• Title, Summary, Keyword: Demand Paging

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Worst Case Response Time Analysis for Demand Paging on Flash Memory (플래시 메모리를 사용하는 demand paging 환경에서의 태스크 최악 응답 시간 분석)

  • Lee, Young-Ho;Lim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2006
  • Flash memory has been increasingly used in handhold devices not only for data storage, but also for code storage. Because NAND flash memory only provides sequential access feature, a traditionally accepted solution to execute the program from NAND flash memory is shadowing. But, shadowing has significant drawbacks increasing a booting time of the system and consuming severe DRAM space. Demand paging has obtained significant attention for program execution from NAND flash memory. But. one of the issues is that there has been no effort to bound demand paging cost in flash memory and to analyze the worst case performance of demand paging. For the worst case timing analysis of programs running from NAND flash memory. the worst case demand paging costs should be estimated. In this paper, we propose two different WCRT analysis methods considering demand paging costs, DP-Pessimistic and DP-Accurate, depending on the accuracy and the complexity of analysis. Also, we compare the accuracy butween DP-Pessimistic and DP-Accurate by using the simulation.

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Analysis of demand paging Cost for Flash Memory-based Real-Time Embedded Systems (NAND 플래시 메모리 기반의 실시간 임베디드 시스템에서의 demand paging 비용 분석)

  • Lee, Young-Ho;Lim, Sung-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.445-450
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    • 2007
  • NAND 플래시 메모리 기반의 실시간 임베디드 시스템에서는 일반적으로 shadowing 기법을 통해 프로그램을 수행한다. 그러나 shadowing 기법은 시스템의 부팅 시간을 증가시키고 불필요한 DRAM 영역을 차지한다는 단점 때문에 자원 제약이 심한 실시간 임베디드 시스템에는 적합하지 않다. 이에 대한 대안 중 하나는 demand paging 기법을 활용하는 것이다. 단, demand paging 환경에서는 page fault에 의한 시간 지연 때문에 태스크의 최악 실행 성능을 예측하기 어렵다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 NAND 플래시 메모리 기반의 실시간 임베디드 시스템에서 demand paging 비용을 고려한 태스크 최악 성능 분석 기법을 제안한다. 제안하는 기법은 각 태스크에 대해 demand paging 비용을 계산하고, 이를 전통적인 WCRT 분석 기법과 결합하는 방법을 사용한다. 또한 demand paging 비용과 WCET 분석을 독립적으로 고려함으로써, 최악의 경우에도 분석 결과의 안정성을 보장하고 기존의 방법에 비해 분석 복잡도를 줄였다.

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Demand Paging Method Using Improved Algorithms on Non-OS Embedded System (Non-OS 임베디드 시스템에서 개선된 알고리즘을 적용한 요구 페이징 기법)

  • Lew, Kyeung Seek;Jeon, Chang Kyu;Kim, Yong Deak
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, we try to improve the performance of the demand paging loader suggested to use the demand paging way that is not based on operating system. The demand paging switching strategy used in the existing operating system can know the recently used pages by running multi-processing. Then, based on it, some page switching strategies have been made for the recently used pages or the frequently demanded pages. However, the strategies based on operating system cannot be applied in single processing that is not based on operating system because any context switching never occur on the single processing. So, this paper is trying to suggest the demand paging switching strategies that can be applied in paging loader running in single process. In the Return-Prediction-Algorithm, we saw the improved performance in the program that the function call occurred frequently in a long distance. And then, in the Most-Frequently-Used-Page-Remain-Algorithm, we saw the improved performance in the program that the references frequently occurred for the particular pages. Likewise, it had an enormous effect on keeping the memory reduction performance by the demand paging and reducing the running time delay at the same time.

Delayed Dual Buffering: Reducing Page Fault Latency in Demand Paging for OneNAND Flash Memory (지연 이중 버퍼링: OneNAND 플래시를 이용한 페이지 반입 비용 절감 기법)

  • Joo, Yong-Soo;Park, Jae-Hyun;Chung, Sung-Woo;Chung, Eui-Young;Chang, Nae-Hyuck
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 2007
  • OneNAND flash combines the advantages of NAND and NOR flash, and has become an alternative to the former. But the advanced features of OneNAND flash are not utilized effectively in demand paging systems designed for NAND flash. We propose delayed dual buffering, a demand paging system which fully exploits the random-access I/O interface and dual page buffers of OneNAND flash demand paging system. It effectively reduces the time of page transfer from the OneNAND page buffer to the main memory. On average, it achieves and 28.5% reduction in execution time and 4.4% reduction in paging system energy consumption.

A Demand Paging for Reducing The Memory Usage of OS-Less Embedded Systems (운영체제 없는 시스템의 메모리 절감을 위한 요구 페이징 기법)

  • Lew, Kyeung Seek;Jeon, Hyun Jae;Kim, Yong Deak
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 2011
  • For a NAND booting based embedded system, an application program on the NAND flash memory is downloaded to the RAM when the system is booted. In this case, the application program exists in both the RAM and the NAND flash so the RAM usage is increased. In this paper, we suggested the demand paging technique for the decreasing of the RAM usage for OS-less NAND booting based embedded systems. As a result of a benchmark test, 40~80% of the code memory usage was reduced with below 5% of execution time delay.

