• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decomposition

Search Result 6,469, Processing Time 0.178 seconds

The Comparison of Singular Value Decomposition and Spectral Decomposition

  • Shin, Yang-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
    • /
    • v.18 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1135-1143
    • /
    • 2007
  • The singular value decomposition and the spectral decomposition are the useful methods in the area of matrix computation for multivariate techniques such as principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling. These techniques aim to find a simpler geometric structure for the data points. The singular value decomposition and the spectral decomposition are the methods being used in these techniques for this purpose. In this paper, the singular value decomposition and the spectral decomposition are compared.

  • PDF

Weight Loss and Nutrient Dynamics during Leaf Litter Decomposition of Quercus mongolica in Mt. Worak National Park

  • Mun, Hyeong-Tae
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.123-127
    • /
    • 2009
  • Weight loss and nutrient dynamics of Quercus mongolica leaf litter during decomposition were investigated from December 2005 through August 2008 in Mt. Worak National Park as a part of National Long-Term Ecological Research Program in Korea. The decay constant (k) of Q. mongolica litter was 0.26. After 33 months decomposition, remaining weight of Q. mongolica litter was 49.3$\pm$4.4%. Initial C/N and C/P ratios of Q. mongolica litter were 43.3 and 2,032, respectively. C/N ratio in decomposing litter decreased rapidly from the beginning to nine months decomposition, and then showed more or less constant. C/P ratio increased to 2,407 after three months decomposition, and then decreased steadily thereafter. N and P concentration increased significantly during decomposition. N immobilization occurred from the beginning through 18 months decomposition, and mineralization occurred afterwards in decomposing litter. P immobilized significantly from fifteen months during decomposition. K concentration decreased rapidly from the beginning to six months decomposition. However it showed an increasing pattern during later stage of decomposition. Remaining K decreased rapidly during early stage of decomposition. There was no net K immobilization. Ca concentration increased from the beginning to twelve months decomposition, and then decreased rapidly till twenty one months elapsed. However, it increased again thereafter. Ca mineralization occurred from fifteen months. Mg concentration increased during decomposition. There was no Mg immobilization during litter decomposition. After 33 months decomposition, remaining N, P, K, Ca and Mg in Q. mongolica litter were 79.2, 110.9, 36.2, 52.7 and 74.4%, respectively.

The Decomposition of Leaf Litters of Some Tree Species in Temperate Deciduous Forest in Korea I. Losses in Dry Weight of Leaf Litter

  • Yang, Keum-Chul;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.203-208
    • /
    • 2003
  • Losses in the dry weight of leaf litter from six tree species were studied during 16 months on the forest floor in temperate deciduous forest of Mt. Cheonma in the vicinity of Seoul in Korea by using litter bag method. The decomposition rate of each leaf litter varies with each species. After 16 months elapsed, the leaf litter of Acer pseudo-sieboidianum showed the highest decomposition constant (0.82) as Olson´s decomposition constant, while that of Pinus densiflora showed the lowest decomposition constant (0.33). The decomposition constant of Quercus mongolica, Q. serrata, Betula ermani and Carpinus laxiflora showed 0.43, 0.37, 0.66 and 0.75, respectively. The decomposition constant of leaf litter was considered with temperature and precipitation which accumulated daily during each term of litter bag collection. The decomposition constant of leaf litter showed closely positive correlation with daily accumulative temperature and precipitation. The relationships between decomposition constant and the daily accumulative temperature and precipitation at each period of litter bag collection were analyzed through multi-regression analysis. The correlation coefficients as a result of multi-regression analysis in Q. mongolica, Q. serrata, P densiflora, B. ermani, C. laxiflorais and A. pseudo-sieboldianum were 0.83, 0.81, 0.69, 0.77, 0.77 and 0.62, respectively. The precipitation showed higher effect, about 10 times, on the leaf litter decomposition than the daily accumulative temperature.

