• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decay Length

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Experimental validation of simulating natural circulation of liquid metal using water

  • Lee, Min Ho;Jerng, Dong Wook;Bang, In Cheol
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.1963-1973
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    • 2020
  • Liquid metal-cooled reactors use various passive safety systems driven by natural circulation. Investigating these safety systems experimentally is more advantageous by using a simulant. Although numerous experimental approaches have been applied to natural circulation-driven passive safety systems using simulants, there has been no clear validation of the similarity law. To validate the similarity law experimentally, SINCRO-V experiment was conducted using Wood's metal and water for simulant of the Wood's metal. A pair of SINCRO-V facilities with length-scale ratio of 14.1:1 for identical Bo' was investigated, which was the main similarity parameter in temperature field simulation. In the experimental range of 0.2-1.0% of decay heat, the temperature distribution characteristics of the small water facility were very similar to that of the large Wood's metal facility. The temperature of the Wood's metal predicted by the water experiment showed good agreement with the actual Wood's metal temperature. Despite some error factors like discordance of Gr' and property change along the temperature, the water experiment predicted the Wood's metal temperature with an error of 27%. The validity of the similarity law was confirmed by the SINCRO-V experiments.

Flow Characteristics of Two-Dimensional Turbulent Stepped Wall Jet (2次元 亂流 Stepped Wall Jet 의 流動特性)

  • 부정숙;김경천;박진호;강창수
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.732-742
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    • 1985
  • Measurements of mean velocity and turbulence characteristics are obtained with a linearized constant temperature hot-wire anemometer in a two-dimensional turbulent jet discharging parallel to a flate. Wall static pressure distribution is also measure. The Reynolds number based on the jet nozzle width (D) is about 42,000 and the step height is 2.5D. The reattachment length is found to be 7.5D by using both wool tuft and oil methods. Upstream of the reattachment point, there exist double coherent structures and mean velocity, Reynolds stresses and triple product profiles are asymmetric about jet center line due to the influence of streamline curvature and recirculating flow region. Near the reattachment point, wall static pressure and turbulence quantities change its shape rapidly because of the large eddies by the solid wall. Especially, turbulence intensity has a maximum value in the reattachment regin, then decreases slowly in the redeveloping wall jet ragion. Downstream of X/D=14, a single large scale eddy structure is formed. Far downstream affer the reattachment(X/D.geq.18) mean velocity profile, the decay of maximum velocity and the variation of jet half width are nearly similar to those of plane wall jet, but the Reynolds stresses are higher than those of the latter.

Quality Change of Garlic during Storage by Stem and Root Cutting Treatments (마늘의 줄기 밑 뿌리절단에 따른 저장 중 품질변화)

  • 김종훈;김진주;정진웅;이호준;김재능
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.362-368
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    • 2002
  • Physicochemical properties of garlic bulb during storage with different cutting treatments were estimated. Garlic harvested in early June was used in this experiments. Various physicochemical factors of garlic bulb such as weight loss rate, rotten rate, sprouting rate, moisture content, reducing sugar content and total pyruvate content were investigated. Bulbs with roots, bulb without roots and bulb with stem length of l cm, 3 cm, 5 cm were stored at 2$\^{C}$ for eight months. The weight loss increased sharply after 8 months for all treatments. Weight loss occurred most severely in treated garlics with bulbs with 5 cm stem length and progressed steadily at low rates in bulbs with 1 cm stem length. Also, less decay and internal sprouting were observed in bulbs with 1 cm stem length. Cutting treatments of roots were not significant for internal sprouting. Incidence of other chemical properties of bulbs, contents of total sugar, reducing sugar and pyruvic acid were not significant statistically. Moisture contents of treated garlics was remarkably reduced in longer leaving stems. As a result, top-clipped leaving stems fur long, seemed to have a beneficial effect on physicochemical properties of garlic stored at 2$\^{C}$ for 8 months possibly due to reduced weight loss, rotten decaying and sprouting rates. Utilization of such results in the processing industry can be effective.

Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots Grown by Changing Arsenic Interruption Time (As 차단 시간 변화에 의한 InAs 양자점의 광학적 특성)

