• Title, Summary, Keyword: Denitrification

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Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in a Fluidized Biofilm Reactor with a Hollow Fiber Double Layer Biofilm Media (이중층 중공사 생물막 담체를 이용한 유동층 생물막 반응기에서의 동시 질산화와 탈질)

  • 이수철;이현용;김동진
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.514-520
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    • 2000
  • Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification of ammonia and organic compounds-containing wastewater were performed in a fluidized bed biofilm reactor with polysulfone(PS) hollow fiber as a double layer biomass carrier. The PS hollow fiber fragment has both aerobic and anoxic environments for the nitrifiaction and denitrification at the shell and lumen-side respectively. The reactor system showed about 80% nitrification efficiency stably throughout the ammonia load conditions applied in the experiment. Denitrification efficiency depended on organic load and C/N ratio. High free ammonia concentration and low dissolved oxygen resulted in nitrite accumulation which leads to enhance organic carbon efficiency in denitrification when compared to nitrate denitrification. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification reactor system has an economic advantages in reduced chemical cost of organic carbon for denitrification as well as compact reactor configuration.

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Study on the Characteristics of Nitrification and Denitrification using Attached Microorganism (부착성 미생물을 이용한 질산화 및 탈질특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Moonsun;Lee, Euisin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1994
  • In this research, characteristics of nitrification and denitrification using the microorganism attached on sponge and plates were examined. The denitrification and nitrification performance were investigated under the anaerobic and aerobic condition for about 2 months. Because the basins of denitrification and nitrification were connected in series, wastewater was flowed from denitrification basin to nitrification one. The 90% of influent flowrate was returned from nitrification basin to denitrification one. Most of organic material was removed in nitrification basin, wherease the only exact amount of organics required in denitrification process was removed in denitrification one. This experiment resulted in that heterotrophic bacteria existing in aerobic basin governed the removal efficiency of organic compounds. In case the influent BOD concentration into nitrification basin was 80mg/l, it did not affect to accumulation of nitrifying bacteria, the balance of heterotrophic bacteria was proved to be an important factor in nitrification/denitrification method such as anaerobic and aerobic cycling type.

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Denitrification potential of riparian sediments amended with organic substrates

  • Kim, Haryun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2014
  • Denitrification permanently removes nitrate from aquatic ecosystems, so construction of denitrification walls to enhance denitrification activity is often suggested to reduce the nitrate levels from tributary ecosystems. However, little information is available to guide the choice of appropriate organic materials for increasing denitrification rates in the walls. This study investigated how differences in organic substrates originating from litter and organic materials affected denitrification and carbon mineralization rates in riparian sediments. Potential denitrification rates were highest in riparian sediments that contained large quantities of extractable organic carbon (Ext. Org C) and that had high anaerobic carbon mineralization rates, but they were negatively correlated with C:N ratios. Therefore, this research suggested that the both carbon quantity and quality should be considered when assessing the efficiency of organic substrates to remove nitrate from tributary ecosystems.

Membrane Diffuser Coupled Bioreactor for Methanotrophic Denitrification under Non-aerated Condition: Suggestion as a Post-denitrification Option

  • Lee, Kwanhyoung;Choi, Oh Kyung;Song, Ji Hyun;Lee, Jae Woo
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2014
  • Methanotrophic denitrification under a non-aerated condition (without external supply of oxygen or air) was investigated in a bioreactor coupled with a membrane diffuser. Batch experiment demonstrated that both methane consumption and nitrogen production rates were not high in the absence of oxygen, but most of the nitrate was reduced into $N_2$ with 88% recovery efficiency. The methane utilized for nitrate reduction was determined at 1.63 mmol $CH_4$/mmol $NO_3{^-}$-N, which was 2.6 times higher than the theoretical value. In spite of no oxygen supply, methanotrophic denitrification was well performed in the bioreactor, due to enhanced mass transfer of the methane by the membrane diffuser and utilization of oxygen remaining in the influent. The denitrification efficiency and specific denitrification rate were 47% and 1.69 mg $NO_3{^-}-N/g\;VSS{\cdot}hr$, respectively, which were slightly lower than for methanotrophic denitrification under an aerobic condition. The average concentration of total organic carbon in the effluent was as low as 2.45 mg/L, which indicates that it can be applicable as a post-denitrification method for the reclamation of secondary wastewater effluent. The dominant fatty acid methyl ester of mixed culture in the bioreactor was $C_{16:1{\omega}7c}$ and $C_{18:1{\omega}7c}$, which was predominantly found in type I and II methanotrophs, respectively. This study presents the potential of methanotrophic denitrification without externally excess oxygen supply as a post-denitrification option for various water treatment or reclamation.