A New Dynamic Paging Mechanism for HMIPv6 Networks (HMIPv6환경에서 새로운 동적 페이징 기법)

  • Jeong, Yu-Jin;Choe, Jong-Won
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.687-695
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    • 2005
  • With increasing demand of using mobile Internet, HMIPv6 is proposed by IETF to reduce location management traffics due to micro mobility and to provide IP-based movement. A paging mechanism combined with HMIPv6 can reduce the signaling traffics of a mobile node. We propose a dynamic paging mechanism in HMIPv6 which decides an optimal paging area for each mobile node by considering its characteristics. Total costs of a static paging mechanism and a dynamic paging mechanism are analyzed by mathematical formulas. As a result, we proved that the dynamic paging mechanism reduced total signal traffic costs more than a static paging mechanism.

Dynamic Code Placement Techniques for Scratch-Pad Memory (Scratch-Pad 메모리를 위한 동적 코드 배치 기법)

  • Kim Chihun;Jang Choonki;Lee Jaejin;Min Sang Lyul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.784-786
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    • 2005
  • SPM (Scratch-Pad Memory)을 위한 코드 배치 기법과 demand paging기법을 Post pass optimizer를 사용하여 구현한다. 코드 배치 문제는 ILP (Integer Linear Programming) 문제로 변환하여 해결한다. 최적 화기는 ILP 해답의 질을 높이기 위해 응용 프로그램의 프로파일 정보를 사용하고, 코드로부터 natural loop을 추출한다. 또한 SPM을 사용하여 demand paging을 할수 있도록 추가 코드를 삽입한다. 이 기법을 사용해 6개의 내장형 응용 프로그램을 실험하였고, 프로그램 크기의 $20\%$에 해당하는 SPM에 대해 전력 소모는 $75.9\%$로 감소하였고 성능은 $54.5\%$ 증가하였다.

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A Program Code Compression Method with Very Fast Decoding for Mobile Devices (휴대장치를 위한 고속복원의 프로그램 코드 압축기법)

  • Kim, Yong-Kwan;Wee, Young-Cheul
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.851-858
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    • 2010
  • Most mobile devices use a NAND flash memory as their secondary memory. A compressed code of the firmware is stored in the NAND flash memory of mobile devices in order to reduce the size and the loading time of the firmware from the NAND flash memory to a main memory. In order to use a demand paging properly, a compressed code should be decompressed very quickly. The thesis introduces a new dictionary based compression algorithm for the fast decompression. The introduced compression algorithm uses a different method with the current LZ method by storing the "exclusive or" value of the two instructions when the instruction for compression is not equal to the referenced instruction. Therefore, the thesis introduces a new compression format that minimizes the bit operation in order to improve the speed of decompression. The experimental results show that the decoding time is reduced up to 5 times and the compression ratio is improved up to 4% compared to the zlib. Moreover, the proposed compression method with the fast decoding time leads to 10-20% speed up of booting time compared to the booting time of the uncompressed method.

A Study on Demand Paging For NAND Flash Memory Storages (NAND 플래시 메모리 저장장치를 위한 요구 페이징 기법 연구)

  • Yoo, Yoon-Suk;Ryu, Yeon-Seung
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.583-593
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    • 2007
  • We study the page replacement algorithms for demand paging, called CFLRU/C, CFLRU/E and DL-CFLRU/E, that reduce the number of erase operations and improve the wear-leveling degree of flash memory. Under the CFLRU/C and CFLRU/E algorithms, the victim page is the least recently used dean page within the pre-specified window. However, when there is not any dean page within the window, the CFLRU/C evicts the dirty page with the lowest frequency while the CFLRU/E evicts the dirty page with the highest number of erase operations. The DL-CFLRU/E algorithm maintains two page lists called the dean page list and the dirty page list, and first finds the page within the dean page list when it selects a victim. However, when it can not find any dean page within the dean page list, it evicts the dirty page with the highest number of erase operations within the window of the dirty page list. In this thesis, we show through simulation that the proposed schemes reduce the number of erase operations and improve the wear-leveling than the existing schemes like LRU.

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An Empirical Analysis on the Substitutability and the Complementarity between Fixed and Mobile Telecommunication Services (유무선 통신서비스 간 상호 대체성 및 보완성에 관한 실증분석)

  • Lee, Deok-Joo;Ko, Min-Soo
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.459-465
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are relationships of substitutability or complementarity between the call demand of fixed telecommunication and mobile telecommunication services. In order to clarify the relationships, we suggest a model of call demand of fixed telecommunication service which incorporates the variables representing the diffusion of mobile telecommunications subscription and estimate it with relevant time series data. Finally it is shown that there is complementary relationship between the call demand of fixed telecommunication and mobile paging services, and it is also found that there is substitutable relationship between the long distance call demand of fixed telecommunication and mobile phone services.