• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decay Length

Search Result 88, Processing Time 0.059 seconds

Effects of Food Additive Acetic Acids and Propionic Acids on Growth and Morphological Characters of Soybean Sprouts (식품첨가물 Acetic Acid와 Propionic Acid 처리농도에 따른 콩나물의 생장과 형태 변화)

  • Hong, Dong-Oh;Jeon, Seung-Ho;Jeon, Byong-Sam;Lee, Chang-Woo;Kim, Hong-Young;Kang, Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.606-611
    • /
    • 2006
  • Decay during soybean sprout culture detracts their quality as well as increases their production costs. This study was done to determine the effects of acetic and propionic acids on growth and morphological characters of the sprouts. The soybean seeds of 3 cultivars (cv. Eunhakong, Pungsannamulkong and Orialtae) imbibed for 2 minutes at their different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.2%) were soaked for 6 hours in 4 ppm BA solution after the first 5.5 hour water imbibition and 0.5 hour aeration, and cultured at $20^{\circ}C$. On the 6th day, harvested soybean sprouts were classified into 4 categories on the base of hypocotyl length;>7cm, 4 to 7cm,<4cm and not germinated, and their morphological characters, fresh weights, lesion spots on cotyledons were measured or analyzed. The stronger concentration the higher rate of longer than 4cm although there was no significant difference between the two acids. Pungsannamulkong showed the longest hypocotyls but Eunhakong did the thickest ones, and Orialtae did the greatest total fresh weight, in which all the characters were not influenced by the two acids and their concentrations. Lesion spots on the cotyledons were equal to the two acids although less in their treatments than in no treatment. Utilization of propionic acid was more desirable Dan acetic acid through their treatment cost analysis.

Extension of shelf-life in golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) according to pressure composition packaging using oriented polypropylene film (연신 폴리프로필렌 필름으로 진공 포장된 팽이버섯(Flammulina velutipes)의 저장성 향상)

  • Lim, Sooyeon;Hong, Yoon Pyo;Lee, Eun Jin;Kim, Jongkee;Lee, Ji Hyun;Choi, Ji Weon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.21 no.6
    • /
    • pp.767-775
    • /
    • 2014
  • The shelf-life of fresh mushrooms is notably limited because their browning, texture change, and decay are too fast after immediately harvest. Especially, the best management for extending golden needle mushroom's shelf-life is modified atmosphere packaging under pressure vacuum at cold storage. In this study, three types of films, $20{\mu}m$ polyethylene+polypropylene (PE+PP), oriented polypropylene (OPP), and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were tested to extend the shelf-life of golden needle mushrooms. Mushrooms were packed under pressure vacuum and stored at $10^{\circ}C$ for 2 weeks. The golden mushrooms in LDPE film as a commercial packaging, were highly perishable and immediately proceed deterioration as browning, elongation, fluctuation of respiratory quotient (RQ) and softening within 7 days after packaging. On the other hand, the mushrooms in OPP and PE+PP film shown that shelf-life were extend to 14 days from 7 days, causing delay breakup of vacuum and maintenance of color, length, and RQ during storage. The breakup of vacuum in PE+PP film was faster few days than OPP film packaging. This present study indicated that the golden needle mushrooms by OPP packaging under pressure vacuum treatment might be extended the shelf-life until approximately 14 days during cold storage.