The Effect of Geological Media on the Denitrification of Nitrate in Subsurface Environments (지중환경 내 지질 매체가 질산염의 탈질 반응에 미치는 영향에 대한 고찰)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hun;Lee, Woo-Chun;Lee, Sang-Woo;Kim, Soon-Oh
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.25 no.2_spc
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    • pp.16-27
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    • 2020
  • Nitrate contamination has received much attention at local as well as regional scales. The domestic situation is not out of exception, and it has been reported to be very serious, particularly within agricultural areas as a result of excessive usage of nitrogen fertilizers. Meanwhile, nitrate can be naturally attenuated by denitrification in subsurface environments. The denitrification occurs through biotic (biological) and abiotic processes, and numerous previous studies preferentially focused the former. However, abiotic denitrification seems to be significant in specific environments. For this reason, this study reviewed the previous studies that focused on abiotic denitrification processes. Firstly, the current status of nitrate contamination in global and domestic scales is presented, and then the effect of geological media on denitrification is discussed while emphasizing the significance of abiotic processes. Finally, the implications of the literature review are presented, along with future research directions that warrant further investigations. The results of previous studies demonstrated that several geological agents could play a vital role in reducing nitrate. Iron-containing minerals such as pyrite, green rust, magnetite, and dissolved ferrous ion are known to be powerful electron donors triggering denitrification. In particular, it was proven that the rate of denitrification by green rust was comparative to that of biological denitrification. The results indicate that abiotic denitrification should be taken into account for more accurate evaluation of denitrification in subsurface environments.

A Use of Heterotrophic Denitrification for the Supply of Alkalinity during Sulfur-utilizing Autotrophic Denitrification (황-이용 독립영양 탈질시 알칼리도 저감을 위한 종속영양 탈질의 이용방안)

  • Lee, Dong-Uk;Park, Jae-Hong;Bae, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1995-2005
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    • 2000
  • The use of heterotrophic denitrification as an alternative method for supplying alkalinity during sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification was evaluated by examining the effects of external carbon source (both type and concentration) and HRT on denitrification efficiency. Concentrations of $NO_3{^-}-N$ and $COD_{Cr}$ of nitrified landfill leachate used for experiment were 700-900mg/L and 900-2500mg/L. respectively, All experiment was conducted with sulfur packed bed reactors (SPBRs) which were operated at $35^{\circ}C$. The fraction of $NO_3{^-}-N$ removed by heterotrophic denitrification ($HDNR_{fraction}$) to balance the alkalinity consumption by autotrophic denitrification varied with the type of external carbon source. When methanol and sodium acetate was added at theoretical HDNRfraction value. 100% denitrification was achieved without alkalinity addition. However, glucose and molasses require $HDNR_{fraction}$ value greater than theoretical value for complete denitrification. The EBCT and volumetric loading rate at which 100% denitrification efficiency could be achieved were 6.76 h and $2.84kg-NO_3{^-}-N/m^3{\cdot}d$, respectively, based on the fact that 100% denitrification occurred within the bottom 11.5 cm layer of the SPBR. The maximum nitrogen removal rate occurred with 89% removal efficiency at loading rate of $5.05kg-NO_3{^-}-N/m^3{\cdot}d$. However, at short EBCT, clogging of SPBR was observed with excess growth of heterotrophic denitrifiers. This problem may be eliminated by back washing or by separating of heterotrophic denitrification from sulfur-utilizing denitrification.

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Treatment of Landfill Leachate using H2O2/O3 AOP and UASB Process (I) - Treatment Characteristics of Leachate depending on H2O2/O3 AOP Pretreatment and Available Nitrogen Form - (H2O2/O3 AOP와 UASB 공정을 이용한 매립지 침출수 처리(I) - H2O2/O3 AOP 전처리 및 질소원에 따른 침출수별 처리특성 -)

  • Jeong, Seung Hyun;Jeong, Byung Gon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.643-650
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    • 2005
  • In order to treat leachate from aged landfill site effectively, removal of biologically recalcitrant organic matter and denitrification efficiency were evaluated through the combination of $H_2O_2/O_3$ AOP pretreatment process and UASB process. The results can be summarized as follows. In case of leachate having low COD/N ratio from aged landfill site, it is possible to increase available COD for denitrification in nitrate utilizing denitrification and nitrite utilizing denitrification both by enhancing biodegradability of recalcitrant organic matter as applying $H_2O_2/O_3$ AOP to pretreatment process. In this experiment, it is found that available COD for denitrification can be increased to 1.0 and 0.4 g/day, respectively. Comparison has been made between requiring COD and available COD for denitrification in each experimental stages. It is expected that high rate of denitrification can be achieved with leachate from young landfill site because higher amount of available COD for denotrification is present in the leachate than the amount of requiring COD for denitrification. Especially, In leachate from aged landfill site with low COD/N ratio, it can be concluded that denitrification using nitrite nitrogen can enhance overall denitrification performance efficiently because denitrification using nitrite nitrogen requires less amount of carbon source than denitrification using nitrate nitrogen. Comparing the biogas production rate and nitrogen content of biogas under the condition of same amount of nitrate and nitrite addition, biogas production and nitrogen content of biogas are increased during denitrification after $H_2O_2/O_3$ AOP pretreatment process. Therefore, it can be confirmed that COD/N ratio in the leachate is increased. Applying $H_2O_2/O_3$ AOP as pretreatment system of landfill leachate seems to have little economic benefit because it requires additional carbon source to denitrify ammonia nitrogen in leachate coming from aged landfill site. However, it is possible to apply this pretreatment process to leachate from old landfill site in view of AOP process can achieve removal of biologically recalcitrant organic matter and increase of available COD for denitrification simultaneously.

