive response to gatherings of elders, which were prevalent in the Joseon Dynasty. If the internal idea pursued by the group was "longevity," the external idea pursued can be summarized as "the spirit the respect for the elders." Naming the groups as 'Dangudae(place where the celestial being lives), Guseondong(valley of seeking a celestial life), Bangjangsan(mountain of a high priest), and Daecheondae(place of communicating with God) was likely a device to introspect oneself and symbolize one's life process. Furthermore, the reason Samgaeseokmun, which is an imitation of Choi, Chiwon's work, was built near Soyocheo, was probably to yearn the celestial land and based on the desire to follow Choi, Chiwon, who was the most self-fulfilling being presumed to have become a celestial being by practicing the pursuit of freedom, escaping from the reality. After tracing the symbolizing meaning of the four letters carved in the left side of the stone wall of Dangudae, the conclusion that this place was not only a place for literary gatherings of the nine elders of Saseong(four families), but was a place where the celestial being dwelled could be inferred. Corresponding with Dangudae and Gurojeong, which are places where the order of human and nature is harmonized and where its meaning associated with the location intensifies, arouses strong bond, can be said to be the symbol of the traces of celestial beings where the spirits of attachment to a certain place is embedded. The acts performed in Dangugurohwe were those of traditional leisure including strolling, viewing the scenery, drinking, composing poems, and playing instruments, and sometimes listening to stories, tea ceremony, prayers, and fishing were added, which indicates that the gathering had a strong tendency towards pastoral and hermit life.