• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decay Length

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Effect of preharvest application of chitosan on the growth and quality of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.)

  • Bae, Tae-Min;Seo, Joung-Seok;Kim, Jin-Gook;Kim, Do-Kyung;Chun, Jong-Pil;Hwang, Yong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.601-614
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    • 2018
  • Chitosan with a natural antimicrobial property has been introduced to protect horticultural crops from diseases as an environmentally friendly method. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the pre-harvest application of chitosan on growth and quality during the late stage of fruit development and on the simulated marketing of the peach fruit (Prunus persica L.). The application of chitosan with calcium chloride ($100mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$) three times at one week intervals 4 weeks before the harvest significantly increased the fruit weight, changed the fruit shape, and reduced the fruit length/diameter ratio giving the peach fruits a round oblate shape. The calcium treatment contributed to enhancing or maintaining the storage potential by increasing the flesh firmness. However, at higher concentrations of $CaCl_2$, i.e., > $600mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$, the positive effects of the chitosan application were offset, and fruit growth was not affected by calcium alone. The application of the chitosan/calcium mixture delayed fruit softening; however, this effect was shortened when the storage temperature was $20^{\circ}C$ rather than $15^{\circ}C$. The internal quality of the fruit was profoundly affected by the concentration of calcium added to the chitosan, and delayed fruit maturation was observed at a higher concentration of calcium. The pre-harvest application of chitosan with calcium contributes to the enhancement of food safety by inhibiting the occurrence of diseases during postharvest handling. Considering the above results, chitosan has the potential to improve both the yield of peach fruits and their storability. Because chitosan can enhance the freshness and shelf-life of fresh produce, it is necessary to examine its effects on other horticultural crops.

Effects of Salicylic Acid and 1-Methylcyclopropene on Physiological Disorders and Berry Quality in 'Campbell Early' Table Grapes (Salicylic acid 및 1-MCP 처리가 '캠벨얼리' 포도의 생리장해 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Joo;Noh, Soo-In;Choi, Cheol;Lim, Byung-Sun;Ahn, Young-Jik;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to compare the effect of salicylic acid (SA), an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, and the 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) fumigation, to prevent fruit quality deterioration and physiological disorders during the shelf-life of Korea's leading export grape variety 'Campbell Early'. The berries treated with SA after 1-MCP fumigation (1-MCP+SA) showed a higher firmness value and titratable acidity than single treatment of SA or 1-MCP. The rate of shattered berry was high as 41.7% for 100ppm ethephon spray, 40.8% for $25{\mu}M$ SA, and 38.2% for 1,000ppb 1-MCP, but showing only 18.7% when the SA was applied after 1-MCP fumigation. The ratio of short brushes less than 1mm was largest at 74.3% for ethephon treatment, while 1-MCP+SA treatment was found to have the longest brush length among all treatments, with a 2-4mm ratio of 22.8% and a 4-6mm ratio of 27.9%. The weight of rachis was found to be the lowest at 2.3g in the ethephon treatment, and the reduction of rachis weight loss per cluster by 1-MCP+SA treatment was evident. In addition, 1-MCP+SA treatment were effective in mitigating stem browning and berry decay during the 16-day storage period at $19^{\circ}C$ in this cultivar, so it is believed that they can be used as a practical post-harvest treatment in grape exportation.

Chain Length Effect on the Configurational Properties of an n-Alkane Chain in Solution