Systematic influence of different building spacing, height and layout on mean wind and turbulent characteristics within and over urban building arrays

  • Jiang, Dehai;Jiang, Weimei;Liu, Hongnian;Sun, Jianning
    • Wind and Structures
    • /
    • v.11 no.4
    • /
    • pp.275-289
    • /
    • 2008
  • Large eddy simulations have been performed within and over different types of urban building arrays. This paper adopted three dimensionless parameters, building frontal area density (${\lambda}_f$) the variation degree of building height (${\sigma}_h$), and the staggered degree of building range ($r_s$), to study the systematic influence of building spacing, height and layout on wind and turbulent characteristics. The following results have been achieved: (1) As ${\lambda}_f$ decrease from 0.25 to 0.18, the mean flow patterns transfer from "skimming" flow to "wake interference" flow, and as ${\lambda}_f$ decrease from 0.06 to 0.04, the mean flow patterns transfer from "wake interference" flow to "isolated roughness" flow. With increasing ${\lambda}_f$, wind velocity within arrays increases, and the vortexes in front of low buildings would break, even disappear, whereas the vortexes in front of tall buildings would strengthen and expand. Tall buildings have greater disturbance on wind than low buildings do. (2) All the wind velocity profiles and the upstream profile converge at the height of 2.5H approximately. The decay of wind velocity within the building canopy was in positive correlation with ${\lambda}_f$ and $r_s$. If the height of building arrays is variable, Macdonald's wind velocity model should be modified through introducing ${\sigma}_h$, because wind velocity decreases at the upper layers of the canopy and increases at the lower layers of the canopy. (3) The maximum of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) always locates at 1.2 times as high as the buildings. TKE within the canopy decreases with increasing ${\lambda}_f$ and $r_s$ but the maximum of TKE are very close though ${\sigma}_h$ varies. (4) Wind velocity profile follows the logarithmic law approximately above the building canopy. The Zero-plane displacement $z_d$ heighten with increasing ${\lambda}_f$, whereas the maximum of and Roughness length $z_0$ occurs when ${\lambda}_f$ is about 0.14. $z_d$ and $z_0$ heighten linearly with ${\sigma}_h$ and $r_s$, If ${\sigma}_h$ is large enough, $z_d$ may become higher than the average height of buildings.

( Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest II. Effect of fertilizer ievel on qrowth and dry matter yield of grass-clover mixtures grown under pine trees (임간초지 개발에 관한 연구 II. 임간혼파초지에서 3요소 시비수준이 목초의 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Y.C.;Park, M.S.;Seo, S.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.136-142
    • /
    • 1985
  • For better grassland development in the forest, this field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of thirteen different fertilizer levels of nitrogen(N), phosphorus ($P_2O_5$) and potassium ($K_2O$) on the botanical composition, growth and dry matter yield of grass-clover mixtures grown under trees with 40-50% of shading level. This experiment was arranged as a randomized block design with replications, and performed on the experimental field in the suburban forest of Suweon in 1984. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Plant height and cover degree of grasses found to be high with 28 and 42kg N fertilizer per 10a, while those were the lowest with zero and N-zero fertilizer levels. The degree of bare land after the fourth cut was also high in the low N level. 2. A significant higher degree of leaf green and chlorophyll content of leaf blade was observed in the plot of 28 and 42 kg N per 10a when compared with low N fertilizer plot. However, leaf decay and plant type of grasses tended to be a little poor as the high N was applied. 3. the regrowth plant length and dry weight of grasses after the first cut increased significantly with 28 and 42 kg N fertilizer. However, those showed slightly increased regrowth in the plot of zero and N-zero fertilizer levels. 4. The dry matter yield of grasses was higher with 28 and 42 kg N than that of low N fertilizer level. Higher yields were obtained in the plot of standard ($N-P_2O_5-K_2O$=28-20-24 kg/10a), 50% increase of $N,P_2O_5K_2O$ and N-50% increase, although there were no significant differences among three fertilizer levels. 5. Growth, botanical composition, regrowth and yield of grasses grown under pine trees were significantly influenced by N fertilizer level, regardless of $P_2O_5\;and\;K_2O$. The fertilizer level of $N-P_2O_5-K_2O$ was 28-20-24 kg per 10a for more forage production in the forest. Considering economic yield in this study, however, the optimum fertilizer level of N, $P_2O_5\;and\;K_2O$ was suppose to be 21-28, 10-15, and 12-18kg per 10a, respectively.

