• Title/Summary/Keyword: Delay

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An Efficient Delay Calculation Tool for Timing Analysis (타이밍 분석을 위한 효율적인 시간 지연 계산 도구)

  • Kim, Joon-Hee;Kim, Boo-Sung;Kal, Won-Koang;Maeng, Tae-Ho;Baek, Jong-Humn;Kim, Seok-Yoon
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • 1998.11b
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    • pp.612-614
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    • 1998
  • As chip feature size decrease, interconnect delay gains more importance. A accurate timing analysis required to estimate interconnect delay as well as cell delay. In this paper, we present a timing-level delay calculation tool of which the accuracy is bounded within 10% of SPICE results. This delay calculation tool generates delay values in SDF(Standard Delay Format) for parasitic data extracted in SPEF(Standard Parasitic Exchange Format). The efficiency of the tool is easily seen because it uses AWE(Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation) algorithm for interconnect delay calculation, and precharacterized library and effective capacitance model for cell delay calculation.

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A Model for the Estimation of Delay Signalized Intersections (신호등 교차로에서의 지체예측에 관한 연구)

  • 이철기;이승환
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.41-54
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this thesis is to construct a model to estimate the delay that vehicles arriving randomly will be experienced at an isolated singalized intersection. To do this the following objectives are set in this study: (i) An what distance a random arrival pattern occurs after a platoon of vehicles are dis-charged from the stop line; (ii) A model which estimates the average delay per through-vehicle with respect to the de-gree of saturation; and (iii) The relation between the stepped delay and average approach delay per vehicle. The following are the findings of this study: (i) A random arrival pattern on the first second and third lanes occur 300,400 and 300m downstream from stop line rdspectively. A random arrival pattern on lane group occurs 500m downstream from the stop line ; (ii) A model for the estimation of approach delay has been developed in such a way that up to x=0.7 the delay increases linearly and beyond 0.7 the delay increases rapidly in a form of second order polynomial due to high degree of saturation : and (iii) Approach delay equals approximately 1.21 times of stopped delay.

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Discriminant Analysis of Factors Influencing Preschoolers' Ability to Delay Gratification : An Experiment (유아의 만족지연능력 및 관련변인 판별분석 -만족지연실험상황을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Hye-Soon;Cho, Bok-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.339-356
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    • 2008
  • Participants in this study on preschool children's ability to delay gratification were 132 4- to 5 year-old children and their mothers from 6 daycare centers. Mothers completed questionnaires reporting their parenting style, their child's ability to delay gratification, and child's temperament. Children participated in the real and hypothetical settings of the delay of gratification experiment. Data was analyzed by t-test, F-test, correlation and discrimination analysis. Results were that (1) 43% of preschoolers passed the delay of gratification experiment. (2) Older children were more able to delay gratification than younger children. (3) Children's rewards choices in the real setting correlated with their rewards choices in the hypothetical situation of delay of gratification. (4) Children's ability to delay gratification was influenced by their motor intelligence.

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Analysis of Response Characteristics of the CAN-Based Feedback Control System Considering the Network Delay Time

  • Jeon, Jong-Man;Kim, Dae-Won
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2001.10a
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    • pp.119.3-119
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    • 2001
  • When building a network-based real-time control system, a network-induced delay time should be surly considered for real time schedulability to be guaranteed. The network delay time on end-to-end communication has been analyzed theoretically and modeled mathematically from many previous works. There also exist any other delay element not considered before. In this paper, the remote feedback control system using the CAN protocol is proposed to control three axes´ manipulator arm and the application layer of CAN is modeled to analyze the delay elements defined by three types of time delay: Software delay time, Controller delay time, and Access delay time, in details. The analyzed results are used as an important component to determine PID gains of the proposed system. The effect of the delay time on the control performance is evaluated by com paring the response characteristics of the control system through simulation.

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A Register-Controlled Symmetrical Delay Locked Loop using Hybrid Delay Line (하이브리드 딜레이 라인을 이용한 레지스터 콘트롤 Symmetrical Delay Locked Loop)

  • 허락원;전영현
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • 2000.11b
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    • pp.87-90
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    • 2000
  • This paper describes a register-controlled symmetrical delay-locked-loop (DLL) using hybrid delay line for use in a high frequency double-data-rate DRAM. The proposed DLL uses a hybrid delay line which can cover two-step delays(coarse/fine delay) by one delay element. The DLL dissipate less power than a conventional dual-loop DLL which use a coarse and a fine delay element and control separately. Additionally, this DLL not only achieves small phase resolution compared to the conventional digital DLL's when it is locked but it also has a great simple delay line compared to a complex dual-loop DLL.

