• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decay Length

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Adaptive-length pendulum smart tuned mass damper using shape-memory-alloy wire for tuning period in real time

  • Pasala, Dharma Theja Reddy;Nagarajaiah, Satish
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.203-217
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    • 2014
  • Due to the shift in paradigm from passive control to adaptive control, smart tuned mass dampers (STMDs) have received considerable attention for vibration control in tall buildings and bridges. STMDs are superior to tuned mass dampers (TMDs) in reducing the response of the primary structure. Unlike TMDs, STMDs are capable of accommodating the changes in primary structure properties, due to damage or deterioration, by tuning in real time based on a local feedback. In this paper, a novel adaptive-length pendulum (ALP) damper is developed and experimentally verified. Length of the pendulum is adjusted in real time using a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator. This can be achieved in two ways i) by changing the amount of current in the SMA wire actuator or ii) by changing the effective length of current carrying SMA wire. Using an instantaneous frequency tracking algorithm, the dominant frequency of the structure can be tracked from a local feedback signal, then the length of pendulum is adjusted to match the dominant frequency. Effectiveness of the proposed ALP-STMD mechanism, combined with the STFT frequency tracking control algorithm, is verified experimentally on a prototype two-storey shear frame. It has been observed through experimental studies that the ALP-STMD absorbs most of the input energy associated in the vicinity of tuned frequency of the pendulum damper. The reduction of storey displacements up to 80 % when subjected to forced excitation (harmonic and chirp-signal) and a faster decay rate during free vibration is observed in the experiments.

Characteristics of Channelbed and Woody Debris on Mountainous Stream (산지급류소하천(山地急流小河川)에 있어서 하상미지형(河床微地形)과 유목(流木) 특성(特性))

  • Chun, Kun-Woo;Kim, Min-Sik;Park, Wan-Geun;Ezaki, Tsugio
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.86 no.1
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to acquire essential data to reduce the amount of woody debris resulted from the debris flow. This research examined topographic characteristics of the channelbed affecting generation, movement and storage of woody debris and woody characteristics related to number, sizes, shapes, decay, storage direction to mountainous stream. 1. The number of woody debris had a tendency to increase in proportion to stream width, but it was hardly affected by longitudinal gradient of stream. Especially, the greater amount of woody debris was stored at wide section of the stream with compound channel, and it was found in deposits of channelbed rather than in the present channel. 2. Total woody debris over 10cm in diameter and over 2m in length was 402 units and storage number was 35.3 units per 100m of stream. Average diameter of breast height and length were 14cm and 4m, respectively. The woody debris appeared shorter in length and greater in diameter at down-stream than up-stream. 3. Since woody debris met sediments and bed-materials of great roughness in moving, the greater amount of woody debris without root was found in up-stream and down-stream, but deformed woody debris was discovered in upper stream. Decay of woody debris was more severe in down-stream and woody debris on rotting process was found down-stream. 4. Storage direction of woody debris was mainly parallel to center line of stream, and rate of parallel and perpendicularity was 276 and 126 units, respectively. But, as woody debris storing to the perpendicular direction was unstable, the traveling debris could easily be stored. Therefore, some counterplan was required to prevent the traveling woody debris. 5. Tree species of woody debris was mainly larch, which occupied about two third of total woody debris(256 units). The woody debris of larch is easy to move due to hitting of channelbed materials or lower channelbed fluctuation because the lower part of larch is weaker than its upper part. Therefore, the section of the tree species planting in the riparian vegetation needs much more carefulness.

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Sensitivity Analysis for Joint Pricing and Lot-sizing Model with Price Dependent Demand under Day terms Supplier Credit in a Two-stage Supply Chain

  • Shinn, Seong-Whan
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, we analyze the buyer's joint pricing and lot-sizing model in a two-stage supply chain consisting of the supplier, the buyer and the customer. It is assumed that the supplier will permit a certain fixed period for settling the amount the buyer owes to him for the items supplied in order to stimulate the demand for the product. Generally, credit transactions would have a positive effect to the buyer. The availability of credit transactions from the supplier effectively reduces the cost of holding stocks for the buyer and therefore, the buyer has a lot of price options to choose his sales price for a customer in anticipation of increased the customer's demand and, as a result, it will appear to increase the buyer's inventory levels. On the other hand, in the case of decaying products in which their utility decay over time, the decaying rate with time may be expected to reduce inventory levels. In this regard, we need to analyze how much the length of credit period and the decaying rate affect the buyer's pricing and lot-sizing policy. For the analysis, we consider the situation where the customer's demand is represented as a linearly decreasing function of the buyer's sales price. From this perspective, we formulate the buyer's annual net profit and analyze the effect of the length of credit period and decaying rate of the product on the buyer's inventory policy numerically.