  • PDF

Production of Gastrodia elata Tuber using Armillaria spp. (Armillaria 속균을 이용한 천마의 생산)

  • Sung, Jae-Mo;Jung, Bum-Shig;Yang, Keun-Joo;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Harrington, T.C.
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.61-70
    • /
    • 1995
  • The genus Armillaria is important because they produce Gastrodia tubers. Seventy two isolates of Armillaria were obtained from fruit bodies grown on decayed wood in Korea. Twenty four isolates from Pinus koraiensis were identified as A. ostoyae. Two isolates from G. elata growing in the field were identified as A. mellea. Seven isolates from Acer ginnala and Quercus spp. were identified as A. tabescens. Thirty nine isolates were identified as A. gallica. Armillaria gallica was isolated from Quercus spp., Ainus japonica, Vitis amurensis and Prunus sargentii. Armillaria spp. isolates were divided into four groups based on the cultural characteristics. Group II (A. gallica KNU-A110) was better than the other groups for mycelial growth and rhizomorph formation. Isolate KNU-A110 proved to be good for production of G. elata tubers. This fungus forms mycelial fan in the plant tissue and rhizomorphs in contact with G. elata tubers. Gastrodia spp. was found in thirteen sites in Kangweon province in Korea. The plants were divided into three different kinds based on stem color. Plants with stems of brownish orange and greyish yellow were identified as G. elata, and those with greyish green colored stems were identified as G. gracilis. Gastrodia was collected mainly from humus soils rich in leaf debris, and slopes facing south from mid-May to mid-July. Once the new tubers are formed from the ancestry tuber, the ancestry tuber begins to decay. The offspring tuber, apparently gaining nutrients through rhizomorphs, begins to grow in length and slowly to enlarge. It takes three years for the offspring tuber to become ancestry tuber.

  • PDF

Variation of Fresh Shoot Quality by Storage Temperature after Harvesting in Local Strain of Sedum sarmentosum (돌나물 수집계통의 수확후 저장온도에 따른 품질변이)

  • Kim, Hyo-Jin;Bae, Jong-Hyang;Lee, Seung-Yeob
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.240-246
    • /
    • 2007
  • To evaluated the effect of low temperature storage on quality of fresh shoot of Sedum sermentosum, weight loss, Hunter L, a and b value, chlorophyll, water content, and general appearance were investigated during storage at 20, 10, and $5^{\circ}C$. Just after harvesting, fresh shoots ($10{\pm}2cm$ length) were stored with wrap film (linear LDPE)-packaged condition using the Styrofoam dish ($20{\times}10cm$, which 40 fresh shoots per dish). The fresh weight of 40 shoots was gradually decreased according to days after storage and higher storage temperature. The weight loss of fresh shoots showed significant difference (8.7-25.3%) between just before storage and 10 days after storage, and the degree of weight loss was more severer in higher storage temperature. Wanju local strain showed the lowest weight loss, and the most severe case was Pohang local strain. SPAD value related to chlorophyll content was rapidly decreased after 4 and 6 days at 20 and $10^{\circ}C$ storage, respectively. It was slowly decreased according to days after storage at $5^{\circ}C$. Yellowish color in bottom leaves of shoot appeared after 4, 6 and 8 days at 20, 10, and $5^{\circ}C$ storages, respectively. Hunter L and a values were gradually increased after storage, and it showed significant difference between just before storage and 10 days after storage. The total rate of discoloration over 50% or decay shoot was largely increased as higher temperature. It was significantly correlated to the water content of fresh shoot among local strains $(P{\leq}0.01)$. The freshness of shoot after storage was maintained in order of Wanji, Gunsan, Wando and Pohang local strain. The results indicated that the freshness was maintained for 8 days after $5^{\circ}C$ storage, when the fresh shoot was stored with wrap film-packaged condition.

