• Title, Summary, Keyword: Decal

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Comparative Research of Decalcification Methods for Quick Diagnosis on Bone Tissue (골조직의 신속한 진단을 위한 탈회방법의 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Chul;Back, Oun-Chul;Kim, Tai-Jeon;Bae, Hyung-Joon;Kang, Hee-Gyoo
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2005
  • These studies were done to know decalcification methods to reduce the time of decalcification for quick bone tissue diagnosis. When bone tissue was decalcified with 10 % formic acid at room temperature, decalcification and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stains were complete and satisfactory after 12 hours, but some of the tissue sections fell off during staining. In this way, decalcification, H&E stains were complete and satisfactory after 24 hours, 36 hours and 48 hours, tissue sections didn't fall off during staining. When bone tissue was decalcified with 10 % formic acid in a $60^{\circ}C$ paraffin oven, decalcification and H&E stains were complete and satisfactory after 6 hours, but some tissue sections fell off during staining. In this way, decalcification and tissue sections were complete, with no falling off during staining after 8 hours, 10 hours, 12 hours, 14 hours, 24 hours, or H&E stains were satisfactory from 8 hours to 12 hours, but H&E stains appeared to reddish nucleus after 14 hours and 24 hours. Bone tissue was decalcified with 10 % formic acid for 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours at DECAL machine frequencies of 15 Hz and 45 Hz, and for 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours at a DECAL machine frequency of 90 Hz. Decalcification and H&E stains were complete and satisfactory after 6 hours at the 15 Hz and 45 Hz DECAL settings. Some of the tissue sections fell off during staining at the 15 Hz DECAL machine setting. At the 90 Hz setting, decalcification, H&E stains, and tissue sections were complete and satisfactory with no falling off during staining after 4 hours. In this way, decalcification, H&E stains, and tissue section were complete and satisfactory with no falling off during staining after 12 hours, 24 hours at all machine settings. Bone tissue was decalcified with 10 % formic acid for 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours at $37^{\circ}C$ 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours at $45^{\circ}C$ and 1 hours, 5 hours and 10 hours at $60^{\circ}C$ with the RHS-1 machine setting at 60Hz. At the temperatures of $37^{\circ}C$, $45^{\circ}C$, and $60^{\circ}C$ decalcification, H&E stains, and tissue sections were complete and satisfactory, with no falling off during staining except for after 6 hours at $37^{\circ}C$. 3 hours, 1 hours, or decalcification, H&E stains, and tissue sections were complete and satisfactory with no falling off during staining after 12 hours and 24 hours at $37^{\circ}C$, 6 hours and 12 hours at $45^{\circ}C$, and 5 hours at $60^{\circ}C$. But H&E stains appeared to reddish nucleus after 10 hours at $60^{\circ}C$. From the above reults, the authors were able to deduce that decalcification is accelerated by heat and frequency. We therefore think that it is necessary for machines which are similar to the RHS-1 machine to be maintained at the temperature evenly with agitation effect for quick decalcification.

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A Study on Ceramic Expression using Silhouette Technique and Decal Technique (실루엣기법과 전사기법을 활용한 융복합적 도자 표현 연구)

  • Kim, Won-Seok;Ro, Hea-Sin;Choi, Jung-Hwa
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2017
  • Modern ceramics is exploring the expansion of the area with various expression techniques. The silhouette technique among various expressive decoration techniques is a representative expression technique of object form expression. This emphasizes the outline of the form and expresses it and omits the inner form. It gives simplicity and intensity, and awakens aesthetic sensibility and imagination. Therefore, the researcher designed the material related to the core image of the story by designing it as a silhouette technique by using the "Acorn Story" as a subject and then making the transfer paper by using the vector graphic. The transferred paper was expressed on a ceramic plate by transferring technique. Therefore, I hope that this research, beyond the merely decorative function of ceramic expression, will become a ceramic design that will awaken imagination and aesthetic sensibility in digital information age.