  • Jeon, Seung-Ho;Ree, Tai-Kyue;Oh, In-Joon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.367-371
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    • 1986
  • Dynamic and equilibrium properties of n-alkane chains immersed in solvent molecules have been investigated by a molecular dynamics method. The n-alkane chain is assumed to be a chain of elements (CH$_2$) interconnected by bonds having a fixed bond length and bond angle, but each bond of the chain is allowed to execute hindered internal rotation. We studied the effect of the number of the chain elements (N$_c$ = 10, 15 and 20) on the equilibrium properties of the system, e.g., the pair correlation functions between a chain element and solvent molecules, g$_{cs}$(r), and between the chain elements, g$_{cc}$(r), and the configurational properties such as the mean-square end-to-end distance < R$^2$ >, the mean-square radius of gyration < S$^2$ >, and the eigenvalues of the moment-of-inertia tensor < S$_i^2$ > / < S$^2$ > (i = 1, 2 and 3). We also studied the dynamic properties of the system, e.g., the autocorrelation function C(A;t) where A = R$^2$(t), = S$^2$(t), or = ${\vec{V}}(t)({\vec{V}}$ = velocity of the center of mass), and the diffusion coefficient D. The g$_{cs}$(r)'s are almost equal irrespective of the change of Nc while g$_{cc}$(r) becomes larger as N$_c$ increases; The MD computed configurational properties < R$^2$2 > and < S$^2$ > were found to be a little different from the values calculated from the statistical equations of < R$^2$ > and < S$^2$ >, it may be due to the fact that our model for the MD simulations includes a long-range volume effect. From the < S$_i^2$ > / < S$^2$ >, it is found that the chain molecule has a nearly spherical shape irrespective of the variation of N$_c$. For the dynamic properties we found that the C(R$^2$;t) and C(S$^2$;t) of lower N$_c$ decay faster than those of higher N$_c$, while the C($\vec V$;t) of the center of mass in the chain is weakly dependent on the N$_c$. The center of mass diffusion coefficient D$_c$ decreases as N$_c$ increases while the end point diffusion coefficient D$_e$ is nearly equal irrespective of the change of N$_c$.

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Studies on the Effect of Diffusion Process to Decay Resistance of Mine Props (간이처리법(簡易處理法)에 의한 갱목(坑木)의 내부효력(耐腐効力)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Shim, Chong Supp;Shin, Dong So;Jung, Hee Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 1976
  • This study has been made to make an observation regarding present status of the coal mine props which is desperately needed for coal production, despite of great shortage of the timber resources in this country, and investigate the effects of diffusion process on the decay resistances of the mine props as applied preservatives of Malenit and chromated zinc chloride. The results are as follows. 1. Present status of the coal mine props Total demand of coal mine props in the year of 1975 was approximately 456 thousand cubic meters. The main species used for mine props are conifer (mainly Pinus densiflora) and hardwood (mainly Quercus). Portions between them are half and half. With non fixed specification, wide varieties of timber in size and form are used. And volume of wood used per ton-of coal production shows also wide range from 0.017 cubic meter to 0.03 cubic meter. 2. Decay resistance test a) The oven dry weight decreased between untreated specimen and treated specimen has not shown any significantly, although it has shown some differences in average values between them. It may be caused by the shorter length of the test. b) The strength of compression test between untreated specimen and treated specimen has also shown the same results as shown in case of weight decrease. Reasons assumed are the same. c) The amounts of the extractives in one percent of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) between untreated and treated specimen have shown the large value in case of untreated specimen than that of treated. 3. The economical benifit between untreated and treated wood when applied in field has seen better in long term base in case of treated wood, although the primary cost of treated wood add a little bit more cost than that of the untreated wood.

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Reinforcing Effects around Face of Soil-Tunnel by Crown & Face-Reinforcing - Large Scale Model Testing (천단 및 막장면 수평보강에 의한 토사터널 보강효과 - 실대형실험)

  • Kwon Oh-Yeob;Choi Yong-Ki;Woo Sang-Baik;Shin Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2006
  • One of the most popular pre-reinforcement methods of tunnel heading in cohesionless soils would be the fore-polling of grouted pipes, known as RPUM (reinforced protective umbrella method) or UAM (umbrella arch method). This technique allows safe excavation even in poor ground conditions by creating longitudinal arch parallel to the tunnel axis as the tunnel advances. Some previous studies on the reinforcing effects have been performed using numerical methods and/or laboratory-based small scale model tests. The complexity of boundary conditions imposes difficulties in representing the tunnelling procedure in laboratory tests and theoretical approaches. Full-scale study to identify reinforcing effects of the tunnel heading has rarely been carried out so far. In this study, a large scale model testing for a tunnel in granular soils was performed. Reinforcing patterns considered are four cases, Non-Reinforced, Crown-Reinforced, Crown & Face-Reinforced, and Face-Reinforced. The behavior of ground and pipes as reinforcing member were fully measured as the surcharge pressure applied. The influences of reinforcing pattern, pipe length, and face reinforcement were investigated in terms of stress and displacement. It is revealed that only the Face-Reinforced has decreased sufficiently both vertical settlement in tunnel heading and horizontal displacement on the face. Vertical stresses along the tunnel axis were concentrated in tunnel heading from the test results, so the heading should be reinforced before tunnel advancing. Most of maximum axial forces and bending moments for Crown-reinforced were measured at 0.75D from the face. Also it should be recommended that the minimum length of the pipe is more than l.0D for crown reinforcement.