  • Choi, Yoon Ho;Ryu, Mee-Yi;Jo, Byounggu;Kim, Jin Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.86-91
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    • 2013
  • The optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied using photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements. InAs QDs were grown using an arsenic interruption growth (AIG) technique, in which the As flux was periodically interrupted by a closed As shutter during InAs QDs growth. In this study, the shutter of As source was periodically opened and closed for 1 (S1), 2 (S2), or 3 s (S3). For comparison, an InAs QD sample (S0) without As interruption was grown in a pure GaAs matrix for 20 s. The PL intensity of InAs QD samples grown by AIG technique is stronger than that of the reference sample (S0). While the PL peaks of S1 and S2 are redshifted compared to that of S0, the PL peak of S3 is blueshifted from that of S0. The increase of the PL intensity for the InAs QDs grown by AIG technique can be explained by the reduced InAs clusters, the increased QD density, the improved QD uniformity, and the improved aspect ratio (height/length). The redshift (blueshift) of the PL peak for S1 (S3) compared with that for S0 is attributed to the increase (decrease) in the QD average length compared to the average length of S0. The PL intensity, PL peak position, and PL decay time have been investigated as functions of temperature and emission wavelength. S2 shows no InAs clusters, the increased InAs QD density, the improved QD uniformity, and the improved QD aspect ratio. S2 also shows the strongest PL intensity and the longest PL decay time. These results indicate that the size (shape), density, and uniformity of InAs QDs can be controlled by using AIG technique. Therefore the emission wavelength and luminescence properties of InAs/GaAs QDs can also be controlled.

A Study on the Weight Length Index and Dental Caries of Elementary School Students (초등학생들의 체중신장지수(WLI)와 치아우식증에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sun-Mi;Kim, Song-Chon
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.25-43
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    • 2003
  • In Korea, changes in children's diet patterns accelerate their physical growth and development: frequent snacking has been presumed to be a major cause of increasing dental caries. The present study attempts to clarify the relationship between the physical development of growing children and their tooth decay. For this purpose, 632 six-grade children in 4 elementary school located in Urban(Seoul) and Rural(Po-gok, Yang-In) were classified into three groups based on the Weight Length Index(WLI), known to reflect the nutritional conditions of school-age children, and the relationship was analyzed between each group and the variables considered to be related with dental caries. The result is as follows: The average weight and height of the male is $44.88{\pm}10.89$ kg, $148.49{\pm}7.33$ cm and female is $43.35{\pm}9.60$ kg, $149.23{\pm}6.73$ cm, respectively, which are in the similar level with the Korean Physical Standard. The classification of the children by the WLI reveals a relatively high distribution of over-weighted child ren - 212 persons, 335% of the entire population. The DMFT Index was a little high in the rural area(3.15 teeth in urban and 3.31, in rural). Among the groups of children classified by the WLI, the over-weight group have the highest DMFT index(3.69 teeth). The relationship between the frequency of taking in basic nutrients and the DMFT index is also found: the relationship is not evident in case of the foods containing rich calcium, protein, as well as fruits and vegetables. But, in the protein-rich food, higher frequency of its intake means significantly lower DMFT index in the normal-weight group of the urban children. In case of carbohydrate, higher frequency of its intake means significantly higher DMFT index in all the groups of the rural children. The DMFT index has some correlations with the relevant variables: the index has a positive correlation with the frequency of snacking, and a negative correlation with the economic status. That is, the higher the frequency of snacking is, and the lower the economic status is, the higher the DMFT index may be. In the logistic multiple regression analysis conducted with the presence of DMFT as a dependent variable, only the frequency of tooth brushing is turned to be a variable affecting the presence of either decayed, missing, or filled teeth. Based on the above result, the variables affecting the DMFT index are a time spent on eating, frequency of intake of protein and carbohydrate for a week, frequency of snacking, regular dental check-ups, preventive behaviors for oral health(fluoride gargling, tooth brusing after each meal, proper tooth brushing method). These variables have a relationship with the DMFT index, but the degree is somewhat different between the groups classified either by the region or by the WLI. Therefore, appropriate nutrition management should be conducted according to the individual's nutritional conditions when the services like nutritional education are provided based on the closely-examined characteristics of each target group. And, at the same time, oral health education should be strengthened, and its importance should also be emphasized so that people can pay attention to their own oral health.

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A combination method to generate fluctuating boundary conditions for large eddy simulation

  • Wang, Dayang;Yu, X.J.;Zhou, Y.;Tse, K.T.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.579-607
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    • 2015
  • A Combination Random Flow Generation (CRFG) technique for obtaining the fluctuating inflow boundary conditions for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is proposed. The CRFG technique was developed by combining the typical RFG technique with a novel calculation of k and ${\varepsilon}$ to estimate the length- and time-scales (l, ${\tau}$) of the target fluctuating turbulence field used as the inflow boundary conditions. Through comparatively analyzing the CRFG technique and other existing numerical/experimental results, the CRFG technique was verified for the generation of turbulent wind velocity fields with prescribed turbulent statistics. Using the turbulent velocity fluctuations generated by the CRFG technique, a series of LESs were conducted to investigate the wind flow around S-, R-, L- and U-shaped building models. As the pressures of the models were also measured in wind tunnel tests, the validity of the LES, and the effectiveness of the inflow boundary generated by the CRFG techniques were evaluated through comparing the simulation results to the wind tunnel measurements. The comparison showed that the LES accurately and reliably simulates the wind-induced pressure distributions on the building surfaces, which indirectly validates the CRFG technique in generating realistic fluctuating wind velocities for use in the LES. In addition to the pressure distribution, the LES results were investigated in terms of wind velocity profiles around the building models to reveal the wind flow dynamics around bluff bodies. The LES results quantitatively showed the decay of the bluff body influence when the flow moves away from the building model.