A Study on Nail Art Applying the Paranoiac Critical Method of Salvador Dali (살바도르 달리(Salvador Dali)의 회화에 나타난 편집광적 비판방법(Paranoiac Critical Method)을 활용한 네일아트에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Seung-Eun;Kim, Jeong-Mee
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.151-161
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    • 2014
  • This study suggests method of expression of nail art utilizing Salvador Dali's Paranoiac Critical Method and produced the actual works based on discussions on Salvador Dali's painting, Paranoiac Critical Method, Nail Art's artistry and technique of expression. The result of the study is as follows: 1) Characteristic of Dali's painting is a Paranoiac Critical Method. If suggesting this characteristic in a method of expression of nail art, a good work which can be expressed on a small space, a nail, representing Dali is selected and 5 tips which are very similar to the rate of the painting are used in order to obtain an aesthetic effect just like a painting. And after composing on tips using the whole paining or part of painting, actual techniques of expression such as Hand Painting, Protranse or Water Decal are used. 2) the result of nail art produced utilizing Dali's Paranoiac Critical Method is as follows. Most of all, for nail art I with the topic of "The Persistence of Memory" (1931), after giving changes to 5 tips for the watch which is a part of the painting, Hand Painting technique is used using Acrylic Painting with colors which are similar colors to the painting. Then for nail art II which adopted "Slave Market with Invisible Bust of Voltaire" (1940), the whole painting is divided into 5 tips and Protranse technique which attaches printed paper onto nails was used. Lastly, for nail art III with the subject of "The Enigma of Desire My Mother, My Mother, My Mother" (1929), Water Decal which is emphasizing the parts of the painting and composing on 5 tips and copying printed picture onto Water Transfer Paper in order to attach on the nails is used. These nail arts show aesthetic characteristics such as fantasy, unconsciousness, grotesque, infinity, non-realism and horror just like paintings.

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Critical Cleaning Requirements for Back End Wafer Bumping Processes

  • Bixenman, Mike
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2000
  • As integrated circuits become more complex, the number of I/O connections per chip grow. Conventional wire-bonding, lead-frame mounting techniques are unable to keep up. The space saved by shrinking die size is lost when the die is packaged in a huge device with hundreds of leads. The solution is bumps; gold, conductive adhesive, but most importantly solder bumps. Virtually every semiconductor manufacturer in the world is using or planning to use bump technology for their larger and more complex devices. Several wafer-bumping processes used in the manufacture of bumped wafer. Some of the more popular techniques are evaporative, stencil or screen printing, electroplating, electroless nickel, solder jetting, stud humping, decal transfer, punch and die, solder injection or extrusion, tacky dot process and ball placement. This paper will discuss the process steps for bumping wafers using these techniques. Critical cleaning is a requirement for each of these processes. Key contaminants that require removal are photoresist and flux residue. Removal of these contaminants requires wet processes, which will not attack, wafer metallization or passivation. Research has focused on enhanced cleaning solutions that meet this critical cleaning requirement. Process parameters defining time, temperature, solvency and impingement energy required to solvate and remove residues from bumped wafers will be presented herein.

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Control of Pretilt Angle using a in-situ Photoalignment Method on Photo-crosslinkable Polymer Surface (광중합 가능한 폴리머 표면에 in-situ 광배향법을 이용한 프리틸트각 제어)

  • 정은아;황정연;서대식;김재형;한은주
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.350-353
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    • 2001
  • Aligning capabilities for nematic liquid crystal (NLC) using a in-situ photodimerization method on various Photo-crosslinkable polyimide (PI) based Polymer and blending photopolymer surfaces were studied. High pretilt angle of the NLC can be measured by obliquely polarized UV exposure on a photo-crosslinkable polyimide based polymer surface containing biphenyl (BP), decal (de), and cholesterol (chol) group, respectively. However, the low pretilt angle of the NLC was measured by obliquely polarized UV exposure on the blending photopolymer (PI and cinnamate materials) surfaces. Consequently, the pretilt angle of the NLC generated on the photo-crosslinkable polyimide based polymer surfaces using the in-situ photodimerization method was higher than that of the blending photopolymers.

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Wang Tile Terrain Synthesis and Real-Time Rendering using Parallax Mapping (왕(Wang) 타일 지형 합성과 시차 맵핑을 이용한 실시간 렌더링)

  • Jeong, Jae-Won;Choi, Min-Gyu
    • Journal of Korea Game Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2008
  • The geometric structure constructs terrain from height map and non-periodically tiling with Wang tile for the detail description. It will be able to express detail bump using parallax mapping to add decal data together with height data in tile. We solve the problem when the real-time rendering and propose improving of parallax mapping for the terrain.