High-Rate Nitrogen Removal using a Submerged Module of Sulfur-Utilizing Denitrification (침지형 황 탈질 모듈을 이용한 고속의 질소제거)

  • Moon, Jin-Young;Hwang, Yong-Woo;Ga, Mi-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.429-437
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    • 2007
  • This study aims to develop a sulfur-using denitrification process which is possible a renovation to advanced treatment plant submerging a simple module in activated sludge aeration tank. At first, the impact factor of sulfur-using denitrification was appreciated by the batch test. Secondly, reflecting a dissolved oxygen effect of sulfur-using denitrification that was confirmed by the batch test, in a continuous nitrification/sulfur-using denitrification, high-rate nitrogen removal reaction was induced at optimum condition controlling DO concentration according to phases. Also, inside and outside of sulfur-using denitrification module was covered with microfilter and the module was considered as an alternative of clarifier. Result of batch test for sulfur-using denitrification, $NO_2{^-}N$ was lower for consumption of alkalinity and sulfur than that of $NO_3{^-}-N$. These results revealed the accordance of theoretical prediction. In continuous nitrification/sulfur-using denitrification experiment, actual wastewater was used as a influent, and influent nitrogen loading rates were increased 0.04, 0.07, 0.11, $0.14kg\;N/m^3-day$ by changing hydraulic retention times. At this time, nitrogen loading rates of packed sulfur were increased 0.23, 0.46, 0.69, $0.93kg\;N/m^3-day$. As a result, nitrification efficiency was about 100% and denitrification efficiency was 93, 81, 79, 72%. Accordingly, nitrogen removal was a high-rate. Also the module of sulfur-using denitrification covered with microfilter did not make a fouling phenomena according to increased flux. And the module was achieved effluent suspended solids of below 10 mg/L without a clarifier. In conclusion, it is possible a renovation to advanced treatment plant submerging a simple module packed sulfur in activated sludge aeration tank of traditional facilities. And the plant used the module packed sulfur is expected as a effective facilities of high-rate and the smallest.

Denitrification of Piggery Wastewater by Internal Carbon Source (내부탄소원을 이용한 돈사폐수의 탈질화)

  • Rim, Jay-Myoung;Han, Dong-Joon;Woo, Young-Gug
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.16
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 1996
  • This research aims to investigate the effects of an internal carbon source in the denitrification of piggery wastewater. In this study, the raw wastewater and the effluent from each of anoxic basin and anaerobic basin were used as the internal carbon sources. The experiments were carried out in batch system and the results are as follows ; i) Denitrification rates were the highest in the raw wastewater and the lowest in the anaerobic effluent. ii) The piggery wastewater contained about 60 percent of the readily biodegradable organic(RDCOD), which led to a conclusion that the raw wastewater could be used as the internal carbon source for the denitrification. For the efficient denitrification, pre-denitrification process was found profitable. iii) In denitrification, alkalinity production rates were in the range of 3.4 to $3.6mgCaCO_3/mgNO_3-N$. iv) The denitritation of piggery wastewater came out to be possible, and the rate of organic carbon consumption decreased about 10 percent.

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A study on characteristics analysis of autotrophic denitrification microbial community using sulfur granule (황입자를 이용한 독립영양탈질 미생물 군집분포 특성분석에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Su-chul;Joo, Jae-young;Nam, Duck-hyun;Park, Chul-hwi
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.673-679
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    • 2008
  • The representative microorganism of autotrophic denitrification using sulfur granule, oxidizes the reduction from S and performs denitrification by reducing $NO_3{^-}-N$ to $N_2$ gas. The sampling of autotrophic denitrification microorganisms has been performed from foreshore sludge, condensed sludge, and active sludge, but the analysis of autotrophic denitrification microbial community characteristics has been lacking. Based on the separation and identification of each sample using the PCR and DGGE methodologies, many types of sulfuric microorganisms and autotrophic denitrification microorganisms were found.