• Title, Summary, Keyword: Derived release limits

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Determination of Derived Release Limits for a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (CANDU형 원전에서의 유도방출한도 결정)

  • Kim, Kyo-Youn;Hwang, Hae-Ryong;Kim, Jong-Kyung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 1994
  • A computer code DRL was developed to calculate the derived release limits at CANDU type nuclear power plants. The derived release limits resulting from DRL code is to set guidelines for the release of radionuclides in airborne and water-borne effuents during normal operations of a CANDU type nuclear power plant. The DRL code generally follows the methodology Prescribed in the CSA standard N288.1-M87 and uses the Parameter values recommended in the same standards. The DRL code was used to calculate a set of preliminary derived release limits for the Wolsong NPP.

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Review on the Management for Radioactive Effluent and Methodology for Setting of Derived Release Limits at Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in Korea (중수로원전 방사성유출물 관리와 유도배출한계 설정방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2010
  • The radioactive effluents from pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) are relatively larger than those from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Futhermore, radioactive effluents from PHWRs are released continuously. Thus, the discharge of radioactive effluents is strictly controlled. To do this, radiation detectors are installed at stacks of reactor buildings to monitor the concentration of radioactive effluents in real-time. Derived release limits (DRLs) of annual discharge are also set up for each radionuclide and effluents are rigidly controlled not to exceed those limits. In this paper, the discharge process of radioactive effluents, the standard for establishment of DRL and its methodology, and currents status for PHWRs were reviewed.

A Study on Annual Release Objectives and Annual Release Limits of Gaseous Effluents During Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants (원전 해체 시 기체상 유출물의 연간 방출관리치 및 방출한도치에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Hee;Hwang, Won-Tae;Kim, Chang-Lak
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.299-311
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    • 2019
  • Decommissioning is a critical issue in Korea. Although compared with the operation of nuclear power plants the release of radioactive materials during decommissioning is not expected to be significant, residents should always be protected from radiation exposure. To manage this effectively, Annual Release Objectives (ARO) and Annual Release Limits (ARL) were derived from dose standards in the NSSC Notice and dose limit for the public. Based on meteorological data for the three years from 2008 to 2010 in the Shin Kori nuclear power plant site, atmospheric dispersion and ground deposition factors of gaseous effluent were evaluated using the XOQDOQ computer code. The exposure dose was evaluated using the ENDOS-G computer code. Because of differences in radiological sensitivity according to age groups, the results of Annual Release Objectives (ARO) and Annual Release Limits (ARL) showed significant differences depending on the radionuclides. The evaluation methodology of this study will provide meaningful information for radioactive effluent management for decommissioning of nuclear power plants.

Determination of Derived Release Limits by the Concentration Factor Method (농축인자법에 의한 유도방출 기준 설정)

  • Byung Woo Kim;Byeung Kyu Kim;Jeong Ho Lee
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.267-278
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    • 1985
  • Some kinds of methods have been applied to regulate the exposure doses by the radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants. The essential one is primary dose equivalent limit recommended by the ICRP. When the primary limit cannot be applied directly for regulation, there have been dose equivalent index in case of external exposure, or maximum permissible concentration, annual limit on intake, derived air concentration and maximum permissible body burden in case of internal exposure. But the derived limit is required from the viewpoint of discharge, for those values are inadequate to control discharge rate directly. This study was carried out to derive the release limit for the Wolsung nuclear power plant by the concentration factor method. This method is based on the assumption of steady state transfer between environment compartments.

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Establishment of Release Limits for Airborne Effluent into the Environment Based on ALARA Concept (ALARA 개념(槪念)에 의한 기체상방사성물질(氣體狀放射性物質)의 환경방출한도(環境放出限度) 설정(設定))

