• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decay Length

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GaN Nanowire Growth on Si Substrate by Utilizing MOCVD Methods (MOCVD 방법에 의한 Si 기판위 GaN 나노선의 성장)

  • Woo, Shi-Gwan;Shin, Dae-Keun;O, Byung-Sung;Lee, Hyung-Gyoo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.848-853
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    • 2010
  • We have grown GaN nanowires by the low pressure MOCVD method on Ni deposited oxidized Si surface and have established optimum conditions by observing surface microstructure and its photoluminescence. Optimum growth temperature of $880^{\circ}C$, growth time of 30 min, TMG source flow rate of 10 sccm have resulted in dense nanowires on the surface, however further increase of growth time or TMG flow rate has not increased the length of nanowire but has formed nanocrystals. On the contrary, the increase of ammonia flow has increased the length of nanowires and the coverage of nanowire over the surface. The shape of nanowire is needle-like with a Ni droplet at its tip; the length is tens of micron with more than 40 nm in diameter. Low temperature photoluminescence obtained from the sample at optimum growth condition has revealed several peaks related to exciton decay near band-edge, but does not show any characteristic originated from one dimensional quantum confinement. Strong and broad luminescence at 2.2 eV is observed from dense nanowire samples and this suggests that the broad band is related to e-h recombination at the surface state in a nanowire. The current result is implemented to the nanowire device fabrication by nanowire bridging between micro-patterned neighboring Ni catalysis islands.

Determining minimum analysis conditions of scale ratio change to evaluate modal damping ratio in long-span bridge

  • Oh, Seungtaek;Lee, Hoyeop;Yhim, Sung-Soon;Lee, Hak-Eun;Chun, Nakhyun
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.41-55
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    • 2018
  • Damping ratio and frequency have influence on dynamic serviceability or instability such as vortex-induced vibration and displacement amplification due to earthquake and critical flutter velocity, and it is thus important to make determination of damping ratio and frequency accurate. As bridges are getting longer, small scale model test considering similitude law must be conducted to evaluate damping ratio and frequency. Analysis conditions modified by similitude law are applied to experimental test considering different scale ratios. Generally, Nyquist frequency condition based on natural frequency modified by similitude law has been used to determine sampling rate for different scale ratios, and total time length has been determined by users arbitrarily or by considering similitude law with respect to time for different scale ratios. However, Nyquist frequency condition is not suitable for multimode system with noisy signals. In addition, there is no specified criteria for determination of total time length. Those analysis conditions severely affect accuracy of damping ratio. The focus of this study is made on the determination of minimum analysis conditions for different scale ratios. Influence of signal to noise ratio is studied according to the level of noise level. Free initial value problem is proposed to resolve the condition that is difficult to know original initial value for free vibration. Ambient and free vibration tests were used to analyze the dynamic properties of a system using data collected from tests with a two degree-of-freedom section model and performed on full bridge 3D models of cable stayed bridges. The free decay is estimated with the stochastic subspace identification method that uses displacement data to measure damping ratios under noisy conditions, and the iterative least squares method that adopts low pass filtering and fourth order central differencing. Reasonable results were yielded in numerical and experimental tests.

Characteristics Analysis of Burned tree by Terrestrial LiDAR in Forest Fired Area of Pinus densiflora (지상라이다를 활용한 소나무 산불피해지의 임목 피해특성 분석)

  • Kang, Jin-Taek;Ko, Chi-Ung;Yim, Jong-Su;Lee, Sun-Jeoung;Moon, Ga-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.6_1
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    • pp.1291-1302
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    • 2020
  • To verify the field-effectiveness of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), a terrestrial LiDAR was deployed to examine the damage properties of woods in forest fire area, then the data was compared with the results surveyed by a forestry expert. Four sample plots (30 m × 50 m, 0.15 ha) were set from the foot to the top of the mountain, and DBH, height, clear length, burned height, and crown length were investigated. Next, TLS collected information on damage characteristics found in the sample plots. This information was then compared with that amassed by the expert. The expert and the TLS survey results showed 30.8 cm and 29.9 cm for DBH, 15.8 m and 17.5 m for tree height, 8.4 m and 8.4 m for clear length, 4.0 m, 3.5 m for burned height, and 7.4 cm and 9.1 cm for crown length. With the exceptions of height and clear length, no notable discrepancy was observed between two methods. H/D ratio, CL/H ratio, and BH/CL ratio, all of which contribute to stability and decay rate of the stand, from the two methods were also compared. The human survey rated each ratio (H/D, CL/H, BH/CL in order) 51.3%, 47.1%, and 53.6%, while the TLS presented the results of 58.8%, 52.0%, and 38.7%.