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Factors associated with delay in reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (급성심근경색 환자에서 재관류 치료 지연율과 그에 관련된 요인)

  • Kim, Yoon;Koh, Bong-Yeun
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 2003
  • Reperfusion delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction leads to increased morbidity and mortality. We sought to measure the rates of reperfusion delay and to identify factors associated with reperfusion delay after arrival to hospitals. We included 360 patients who had acute myocardial infarction with ST-elevation or left bundle branch block on electrocardiogram and received reperfusion therapy from the three participating academic medical centers from 1997 to 2000. Through retrospective chart review, we collected data about time to reperfusion therapy, patient and hospital factors potentially associated with reperfusion delay. Factors independently associated with reperfusion delay were determined by logistic regression analysis. Median door­to­needle time was 60.0 minutes, and median door­to­balloon time was 102.5 minutes. According to recommendation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines, 226 out of 264(85.6%) of thrombolytic patients and 43 out of 96(44.8%) percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty(PTCA) patients experienced reperfusion delay. The significant factors associated with delay were type of reperfusion therapy, patient factors including hypertension and delayed symptom onset to presentation(>4 hours), and hospital factors including nocturnal presentation(6pm∼8am), weekend, and an individual hospital. A significant proportion of patients experienced reperfusion delay. The identified predictors of reperfusion delay may help design a hospital system to reduce the delay in reperfusion therapy

Delay of Gratification in Infancy : Effects of Infants' Temperament and Parenting

  • Rha Jong-Hay
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.59-77
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to extend our understanding of the developmental antecedents of delay of gratification in infancy. The first goal was to examine direct effects of one feature of an infants’ temperament and of positive and negative parenting assumed at age one on children’s delay of gratification six months later. The second goal of the study was to test the interactive effect of early infant temperament and parenting on children’s delay of gratification. It was hypothesized that 1) less negative infants at 12 months would delay gratification longer six months later, 2) children of parents who provided more positive and sensitive feedback would delay gratification longer than children with parents who were more negative and less sensitive, and 3) there would be differential prediction of parenting for children who scored high and low in negative emotionality as infants. Toward this end, 81 infants were observed interacting at one year of age with their mothers and fathers during laboratory assessments to obtain measures of parenting and infant negative emotionality. At 18 months of age, the child’s capacity to delay touching attractive objects was measured. The main effects of infant negative emotionality and of mothering on children’s delay of gratification were not detected at standard levels of significance. Differential effects of parenting on children’s delay of gratification for infants with low or high negative emotionality, too, were not detected. However, the anticipated effect of fathering on delay of gratification was found in some analyses, indicating that the more positive fathering children received, the longer they could delay gratification in the laboratory six months later.

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Development of a methodology for analysing and quantifying the impact of delay factors affecting construction projects

  • Shebob, Abdulhamid;Dawood, Nashwan;Shah, Raj K.
    • Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2012
  • Delays are one of the biggest problems facing by the construction industry and they have significant financial and social impact in construction projects. The paper presents a framework of Delay Analysis System (DAS) with the aim of analysing the impact of delay factors in Libyan construction projects. The system has designed by integrating the possible delay factors, critical activities of a project using@risk simulator. A case study of building project was demonstrated to identify the impact of delays and the sensitivity of delay factor. The case study result showed that the project might be delayed by 97 to 103 days in comparison to the planned duration. The developed DAS is a tool for analysing and identify the impacts of delay factors and assist to construction manager to take necessary measure in reducing the delay impact. The paper provides a methodology for analysing the possible delay impact in a construction project and informing to construction manager in advance of the possible delay factors.

Performance Evaluation of Web-based Cloud Services in a Browser-Scripting Approach

  • Zhang, Chengwei;Hei, Xiaojun;Cheng, Wenqing
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.2463-2482
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    • 2016
  • Cloud services are often provisioned to their customers using user-friendly web browsers with flexible and rich plug-in environments. Delay is one of the fundamental performance metrics of these web-based services. Commonly-used network measurement tools usually only measure network delay and it may be difficult to infer the web-delay performance using only network layer measurement approaches. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the application layer delay in a browser-based network measurement platform using engineered scripts. We conducted a delay measurement study using instrumented scripts in the proposed browser-based measurement platform. Our investigation included a comparison study of three browser-scripting delay measurement methods, including Java applet, JSP and Flash ActionScript. We developed a browser-based delay measurement testbed over the Internet so that different delay measurement tools could be evaluated in the same real network environment including typical Internet paths and the Baidu cloud. We also decomposed the components of the end-to-end delay process of the above measurements to reveal the difference and relationship between the network-layer delay and the application-layer delay. Our measurement results characterize the stochastic properties of the application-layer delay over real Internet paths, and how these properties vary from the underlying network layer delay. This browser-scripting measurement approach can be easily deployed on different cloud service platforms to inspect their application-layer delay performance between end clients and the cloud platforms. Our measurement results may provide insights into designing new cloud services with enhanced quality-of-experience perceived by cloud users.

Type-Based Group Delay Equalizer Considering the Nonlinear Phase Distortion of HPA (HPA의 비선형 위상 왜곡을 고려한 타입기반 군 지연 등화기)

  • Kim, Yongguk;Jo, Byung Gak;Baek, Gwang Hoon;Ryu, Heung-Gyoon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.37A no.10
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    • pp.895-902
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we propose a novel equalizer to compensate for the group delay including AM/PM nonlinear distortion characteristics by the nonlinear power amplifier (PA). The group delay characteristic is a nonlinear non-constant time delay that appears differently depending on each frequency component. The phase distortion by AM/PM characteristics arising from the power amplifier is a major factor to increase group delay. By the group delay distortion, the signal in the constellation expands and is rotated. Considering the problem mentioned above, the nonlinear time delay that appears differently depending on each frequency component is classified as a static group delay and AM/PM characteristic of PA, the different phase transitions depending on the size of input signal as a dynamic group delay. Static group delay estimates and compensate for phase distortions in the frequency domain with type-based method and dynamic group delay compensates for phase rotation in the time domain. We confirmed that the group delay compensation techniques were enough to compensate the group delay characteristics including AM/PM characteristics of the power amplifier.