몬테칼로 시뮬레이션에 의한 AES 및 SIMS 깊이방향 분석

  • 이형익
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.186-186
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    • 1999
  • 시뮬레이션 모델 및 AES, SIMS에 의한 깊이방향 분석의 유용성을 확인하기 위해 이체 충돌모델에 기초한 몬테칼로 시뮬레이션을 수행하였다. 이를 위해, 현 시뮬레이션에서는 충돌 캐스캐이드에 의한 interstitial 및 vacancy 원자의 발생과 각 원자 층이 일정한 원자농도를 유지하도록 interstitial에 의한 vacancy의 소멸을 고려하였다. 이 모델은 AES 깊이 방향 분석에서는 AsAs/GaAs 초격자에, SIMS 깊이 방향 분석에는 Ta2O5/SiO2 초격자에 적용되었고, 실험으로부터 얻어진 결과들을 잘 나타냈다. 0.5keV Ar+ 이온 스퍼터링에 의한 AES 깊이방향 분석의 경우 AlAs 층에서 Al의 선택 스퍼터링에 의해 AlAs 층에서 As(MVV-32eV)의 Auger 강도는 GaAs 층에서보다 약 1.2배 크게 나타났다. 이 시뮬레이션은 Ta2O5(18nm)/SiO2(0.5nm)에 대한 SIMS 깊이방향 분석에서 표면 쪽으로의 1-3nm 정도의 피크(SiO+) 이동 및 decay length도 또한 잘 설명할 수 있었다. 이때, 낮은 에너지에서 보다 더 깊은 이온빔 믹싱이 발생하기 때문에 높은 에너지에서 오히려 더 좋은 분해능을 얻을 수 있었다.

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Preliminary Studies on Double-Diffusive Natural Convection During Physical Vapor Transport Crystal Growth of Hg2Br2 for the Spaceflight Experiments

  • Ha, Sung Ho;Kim, Geug Tae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.289-300
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    • 2019
  • We have conducted a preliminary numerical analysis to understand the effects of double-diffusive convection on the molar flux at the crystal region during the growth of mercurous bromide ($Hg_2Br_2$) crystals in 1 g and microgravity (${\mu}g$) conditions. It was found that the total molar fluxes decay first-order exponentially with the aspect ratio (AR, transport length-to-width), $1{\leq}AR{\leq}10$. With increasing the aspect ratio of the horizontal enclosure from AR = 1 up to Ar = 10, the convection flow field shifts to the advective-diffusion mode and the flow structures become stable. Therefore, altering the aspect ratio of the enclosure allows one to control the effect of the double diffusive natural convection. Moreover, microgravity environments less than $10^{-2}g$ make the effect of double-diffusive natural convection much reduced so that the convection mode could be switched over the advective-diffusion mode.

Dynamic Modeling of the Free Piston Stirling Pump for the Passive Safety Injection of the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (차세대 신형원자로의 피동형 안전 주입장치를 위한 프리피스톤 스터링 펌프의 동특성 모델)

  • Lee, Jae-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Energy Engineering kosee Conference
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 1999
  • This paper describes a passive safety injection system with free piston Stirling pump working withabundant decay heat in the nuclear reactor during the hypothetical accident. The water column in the tube assembly connected from the hot chamber to the cold chamber in the pump oscillates periodically due to thermal volume changes of non-condensable gas in each chamber. The oscillating pressure in the water column is converted into the pumping power with a suction-and-bleed type valve assembly. In this paper a dynamic model describing the frequency of oscillation and pumping pressure is developed. It was found that the pumping pressure is a function of the temperature difference between the chambers. Also, the frequency oscillation depends on the length of the tube with water column.

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Study of the Effects of Wakes on Cascade Flow (후류가 익렬유동에 미치는 영향에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Hyung-Joo;Joo, Won-Gu;Cho, Kang-Rae
    • 유체기계공업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1999
  • This paper is concerned with the viscous interaction between rotor and stator The viscous interaction is caused by wakes from upstream blades. The cascade was composed with five blades and cylinders were placed to make wakes and their location was about 50 percent of blade chord upstream. The location of cylinders were varied in the cascade axis with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 percent of pitch length. The velocity distribution in the cascade passage were measured using single slanted hot-wire and the ones in the boundary layer using boundary probe. As a result, wakes decay more rapidly at suction surface and more slowly at pressure surface. And the measurement of momentum thickness of cascade shows that the momentum thickness is larger near the blade surface. From measurement of blade boundary layer, turbulent intensity is also larger near the blade surface because wakes collide the boundary layer And wakes make boundary layer thickness smaller and delay flow separation.

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A Fundamental Study of the Supersonic Microjet (초음속 마이크로 제트 유동에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • Jeong, M.S.;Kim, H.S.;Kim, H.D.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.622-627
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    • 2001
  • Microjet flows are often encountered in many industrial applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems as well as in medical engineering fields such as a transdermal drug delivery system for needle-free injection of drugs into the skin. The Reynolds numbers of such microjets are usually several orders of magnitude below those of larger-scale jets. The supersonic microjet physics with these low Reynolds numbers are not yet understood to date. Computational modeling and simulation can provide an effective predictive capability for the major features of the supersonic microjets. In the present study, computations using the axisymmetic, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are applied to understand the supersonic microjet flow physics. The pressure ratio of the microjets is changed to obtain both the under- and over-expanded flows at the exit of the micronozzle. Sonic and supersonic microjets are simulated and compared with some experimental results available. Based on computational results, two microjets are discussed in terms of total pressure, jet decay and supersonic core length.

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A Study on the Method of Constructing and Repairing Column of Traditional Wooden Builing (전통목조건축(傳統木造建築) 기둥의 축조(築造) 및 보존방법(保存方法)에 관한 연구(硏究) 일본(日本)의 사례(事例)를 중심(中心)으로)

  • Kim, Eun Joong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 1994
  • This study deals with the method of constructing and repairing column, important element of traditional wooden building. Column should have long-lasting strength and resistance to decay and vermin because it is more important in role of structure than in that of ornament. And the rotten or the split part of wooden column should be repaired regularly or irregularly. First of all, this study treats of general character related to the life length and strength of wood. Then it describes the technical method of choosing proper wood for column and that of carpentering, painting, and mending wooden column.

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