Problems of Metallic Dental Instruments for Dental Use (치과에서 사용되는 금속치과기구의 임상적용시 문제)

  • 최한철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.15-15
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    • 2003
  • 치과재료에 사용되는 금속재료는 주로 스테인리스강, 타이타늄, Ni-Ti, Co-Cr등과 같은 특수합금이 주로 사용되고 있다. 이들 재료는 치과 보철물과 교정재료 및 충전재료로 주로 사용되고 있으며 그 외 치과에서 사용되는 기기나 기구에도 많이 활용되고 있다. 특히 치과 보철물을 사용하여 치료를 원하는 환자가 최근에 급격히 증가하면서 임플란트 고정체와 나사 등을 이용한 치료법의 연구와 개발이 필요하게 되어 세계적으로 연구와 투자가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 그러나 재료의 설계나 합금의 설계 및 제품의 설계상의 문제로 인하여 생체조직과 결합하는데 많은 문제점이 임상적으로 발생되고 있다. 즉 임플란트 표면의 생체적합성부여, 고정체와의 결합시 파절이나 풀림현상, 골에 고정체로 사용하는 나사의 강도와 내마모성문제 등이 개선되어야 할 문제점으로 남아있다. 또한 총의치에 사용되는 자석 어태치먼트의erosion-corrosion문제, 교정선의 탄성 과 마모저항문제 등은 앞으로 계속적인 연구를 행하여야할 과제로 남아있다. 또한 국소의치에서 사용되는 frame은 정밀주조법을 통하여 제조하며 주조상의 결함 등으로 인한 클라스프의 파절 문제점이 발생되고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 치과재료로 사용되는 임플란트 고정체, 나사, 교정용 선등의 문제점을 고찰하고, 지금까지 이루어진 연구를 중심으로 최적의 개선 조건을 찾고자하였다. 최근첨단소재 및 금속재료를 사용하여 치과재료 합금을 설계할 수 있는 연구가 활발히 진행된다면 수입에 의존하고 있는 고가의 치과재료를 값이 싼 고성능의 제품으로 대체할 수 있는 효과가 클 것으로 생각된다.>$\rho$$\sub$0/=1.8 %. As t$\sub$Co/ increases, a transition from the regime of co-existence of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviors to ferromagnetic behavior was observed. Tunneling barrier called "decay length for tunneling" for the films having the thickness of Co layer from 1.4 to 1.6 nm was measured to be ranged from 0.004 to 0.021 ${\AA}$$\^$-1/.문에 기업간 관계를 연구하는 측면에서는 탐험적 연구성격이 강하다. 더 나아가 본 산업의 주된 연구가 질적이고 기업내부만을 연구했던 것에 비교하면 시초적이라고 할 수 있다. 또한 관계마케팅, CRM 등의 이론적 배경이 되고 있는 신뢰와 결속의 중요성이 재확인하는 결과도 의의라고 할 수 있다. 그리고 신뢰는 양사 간의 상호관계에서 조성될 수 있는 특성을 가진 반면, 결속은 계약관계 초기단계에서 성문화하고 규정화 할 수 있는 변수의 성격이 강하다고 할 수가 있다. 본 연구는 복잡한 기업간 관계를 지나치게 협력적 측면에서만 규명했기 때문에 많은 측면을 간과할 가능성이 있다. 또한 방법론적으로 일방향의 시각만을 고려했고, 횡단적 조사를 통하고 국내의 한 서비스제공업체와 관련이 있는 컨텐츠 공급파트너

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문주란의 항산화효소 활성과 isoenzyme 패턴의 계절적 변화