Estimation of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size using Whole Genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hanwoo (한우에서 전장의 유전체 정보를 활용한 연관불평형 및 유효집단크기 추정에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Chung-Il;Lee, Joon-Ho;Lee, Deuk-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.366-372
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to estimate the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size using whole genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyped by DNA chip in Hanwoo. Using the blood samples of 35 young bulls born from 2005 to 2008 and their progenies (N=253) in a Hanwoo nucleus population collected from Hanwoo Improvement Center, 51,582 SNPs were genotyped using Bovine SNP50 chips. A total of 40,851 SNPs were used in this study after elimination of SNPs with a missing genotyping rate of over 10 percent and monomorphic SNPs (10,730 SNPs). The total autosomal genome length, measured as the sum of the longest syntenic pairs of SNPs by chromosome, was 2,541.6 Mb (Mega base pairs). The average distances of all adjacent pairs by each BTA ranged from 0.55 to 0.74 cM. Decay of LD showed an exponential trend with physical distance. The means of LD ($r^2$) among syntenic SNP pairs were 0.136 at a range of 0-0.1 Mb in physical distance and 0.06 at a range of 0.1-0.2 Mb. When these results were used for Luo's formula, about 2,000 phenotypic records were found to be required to achieve power > 0.9 to detect 5% QTL in the population of Hanwoo. As a result of estimating effective population size by generation in Hanwoo, the estimated effective population size for the current status was 84 heads and the estimate of effective population size for 50 generations of ancestors was 1,150 heads. The average decreasing rates of effective population size by generation were 9.0% at about five generations and 17.3% at the current generation. The main cause of the rapid decrease in effective population size was considered to be the intensive use of a few prominent sires since the application of artificial insemination technology in Korea. To increase and/or sustain the effective population size, the selection of various proven bulls and mating systems that consider genetic diversity are needed.