A Study on the Decomposition Characteristics of CFC-113 by Activated Carbon (활성탄 촉매를 이용한 CFC-113의 분해특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이우근;정주영;김진범
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.319-325
    • /
    • 1997
  • The catalytic decomposition of CFC-113(1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane) was studied over an activated carbon catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at the temperature from 300 to 600$^\circ$C, the space velocity (SV) of 1800 $\sim 14400h^{-1}$ and the mole ratio(decomposition agent/CFC-113) of 0.25 $\sim$ 5. In the absence of a decomposition agent, the decomposition efficiency of CFC-113 was low but when a decomposition agent was added to the gas stream, it was dramatically increased with the increase of temperature. In particular, in the presence of n-hexane as the decomposition agent it showed a high decomposition efficiency compared with benzene at 400$^\circ$C. It was found that the decomposition activity of CFC-113 was very sensitive to reaction temperature. Thus it is expected that to raise the reaction temperature is more effective than to increase the residence time and the amount of decomposition agent. Over the activated carbon catalyst more than 99% decomposition was achieved at the reaction temperature of 600$^\circ$C, SV of 7200$h^{-1}$, the mole ration $(C_6H_{14}/CFC-113)$ of 1 in this study.

  • PDF

Non-overlapping Volume Decomposition Using Maximum Volumes (최대볼륨을 활용한 비교차 볼륨분해)

  • Kim, Byung Chul;Mun, Duhwan
    • Korean Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.50-60
    • /
    • 2014
  • In this paper, we propose a non-overlapping volume decomposition method that decomposes a solid model into non-overlapped volumes. The non-overlapping volume decomposition finds non-overlapped volumes from maximum volumes. After introducing the concept of the non-overlapping volume decomposition, we discuss technical issues and solutions for them. The non-overlapping volume decomposition is verified by the experiments with a prototype system. From the experiments, it was found that the non-overlapping volume decomposition shows better result than maximum volume decomposition from the view point of design feature recognition.

Decomposition of CFC-12($CCl_2F_2$) by Discharge Plasma (방전 플라스마에 의한 CFC-12($CCl_2F_2$)의 분해)

  • 강현춘;우인성;황명환;안형환;이한섭;조정국;강안수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.93-100
    • /
    • 1999
  • Decomposition efficiency, power consumption, and applied voltage of CFC(Chlorofluorocatbon) were investigated by SPCP(surface induced discharge plasma chemical processing) reactor to obtain optimum process variables and maximum decomposition efficiencies. Decomposition efficiency of CFC-12 with various electric frequencies(5~50kHz). flow rates (100~1,000mL/min), initial concentrations(100~1,000ppm), electrode materials(W, Cu, Al). electrode thickness(1, 2, 3mm) and reference gases($N_2$, $O_2$, air) were measured and the products were analyzed with FT-IR. Experimental results showed that at the frequency of 10kHz, the highest decomposition efficiency of 92.7% for CFC-12 were observed at the power consumptions of 29.6W. respectively, and that decomposition efficiency decreased with increasing frequency above 20kHz and decomposition efficiency per unit power were 3.13%/W for CFC-12. Decomposition efficiency was increased with increasing residence times and with decreasing initial concentration of pollutants. Decomposition efficiency was increased with increasing thickness of discharge electrode and the highest decomposition efficiency was obtained for the electrode diameter of 3m. As the electrode material, decomposition efficiency was in order that tungsten(W), copper(Cu), aluminum (Al). Decomposition of CFC-12 in the reference gas of $N_2$ showed the highest efficiency among three reference gases, and then the effect of reference gas on the decomposition efficiency decreased in order of air and $O_2$. The optimum power for the maximum decomposition efficiency was 25.3W for CFC.

  • PDF

The Decomposition Kinetics of PET Microfiber Fabrics by Saturated CaO/Ethylene glycol Solution (CaO/Ethylene glycol 용액에 의한 Polyester섬유의 분해에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Jong Ho;Huh, Man Woo;Kim, Kyung Jae
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.18-26
    • /
    • 1997
  • Polyester microfiber fabrics were decomposed at 100, 110, and 12$0^{\circ}C$ in saturated CaO/ethylene glycol solutions(CaO/EG), and the characteristics of decomposition kinetics were discussed in comparison to those by hot aqueous hydroxide solution(NaOH). The Arrhenius pre-exponential factor(A) was 9.17x $10^{14}$/M $sec^{-1}$and the activation energy($E_{a}$) was 8.19kcal/mol. While the A value was 1.947x $10^{14}$/M $sec^{-1}$ and the ($E_{a}$ value was about 15~19kcal/mol in NaOH-PET decomposition reaction. The much higher A value of the CaO/EG-PET decomposition reaction means that CaO/EG-PET decomposition reaction will occur in a less selective fashion in comparison to the NaOH-PET decomposition reaction. On the other hand, the lower ($E_{a}$) value of the CaO/EG-PET decomposition reaction than that of the NaOH-PET decomposition reaction means that CaO/EG-PET decomposition reaction is less sensitive on the variation of temperature than NaOH-PET decomposition reaction.