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Fabrication of Pt-MWNT/Nafion Electrodes by Low-Temperature Decal Transfer Technique for Amperometric Hydrogen Detection

  • Rashid, Muhammad;Jun, Tae-Sun;Kim, Yong Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2014
  • A Pt nanoparticle-decorated multiwall carbon nanotube (Pt-MWNT) electrode was prepared on Nafion by a hot-pressing at relatively low temperature. This electrode exhibited an intricate entangled, nanoporous structure as a result of gathering highly anisotropic Pt-MWNTs. Individual Pt nanoparticles were confirmed to have a polycrystalline face-centered cubic structure with an average crystal size of around 3.5 nm. From the cyclic voltammograms for hydrogen redox reactions, the Pt-MWNT electrode was found to have a similar electrochemical behavior to polycrystalline Pt, and a specific electrochemical surface area of $2170cm^2mg^{-1}$. Upon exposure to hydrogen analyte, the Pt-MWNT/Nafion electrode demon-strated a very high sensitivity of $3.60{\mu}A\;ppm^{-1}$ and an excellent linear response over the concentration range of 100-1000 ppm. Moreover, this electrode was also evaluated in terms of response and recovery times, reproducibility, and long-term stability. Obtained results revealed good sensing performance in hydrogen detection.

Robust Design for Multiple Quality Attributes in Injection Molded Parts by the TOPSIS and Complex Method (TOPSIS와 콤플렉스법에 의한 사출성형품의 다속성 강건설계)

  • Park, Jong-Cheon;Kim, Gi-Beom;Kim, Gyeong-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2001
  • An automated injection molding design methodology has been developed to optimize multiple quality attributes, which are usually in conflict with each other, in injection molded parts. For the optimization, commercial CAE simulation tools and optimization techniques are integrated into the methodology. To decal with the multiple objective problem the relative closeness computed in TOPSIS(Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) is used as a performance measurement index for optimization multiple part defects. To attain robustness against process variation, Taguchi's quadratic loss function is introduced in the TOPSIS. Also, the modified complex method is used as an optimization tool to optimize objective function. The verification of the developed design methodology was carried out on simulation software with an actual model. Applied to production this methodology will be useful to companies in reducing their product development time and enhancing their product quality.

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On-line Conversion Estimation for Solvent-free Enzymatic Esterification System with Water Activity Control

  • Lee, Sun-Bok;Keehoon Won
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.76-84
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    • 2002
  • On-line conversion estimation of enzymatic esterification reactions in solvent-free media was investigated. In principle, conversion to ester can be determined from the amount of water produced by the reaction, because water is formed as a by-product in a stoichiometric manner. In this study, we estimated the water production rate only from some measurements of relative humidity and water balances without using any analytical methods. In order to test the performance of the on-line conversion estimation, the lipase-catalyzed esterification of n-capric acid and n-decal alcohol in solvent-free media was performed whilst controlling water activity at various values. The reaction conversions estimated on-line were similar to those determined by offline gas chromatographic analysis. However, when the water activity was controlled at higher values, discrepancies between the estimated conversion values and the measured values became significant. The deviation was found to be due to the inaccurate measurement of the water content in the reaction medium during the initial stages of the reaction. Using a digital filter, we were able to improve the accuracy of the on-line conversion estimation method considerably. Despite the simplicity of this method, the on-line estimated conversions were in good agreement with the off-line measured values.

Critical Cleaning Requirements for Back End Wafer Bumping Processes

  • Bixenman, Mike
    • Proceedings of the International Microelectronics And Packaging Society Conference
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2000
  • As integrated circuits become more complex, the number of I/O connections per chip grow. Conventional wire-bonding, lead-frame mounting techniques are unable to keep up. The space saved by shrinking die size is lost when the die is packaged in a huge device with hundreds of leads. The solution is bumps; gold, conductive adhesive, but most importantly solder bumps. Virtually every semiconductor manufacturer in the world is using or planning to use bump technology fur their larger and more complex devices. Several wafer-bumping processes used in the manufacture of bumped wafer. Some of the more popular techniques are evaporative, stencil or screen printing, electroplating, electrodes nickel, solder jetting, stud bumping, decal transfer, punch and die, solder injection or extrusion, tacky dot process and ball placement. This paper will discuss the process steps for bumping wafers using these techniques. Critical cleaning is a requirement for each of these processes. Key contaminants that require removal are photoresist and flux residue. Removal of these contaminants requires wet processes, which will not attack, wafer metallization or passivation. research has focused on enhanced cleaning solutions that meet this critical cleaning requirement. Process parameters defining time, temperature, solvency and impingement energy required to solvate and remove residues from bumped wafers will be presented herein.

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