Effect of Chlorella Culture Solution Using Anaerobic digestate on Seed Germination in Perennial Ryegrass (혐기소화액을 배지로 이용한 클로렐라 배양액 처리가 페레니얼라이그라스 종자 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Byeon, Ji-Eun;Lee, Jin Woong;Choi, Min Soo;Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2018
  • This experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of Chlorella culture solution using anaerobic digestate as medium on seed germination of perennial ryegrass seeds. Four treatments were compared: control with distilled water, anaerobic digestate, Chlorella culture solution and Chlorella culture filtrate. The germination percentage of perennial ryegrass seeds was highest in the Chlorella culture solution treatment. Days required for 50, 70% seed germination were faster at 1.7 day in Chlorella culture solution compared to control. Root length of perennial ryegrass seeds was longer by 1~2cm in the Chlorella culture solution compared with control. The relative root length was by 40% longer in the Chlorella culture solution treatment compared to control. The germination index (GI) of perennial ryegrass seeds was higher by 180~202% in the Chlorella culture solution treatment compared to control. The decay rate was low as 50.0% in Chlorella culture solution, but decay rate of perennial ryegrass seeds showed 86.7~83.3% in control plot and in anaerobic digestate, respectively. Chlorella culture solution have shown stimulatory effects in germination and development of root. Overall, Chlorella culture solution could be useful to apply for promotion of germination and root elongation of seeds.

Effects of Carbon Chain Length of Solvents on the Charateristics of CdSe Quantum Dots (용매의 탄소체인의 길이가 CdSe 양자점의 물성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Gyung-Mi;Kim, Su-Min;Lee, Su-Bin;Kim, Il-Gon;Yoo, Dong-Sun
    • New Physics: Sae Mulli
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    • v.67 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2017
  • We fabricated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by using paraffin, octadecene and tetradence as solvents to investigate the effects of the carbon chain length of the solvents on the characteristics of the QDs produced. The photoluminescence (PL) peak positions for the QDs grown for 60 minutes increased from 579 to 593 to 619 nm with decreasing carbon chain length of the solvents for QD radii of 2.93 nm, 2.69 nm and 2.48 nm, repectively. The growth rates of QDs decayed exponentially for all solvents, and the time constant of decay for paraffin showed the greatest value of 5.67 minutes, and the smallest full width at half maximum (FWHM). When CdSe QDs were prepared by adding a cold (room temperature) Se solution to a hot ($220^{\circ}C$) Cd solution as we did, Cd-rich QDs were produced during the early stage of synthesis. However, the Cd : Se ratio approached a value of 6 : 4 after 2 minutes of synthesis. A solvent with a short carbon chain length such as tetradecene was found to be appropriate for the synthesis of large QDs at a fast growth rate, and the solvent with a long chain length was found to be appropriate for the synthesis of mono-disperse QDs.

Growth characteristics of Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) grown in boxes to block mud shrimp (Upogebia major) (쏙 차단 상자에서 양성한 바지락의 성장 특성)

  • LEE, Gun-Ho;CHANG, Soo-Jung;CHO, Sam-Kwang;SONG, Jae-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.310-319
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    • 2019
  • Although mud shrimp (Upogebia Major) provides benefits on the tidal flat ecosystem, it is causing the mass mortality of Manila clam (Tapes philippinarum) and large economic loss to the aquaculture farmer due to spreading in the entire coastal clam farm area of the West Sea of Korea. In this study, a mud shrimp blocking box for cultivating clam was tested to prevent the mud shrimp from invading the habitat of the clam. To determine the effect of the blocking box, the growth characteristics of the clams under various culture conditions were investigated. The shell length, total weight, condition index, the presence of mud shrimp in the box, and the soil decay in the box were examined according to whether the clams were raised in the box or in natural state, whether the box is covered with a net or not and the gap size of the box. As a result, no significant differences in shell length, total weight, and condition index were found between the clam grown in the box and the natural state (P>0.05) without any evidence of invading of mud shrimp to the box. In addition, the soil inside the box was in good condition, not decayed. Therefore, using the mud shrimp blocking box, mud shrimp can be prevented from propagating to the habitat of the clam, thereby contributing to the normal production of the clam and thus to restoring the clam farming.

A numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics varied by impingement jet in turbine blade cooling (터빈블레이드의 냉각에서 충돌제트에 의해 변화되는 유동 및 열전달 특성에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-Hui;Kim, Sin-Il;Yu, Hong-Seon;Choe, Yeong-Gi
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.4013-4026
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    • 1996
  • A numerical simulation has been carried out for the jet impinging on a flat plate and a semi-circular concave surface. In this computation finite volume method was employed to solve the full Navier-Stokes equation based on a non-orthogonal coordinate with non staggered variable arrangement. The standard k-.epsilon. turbulent model and low Reynolds number k-.epsilon. model(Launder-Sharmar model) with Yap's correction were adapted. The accuracy of the numerical calculations were compared with various experimental data reported in the literature and showed good predictions of centerline velocity decay, wall pressure distribution and skin friction. For the jet impingement on a semi-circular concave surface, potential core length was calculated for two different nozzle(round edged nozzle and rectangular edged nozzle) to consider effects of the nozzle shape. The result showed that round edged nozzle had longer potential core length than rectangular edged nozzle for the same condition. Heat transfer rate along the concave surface with constant heat flux was calculated for various nozzle exit to surface distance(H/B) in the condition of same jet velocity. The maximum local Nusselt number at the stagnation point occurred at H/B = 8 where the centerline turbulent intensity had maximum value. The predicted Nusselt number showed good agreement with the experimental data at the stagnation point. However heat transfer predictions along the downstream were underestimated. This results suggest that the improved turbulence modeling is required.

Simplified Design Procedure for Reinforced Concrete Columns Based on Equivalent Column Concept

  • Afefy, Hamdy M.;El-Tony, El-Tony M.
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.393-406
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    • 2016
  • Axially loaded reinforced concrete columns are hardly exist in practice due to the development of some bending moments. These moments could be produced by gravity loads or the lateral loads. First, the current paper presents a detailed analysis on the overall structural behavior of 15 eccentrically loaded columns as well as one concentrically loaded control one. Columns bent in either single curvature or double curvature modes are tested experimentally up to failure under the effect of different end eccentricities combinations. Three end eccentricities ratio were studied, namely, 0.1b, 0.3b and 0.5b, where b is the column width. Second, an expression correlated the decay in the normalized axial capacity of the column and the acting end eccentricities was developed based on the experimental results and then verified against the available formula. Third, based on the equivalent column concept, the equivalent pin-ended columns were obtained for columns bent in either single or double curvature modes. And then, the effect of end eccentricity ratio was correlated to the equivalent column length. Finally, a simplified design procedure was proposed for eccentrically loaded braced column by transferring it to an equivalent axially loaded pin-ended slender column. The results of the proposed design procedure showed comparable results against the results of the ACI 318-14 code.

Nanoscale Microstructure and Magnetic Transport in AIN/Co/AIN/Co… Discontinuous Multilayers

  • Yang, C.J.;Zhang, M.;Zhang, Z.D.;Han, J.S.
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2003
  • Microstructure and magnetic transport phenomina in rf sputtered AIN/CO type ten- layered discontinuous films of nanoscaled [AIN(3 nm)/Co(t nm)]…$_10$ with t$_Co$=1.0∼2.0 nm have been investigated. The microstructure and tunneling magnetic resistance of the samples are strongly dependent on the thickness of Co layer, Negative tunneling magneto-resistance due to the spin-dependent transport has been observed along the current-in-plane configuration in the samples having the Co layers below 1.6 nm thick. When the thickness of Co layer was less than 1.2 nm, randomly oriented granular Co particles were completely isolated and embedded in amorphous AIN matrix, and the films showed the superparamagnetic behavior with a high MR value of ${\Delta}p/p_0$=1.8%. As t$_Co$ increases, a transition from the regime of co-existence of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviors to ferromagnetic behavior was observed. funneling barrier called “decay length far tunneling” fur the films haying the thickness of Co layer from 1.4 to 1.6 nm was measured to be ranged from 0.004 to 0.021 ${\AA}$$^{-1}$.

DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF DEFECTS ON APPLE USING MACHINE VISION

  • Suh, Sang-Ryong;Sung, Je-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.852-862
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to develop tools to detect defects of apple using machine vision. For the purpose, 6 kinds of frame for color images, R, G, B, h, S, and I frame, and a frame for near infra-red images (NIR frame) were tested first to select one which is useful to segment defect areas from apple images. After then, several methods to classify kind of defect for the segmented defect areas were developed and tested. Five kinds of apple defect -bruise , decay ,fleck worm hole and scar were investigated . The results are as follows: NIR frame was selected as the best one among the 7 kinds of image frame, and R, G and I frames showed favourable result to segment areas of apple defect. Various features of the segmented defect areas were measured to classify the defect areas. Eight kids of feature of the areas-size, roundness, axes length ratio, mean and variance of pixel values, variance of real part of spectrum, mean and variance of power spectrum resulted from spacial ourier transform were observed for the segmented defect areas in the selected 4 frames. then procedures to classify defects using the features were developed for the 4 frames and tested with 75-113 defects on apples. The test resulted that NIR and I frames showed high accuracies to classify the kind of defect as 77% and 76% , respectively.

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