  • Lee, Byung-Ki;Cha, Moon-Hoe;Nam, Soon-Kwon;Chang, Si-Young;Ha, Chung-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.50-63
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    • 1985
  • A derivation of new release limit, named Derived Release Limit(DRL), into the atomsphere from a reference nuclear power plant has been performed on the basis of the new system of dose limitation recommended by the ICRP, instead of the (MPC)a limit which has been currently used until now as a general standard for radioactive effluents in Korea. In DRL Calculation, a Concentration Factor Method was applied, in which the concentrations of long-term routinely released radionuclides were in equilibrium with dose in environment under the steady state condition. The analytical model used in the exposure pathway analysis was the one which has been suggested by the USNRC and the exposure limits applied in this analysis were those recommended by the USEPA lately. In the exposure pathway analysis, all of the pathways are not considered and some may be excluded either because they are not applicable or their contribution to the exposure is insignificant compared with other pathways. In case, the environmental model developed in this study was applied to the Kori nuclear power plant as the reference power plant, the highest DRL value was calculated to be as $9.10{\times}10^6Ci/yr$ for Kr-85 in external whole body exposure from the semi-infinite radioactive cloud, while the lowest DRL value was observed 3.64Ci/yr for Co-60 in external whole body exposure from the contaminated ground, by the radioactive particulates. The most critical exposure pathway to an individual in the unrestricted area of interest (Kilchun-Ri, 1.3 km to the north of the release point) seems to be the exposure pathway from the contaminated ground and the most critical radionuclide in all pathways appears to be Co-60 in the same pathway. When comparing the actual release rate from KNU-l in 1982 with the DRL's obtained here the release of radionuclides from KNU-1 were much lower than the DRL's and it could be conclued that the exposure to an individual had been kept below the exposure limits recommended by the USEPA.

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Study on Radioactive Contamination of Plant Nearby Nuclear Power Plant - Focused on Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Viburnum awabuki K. KOCH - (원전주변 지역 식물의 방사능 오탁에 관한 연구 - 해송과 아왜나무를 대상으로 -)

  • Kang, Tai-Ho;Zhao, Hong-Xia;Jeong, Jin-Wook;Kook, Seong-Do
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2013
  • Generally, the radioactivity from NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) operation can be released below 3% of DRLs(Derived Release Limits) to environment. It was tried to understand which plant was efficient for absorbing radioactivity in this study. Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Viburnum awabuki K. KOCH were analyzed for radioisotope absorption. The samples were collected at three different locations depending on the distance from NPP at the vicinity 10km away, and 30km away. Gamma radionuclide was not detected from the samples, which means that the direct transition into the plant was not significant. Meanwhile, the very low level of radioactive tritium was detected in the samples. One remark was that every plant has different ability for tritium absorption. These results are expected to be applied to propagation and transplanting in radioactively contaminated area or reducing radioactivity in the soil and water near the plants.

The Study on the Characteristics of Design through Issey Miyake's Fashion Philosophy (이세이 미야케의 패션철학을 통해 나타난 디자인 특징에 관한 연구)

  • 김미성;배수정
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this paper is to classify fashion and trend, and examine how his fashionable philosophy reflects design. What affects his fashion philosophy is Western culture and Paris Revolution. Taking this opportunity, he outgrew the concept of haute couture and established specific fashion philosophy. His fashion philosophy is classified under consideration for women, respect for free emotions, recognition of tradition, and an active intercourse with many people. The characteristics of design through his philosophy are as following: 1. He wanted to release women from clothing restrained the body and make comfortable clothing which everyone can wear. This implies the consideration for women. It is the characteristics of his design to the harmony of functionality, simplicity, decoration and popularity. 2. He respected the free emotions and induced people to wear each parts of clothing which is dismantled freely within the limits coincided with clothing teleology-'wear', It implies autonomy. He also unfolded experimental design: gives the regular space between the clothing and the body and then distorts the body or maximizes modeling. It implies the beauty of space. 3. He elicited the modern design through recognition of tradition. It implies contemporaneousness. 4, As he thought that all of the concepts is based on human, he derived inspiration firm an active intercourse with many people, He established a new style through an active intercourse with artists because if he works alone, he would rise above the popular trend, It comes to the gest artist serieE and implies popularity, The characteristics of design in his fashion philosophy is classified into experimental design and practical design. But the important factor of his fashion philosophy is popularity so he would like to make popular clothing. He designs clothing which fit the public. It results from his firm fashion philosophy that his clothing is practical and decorative and he establishes his works meeting needs of modern. It is the reason that his clothing has perpetuity.