  • 오순자;고석찬
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.143-143
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    • 2003
  • 본 연구는 항산화효소의 효율적 생산을 위한 적절한 수확시기의 결정 및 산업적 가치를 검토하고자, 제주도에 자생하는 문주란 (Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum)에서 항산화효소 (SOD, peroxidase, catalase, APX) 활성과 isoenzyme 패턴의 계절적 변화양상을 조사하였다. SOD isoenzyme 패턴을 전기영동으로 살펴보면, 전체적으로 7개의 isoenzyme이 검출되었으며, 여름철과 겨울철에 있어서 뚜렷한 차이가 없을 뿐 아니라 일변화에 있어서도 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그리고 이들 isoenzyme은 $H_2O$$_2$와 KCN에 의한 선택적 저해로부터 1개의 Mn-SOD와 6개의 CuZn-SOD로 구분할 수 있었다. Catalase는 단일밴드로 나타났으며, 여름철이 겨울철에 비해 높은 활성을 보였다. Peroxidase는 전체적으로 4개의 isoenzyme이 검출되었다. 이 중 peroxidase 1은 효소활성에는 차이가 있지만 여름철과 겨울철에 모두 검출되었으며, 3개의 isoenzyme (peroxidase 2-4)은 겨울철에만 특이적으로 검출되는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 여름철에는 낮시간에 다소 높은 활성을 보였으며, 겨울철에는 낮시간보다는 새벽과 밤에 높은 활성을 보였다. APX는 8개의 isoenzyme이 검출되었으며, 여름철과 겨울철에 있어서 뚜렷한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 이상의 결과를 종합해보았을 때 SOD, catalase, peroxidase, APX 등 항산화효소의 산업적 생산을 위한 채취는 수확량을 감안하였을때 여름철이 적정 채취시기로 보인다. 그리고 문주란의 catalase와 peroxidase는 SOD나 APX는 달리 단일 밴드 또는 주요 밴드가 있고 높은 활성을 보여 정제시 유리하게 작용할 것으로 보인다. prospects will be also discussed.behaviors to ferromagnetic behavior was observed. Tunneling barrier called "decay length for tunneling" for the films having the thickness of Co layer from 1.4 to 1.6 nm was measured to be ranged from 0.004 to 0.021 ${\AA}$$\^$-1/.문에 기업간 관계를 연구하는 측면에서는 탐험적 연구성격이 강하다. 더 나아가 본 산업의 주된 연구가 질적이고 기업내부만을 연구했던 것에 비교하면 시초적이라고 할 수 있다. 또한 관계마케팅, CRM 등의 이론적 배경이 되고 있는 신뢰와 결속의 중요성이 재확인하는 결과도 의의라고 할 수 있다. 그리고 신뢰는 양사 간의 상호관계에서 조성될 수 있는 특성을 가진 반면, 결속은 계약관계 초기단계에서 성문화하고 규정화 할 수 있는 변수의 성격이 강하다고 할 수가 있다. 본 연구는 복잡한 기업간 관계를 지나치게 협력적 측면에서만 규명했기 때문에 많은 측면을 간과할 가능성이 있다. 또한 방법론적으로 일방향의 시각만을 고려했고, 횡단적 조사를 통하고 국내의 한 서비스제공업체와 관련이 있는 컨텐츠 공급파트너만의 시각을 검증했기 때문에 해석에서 유의할 필요가 있다. 또한 타당성확보 노력을 기하였지만 측정도구 면에서 엄격한 개발과정을 준수하지는 못했다. 향후에는 모바일 컨텐츠 파트너의 기업의 특성을 조사하여 관계성 변수와의 상호관련연구를 진행할 필요가 있다. 관계기간, 의존성, 거래처의 단/복수여부, 서비스 범주 등의 제반 변수를 고려하여 이러한 변수가 양사와의 관계성 변수에 어떤 영향이 있는가를 검증할 필요가 있다. 또한 신뢰, 결속 등 다차원의 개념

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Yield of Paeonia Radix and Changes of Paeoniflorin Concentration in Paeonia Radix with Different Growing Stages (작약 생육시기에 따른 약근수량 및 Paeoniflorin함량 변화)