  • PDF

Effect of Electrode Process Variables in case of Decomposition of $NO_{x}$ by SPCP (연면방전에 의한 질소산화물의 분해시 전극 공정변수에 대한 영향)

  • 안형환;강현춘
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.241-258
    • /
    • 1999
  • For hazardous air pollutants(HAP) such as NO and $NO_{2}$ decomposition efficiency, power consumption, and applied voltage were investigated by SPCP(surface induced discharge plasma chemical processing) reactor to obtain optimum process variables and maximum decomposition efficiencies. Decomposition efficiency of HAP with various electric frequencies(5~50 kHz), flow rates(100~1,000 mL/min), initial concentrations(100~1,000 ppm), electrode materials(W, Cu, Al), electrode thickness(1, 2, 3 mm) and number of electrode windings(7, 9, 11) were measured. Experimental results showed that for the frequency of 10 kHz, the highest decomposition efficiency of 94.3 % for NO and 84.7 % for $NO_{2}$ were observed at the power consumptions of 19.8 and 20W respectively and that decomposition efficiency decreased with increasing frequency above 20 kHz. Decomposition efficiency was increased with increasing residence times and with decreasing initial concentration of pollutants. Decomposition efficiency was increased with increasing thickness of discharge electrode and the highest decomposition efficiency was obtained for the electrode diameter of 3 mm in this experiment. As the electrode material, decomposition efficiency was in order : tungsten(W), copper(Cu), aluminum(Al).

  • PDF

Novel Method for Polystyrene Reactions at Low Temperature

  • Katsuhiko Saido;Hiroyuki Taguchi;Yoichi Kodera;Yumiko Ishihara;Ryu, In-Jae;Chung, Seon-yong
    • Macromolecular research
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.87-91
    • /
    • 2003
  • Thermal decomposition reactions of polystyrene using a new heating medium were carried out by a batch system at 190-280 $^{\circ}C$ to clarify the manner in which decomposition is initiated. Polystyrene obtained from a commercial source and low molecular weight compounds obtained from the thermal decomposition were analyzed by GC, GPC, IR, $^{13}$ C-NMR and GC-MS. The main chain underwent virtually no change by heat application. Polystyrene underwent decomposition below its molding temperature and the major decomposition products were 2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene (trimer), 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene(dimer) and styrene (monomer). Ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, naphthalene, benzaldehyde, biphenyl and 1,3-diphenylpropane were detected as minor products. This paper presents a new method for examining the decomposition of polystyrene at low temperature into volatile low molecular weight compounds.

Effects of Ar-Plasma Treatment in Alkali-Decomposition of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

  • Seo, Eun-Deock
    • Macromolecular research
    • /
    • v.11 no.5
    • /
    • pp.387-392
    • /
    • 2003
  • The ablation effects of Ar-plasma treatment and alkali-decomposition behavior in NaOH solution of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film were investigated. The modifications were evaluated by analysis of atomic force microscopy topographical changes, and by the measurement of decomposition yield in conjunction with heats of formation and electron densities of acyl carbon calculated by Parameterization Method 3 method. It has shown that the alkali-decomposition is hampered by plasma treatment and its decomposition yield is closely related with plasma treatment conditions such as exposure time to plasma. Plasma-treated PET films exhibited lower decomposition yield, compared to that of virgin PET. Increasing plasma exposure time contributes positively to decrease the decomposition yield. It has also shown that the topography of PET surface was affected by the base-promoted hydrolysis as well as Ar-plasma treatments. These behaviors are attributed to the decreased nucleophilicity of acyl carbon damaged by the ablation of Ar-plasma.