Parametric Study on the Buffeting Response for a Cable-Stayed Bridge (사장교의 버페팅 응답 변수 연구)

  • Kim, Ho-Kyung;Choi, Sung Won;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.2A
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    • pp.371-382
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    • 2006
  • A buffeting analysis is utilized for the estimation of aerodynamic vulnerability of a cable-stayed bridge due to upcoming wind turbulences. The buffeting analysis requires several input parameters such as structural parameters, aerodynamic parameters, and aero-elastic parameters. This study is motivated to estimate the sensitivity of these parameters on buffeting responses. The Seohae bridge is selected as an example bridge. The investigated parameters consist of the inclination of lift and drag coefficient of stiffening girder section, exponential decay factors of span-wise distributed wind turbulences, roughness length, spectra of wind velocity fluctuation, and structural damping. The buffeting response showed high dependency on the input parameters. As conclusions, the importance of parameter selection is emphasized. A further study is also proposed for more general conclusions.

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Tolerance analysis of Multi-Configurative Microscopic System for Inspecting the Wire-Bonding Status of Semiconductor Chips (반도체 와이어 본딩 검사용 다중배치 현미경 광학계에 대한 공차분석)

  • Ryu, Jae-Myung;Kim, Jae-Bum;Kang, Geon-Mo;Jung, Jin-Ho;Baek, Seung-Sun;Jo, Jae-Heung
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2006
  • We have analyzed various tolerances of the multi-configurative microscopic system for inspecting the wire-bonding of a reed frame by using the Gaussian bracket method and the equivalent lens method. The tolerances for the curvature and the thickness, which are axial symmetric tolerances, are given by varying the back focal length within a fecal depth under diffraction-limited conditions. Moreover, by using the trial and error method, the axial non-symmetric tolerances for decenter and tilt are established by assigning the 5% variation of MTF(modulation transfer function) at the spatial frequency of 50 lp/mm and at the field angle of 0.7 field. As the tolerances with the most probable distribution are distributed within the range of the decay rate of less than 5% independent of the probability distribution of tolerances, we can achieve completely the desired design performances of the multi-configurative microscopic system by using the various ranges of these tolerances.

Estimation of the methane generation rate constant using a large-scale respirometer at a landfill site

  • Park, Jin-Kyu;Tameda, Kazuo;Higuchi, Sotaro;Lee, Nam-Hoon
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.339-346
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is the evaluation of the performance of a large-scale respirometer (LSR) of 17.7 L in the determination of the methane generation rate constant (k) values. To achieve this objective, a comparison between anaerobic (GB21) and LSR tests was conducted. The data were modeled using a linear function, and the resulting correlation coefficient ($R^2$) of the linear regression is 0.91. This result shows that despite the aerobic conditions, the biodegradability values that were obtained from the LSR test produced results that are similar to those from the GB21 test. In this respect, the LSR test can be an indicator of the anaerobic biodegradability for landfill waste. In addition, the results show the high repeatability of the tests with an average coefficient of variance (CV) that is lower than 10%; furthermore, the CV for the LSR is lower than that of the GB21, which indicates that the LSR-test method could provide a better representation of waste samples. Therefore, the LSR method allows for both the prediction of the long-term biodegradation potential in a shorter length of time and the reduction of the sampling errors that are caused by the heterogeneity of waste samples. The k values are $0.156y^{-1}$ and $0.127y^{-1}$ for the cumulative biogas production (GB21) and the cumulative oxygen uptake for the LSR, respectively.

Experimental Study on the Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient for the KURT (KURT 내 열전달계수 결정에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Yoon, Chan-Hoon;Kwon, Sang-Ki;Kim, Jin
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.507-516
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    • 2009
  • In cases of high-level radioactive waste repositories, heat load is apparent by radioactive waste decay. The safety of a waste repository would be influenced by changing circumstances caused by heat transfer through rock. Thus, a ventilation system is necessary to secure the waste repository. The first priority for building an appropriate ventilation system is completing a computer simulation research with thermal rock properties and a heat transfer coefficient. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient in KURT was calculated using the measurement of inner circumstance factors that include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, rock surface temperature, and barometric pressure. The heater that is 2 m in length and 5 kw in capacity heats the inside of rock in the research module by $90^{\circ}C$. As a result of determining the heat transfer coefficient in the heating section, the changes of heat transfer coefficient were found to be a maximum of 7.9%. The average heat transfer coefficient is approximately 4.533 w/$m^2{\cdot}K$.