  • ;Kwang-He Kang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.397-404
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was conducted to determine best harvesting time and observe paeoniflorin and some chemical component concentrations of 4-year-old paeonia radix in Euisung and Milyang varieties. Concentrations of paeoniflorin and some chemical components were investigated at 8 periods from Feb. to Oct. Yield of paeonia radix was investigated in Aug. 19, Sep. 18 and Oct. 17. Paeoniflorin and some chemical components were changed seriously at May as flowering time and stabilized after June. The lowest dry matter ratio was 23% and the maximum shrinkage ratio was 47% in May during all the growing stages. Especially, the difference of paeoniflorin concentrations between Euisung and Milyang was about 2%, and paeoniflorin concentrations in Milyang were higher than in Euisung variety during all the stages. Serious infection of disease in October, stem length, stem number per stock and healthful stem ratio in October were more reduced than in August. Yield of paeonia radix was not different from August to September, but that of October harvest was obviously reduced by root-decay-disease. Reasonable harvesting time in 4-year-old paeonia radix was late August to mid-September. When infected shoot rate by disease were severely high, early harvest was more stable in the yield and quality aspects.

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Fabrication of Piezoresistive Silicon Acceleration Sensor Using Selectively Porous Silicon Etching Method (선택적인 다공질 실리콘 에칭법을 이용한 압저항형 실리콘 가속도센서의 제조)

  • Sim, Jun-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Ki;Cho, Chan-Seob;Tae, Heung-Sik;Hahm, Sung-Ho;Lee, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 1996
  • A piezoresistive silicon acceleration sensor with 8 beams, utilized by an unique silicon micromachining technique using porous silicon etching method which was fabricated on the selectively diffused (111)-oriented $n/n^{+}/n$ silicon subtrates. The width, length, and thickness of the beam was $100\;{\mu}m$, $500\;{\mu}m$, and $7\;{\mu}m$, respectively, and the diameter of the mass paddle (the region suspended by the eight beams) was 1.4 mm. The seismic mass on the mass paddle was formed about 2 mg so as to measure accelerations of the range of 50g for automotive applications. For the formation of the mass, the solder mass was loaded on the mass paddle by dispensing Pb/Sn/Ag solder paste. After the solder paste is deposited, Heat treatment was carried out on the 3-zone reflow equipment. The decay time of the output signal to impulse excitation of the fabricated sensor was observed for approximately 30 ms. The sensitivity measured through summing circuit was 2.9 mV/g and the nonlinearity of the sensor was less than 2% of the full scale output. The output deviation of each bridge was ${\pm}4%$. The cross-axis sensitivity was within 4% and the resonant frequency was found to be 2.15 KHz from the FEM simulation results.

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Adsorption Thermodynamics of Polyamidoamide Epichlorohydrin Polymer in an Aqueous Fibrous Suspension (섬유 현탁액내 PAE 고분자 흡착의 열역학적 고찰)

  • Sung-Hoon Yoon;Kwang-Suk Joo;Tae-Won Lee;Kun-Han Kim;Byung-Bin Park
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2003
  • This study was to examine the thermodynamic features of polyelecrolytic adsorption of polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin(PAE) in a papermaking wet-end. The PAE adsorption experiments were conducted in a stirred jar containing an aqueous fibrous suspension and evaluated in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich parameters. The electrokinetic property of a stock was examined by measuring the zeta potential of each colloidal suspension. The polyelectrolytic PCD titration was employed to determine the adsorbed amounts of PAE polymer. The zeta potential of a stock, being varied significantly depending upon the addition of PAE polymer, showed initially a sharp increase and later an exponential decay as a function of time . The PAE adsorption exhibited a pseudo-Langmuir adsorption behavior at$20^{\circ}C$ , whereas its Freundlich power(v) increased in a proportional way at an elevated temperature. The train numbers calculated on the basis of adsorption thermodynamics were 7 to 8. The length of the extended loop of PAE was calculated as 215 nm at $20^{\circ}C$ and increased at a rate of 9% at every $10^{\circ}C$ rise in temperature. The PAE adsorption was proven to be an exothermic physisorption with the estimated adsorption enthalpy of -27 to -29 kJ/mol.