Field Studios of In-situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

  • Semprini, Lewts
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.3-4
    • /
    • 2004
  • Results will be presented from two field studies that evaluated the in-situ treatment of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) using aerobic cometabolism. In the first study, a cometabolic air sparging (CAS) demonstration was conducted at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), California, to treat chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in groundwater using propane as the cometabolic substrate. A propane-biostimulated zone was sparged with a propane/air mixture and a control zone was sparged with air alone. Propane-utilizers were effectively stimulated in the saturated zone with repeated intermediate sparging of propane and air. Propane delivery, however, was not uniform, with propane mainly observed in down-gradient observation wells. Trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1, 2-dichloroethene (c-DCE), and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration levels decreased in proportion with propane usage, with c-DCE decreasing more rapidly than TCE. The more rapid removal of c-DCE indicated biotransformation and not just physical removal by stripping. Propane utilization rates and rates of CAH removal slowed after three to four months of repeated propane additions, which coincided with tile depletion of nitrogen (as nitrate). Ammonia was then added to the propane/air mixture as a nitrogen source. After a six-month period between propane additions, rapid propane-utilization was observed. Nitrate was present due to groundwater flow into the treatment zone and/or by the oxidation of tile previously injected ammonia. In the propane-stimulated zone, c-DCE concentrations decreased below tile detection limit (1 $\mu$g/L), and TCE concentrations ranged from less than 5 $\mu$g/L to 30 $\mu$g/L, representing removals of 90 to 97%. In the air sparged control zone, TCE was removed at only two monitoring locations nearest the sparge-well, to concentrations of 15 $\mu$g/L and 60 $\mu$g/L. The responses indicate that stripping as well as biological treatment were responsible for the removal of contaminants in the biostimulated zone, with biostimulation enhancing removals to lower contaminant levels. As part of that study bacterial population shifts that occurred in the groundwater during CAS and air sparging control were evaluated by length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) fragment analysis. The results showed that an organism(5) that had a fragment size of 385 base pairs (385 bp) was positively correlated with propane removal rates. The 385 bp fragment consisted of up to 83% of the total fragments in the analysis when propane removal rates peaked. A 16S rRNA clone library made from the bacteria sampled in propane sparged groundwater included clones of a TM7 division bacterium that had a 385bp LH-PCR fragment; no other bacterial species with this fragment size were detected. Both propane removal rates and the 385bp LH-PCR fragment decreased as nitrate levels in the groundwater decreased. In the second study the potential for bioaugmentation of a butane culture was evaluated in a series of field tests conducted at the Moffett Field Air Station in California. A butane-utilizing mixed culture that was effective in transforming 1, 1-dichloroethene (1, 1-DCE), 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (1, 1, 1-TCA), and 1, 1-dichloroethane (1, 1-DCA) was added to the saturated zone at the test site. This mixture of contaminants was evaluated since they are often present as together as the result of 1, 1, 1-TCA contamination and the abiotic and biotic transformation of 1, 1, 1-TCA to 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1-DCA. Model simulations were performed prior to the initiation of the field study. The simulations were performed with a transport code that included processes for in-situ cometabolism, including microbial growth and decay, substrate and oxygen utilization, and the cometabolism of dual contaminants (1, 1-DCE and 1, 1, 1-TCA). Based on the results of detailed kinetic studies with the culture, cometabolic transformation kinetics were incorporated that butane mixed-inhibition on 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1, 1-TCA transformation, and competitive inhibition of 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1, 1-TCA on butane utilization. A transformation capacity term was also included in the model formation that results in cell loss due to contaminant transformation. Parameters for the model simulations were determined independently in kinetic studies with the butane-utilizing culture and through batch microcosm tests with groundwater and aquifer solids from the field test zone with the butane-utilizing culture added. In microcosm tests, the model simulated well the repetitive utilization of butane and cometabolism of 1.1, 1-TCA and 1, 1-DCE, as well as the transformation of 1, 1-DCE as it was repeatedly transformed at increased aqueous concentrations. Model simulations were then performed under the transport conditions of the field test to explore the effects of the bioaugmentation dose and the response of the system to tile biostimulation with alternating pulses of dissolved butane and oxygen in the presence of 1, 1-DCE (50 $\mu$g/L) and 1, 1, 1-TCA (250 $\mu$g/L). A uniform aquifer bioaugmentation dose of 0.5 mg/L of cells resulted in complete utilization of the butane 2-meters downgradient of the injection well within 200-hrs of bioaugmentation and butane addition. 1, 1-DCE was much more rapidly transformed than 1, 1, 1-TCA, and efficient 1, 1, 1-TCA removal occurred only after 1, 1-DCE and butane were decreased in concentration. The simulations demonstrated the strong inhibition of both 1, 1-DCE and butane on 1, 1, 1-TCA transformation, and the more rapid 1, 1-DCE transformation kinetics. Results of tile field demonstration indicated that bioaugmentation was successfully implemented; however it was difficult to maintain effective treatment for long periods of time (50 days or more). The demonstration showed that the bioaugmented experimental leg effectively transformed 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1-DCA, and was somewhat effective in transforming 1, 1, 1-TCA. The indigenous experimental leg treated in the same way as the bioaugmented leg was much less effective in treating the contaminant mixture. The best operating performance was achieved in the bioaugmented leg with about over 90%, 80%, 60 % removal for 1, 1-DCE, 1, 1-DCA, and 1, 1, 1-TCA, respectively. Molecular methods were used to track and enumerate the bioaugmented culture in the test zone. Real Time PCR analysis was used to on enumerate the bioaugmented culture. The results show higher numbers of the bioaugmented microorganisms were present in the treatment zone groundwater when the contaminants were being effective transformed. A decrease in these numbers was associated with a reduction in treatment performance. The results of the field tests indicated that although bioaugmentation can be successfully implemented, competition for the growth substrate (butane) by the indigenous microorganisms likely lead to the decrease in long-term performance.

  • PDF