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Simultaneous out-of-plane and in-plane vibration mitigations of offshore monopile wind turbines by tuned mass dampers

  • Zuo, Haoran;Bi, Kaiming;Hao, Hong
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.435-449
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    • 2020
  • To effectively extract the vast wind resource, offshore wind turbines are designed with large rotor and slender tower, which makes them vulnerable to external vibration sources such as wind and wave loads. Substantial research efforts have been devoted to mitigate the unwanted vibrations of offshore wind turbines to ensure their serviceability and safety in the normal working condition. However, most previous studies investigated the vibration control of wind turbines in one direction only, i.e., either the out-of-plane or in-plane direction. In reality, wind turbines inevitably vibrate in both directions when they are subjected to the external excitations. The studies on both the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration control of wind turbines are, however, scarce. In the present study, the NREL 5 MW wind turbine is taken as an example, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element (FE) model of the wind turbine is developed in ABAQUS. To simultaneously control the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations induced by the combined wind and wave loads, another carefully designed (i.e., tuned) spring and dashpot are added to the perpendicular direction of each Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) system that is used to control the vibrations of the tower and blades in one particular direction. With this simple modification, a bi-directional TMD system is formed and the vibrations in both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions are simultaneously suppressed. To examine the control effectiveness, the responses of the wind turbine without control, with separate TMD system and the proposed bi-directional TMD system are calculated and compared. Numerical results show that the bi-directional TMD system can simultaneously control the out-of-plane and in-plane vibrations of the wind turbine without changing too much of the conventional design of the control system. The bi-directional control system therefore could be a cost-effective solution to mitigate the bi-directional vibrations of offshore wind turbines.

CFD Application to Evaluation of Wave and Current Loads on Fixed Cylindrical Substructure for Ocean Wind Turbine (해상풍력발전용 고정식 원형 하부구조물에 작용하는 파랑 및 조류 하중 해석을 위한 CFD 기법의 적용)

  • Park, Yeon-Seok;Chen, Zheng-Shou;Kim, Wu-Joan
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2011
  • Numerical simulations were performed for the evaluation of wave and current loads on a fixed cylindrical substructure model for an ocean wind turbine using the ANSYS-CFX package. The numerical wave tank was actualized by specifying the velocity at the inlet and applying momentum loss as a wave damper at the end of the wave tank. The Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) scheme was adopted to capture the air-water interface. An accuracy validation of the numerical wave tank with a truncated vertical circular cylinder was accomplished by comparing the CFD results with Morison's formula, experimental results, and potential flow solutions using the higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM). A parametric study was carried out by alternately varying the length and amplitude of the wave. As a meaningful engineering application, in the present study, three kinds of conditions were considered, i.e., cases with current, waves, and a combination of current and progressive waves, passing through a cylindrical substructure model. It was found that the CFD results showed reasonable agreement with the results of the HOBEM and Morison's formula when only progressive waves were considered. However, when a current was included, CFD gave a smaller load than Morison's formula.

2D Pattern Deformation Analysis using Particle and Spring-Damper Mesh (입자와 스프링-댐퍼 메쉬를 이용한 2차원 패턴 변형 분석)

  • Sin Bong-Kee
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.769-780
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    • 2005
  • This paper addresses a novel application of meshes to analyzing the deformation patterns of 2D signals. The proposed mesh is distinguished form the previous models in that it includes simulated charges in each node that interact with external charges comprising an input pattern. Therelaxation of the mesh given an input is carried out by any of the well-known numerical integration techniques. The result of the relaxation is a deformed mesh. This Paper provides four criterion functions for measuring the pattern deformation. A set of trained meshes was created from the simple average of target patterns. Experimental results show that these measures, although highly intuitive, are not good enough to capture the amount and characteristics of pattern deformation. If more sophisticated measures are found and incorporated into the relaxation process, we expect that a better and high-performance mesh framework is realized.

Assessment of cyclic behavior of chevron bracing frame system equipped with multi-pipe dampers

  • Behzadfar, Behnam;Maleki, Ahmad;Yaghin, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.303-313
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    • 2020
  • Spacious experimental and numerical investigation has been conducted by researchers to increase the ductility and energy dissipation of concentrically braced frames. One of the most widely used strategies for increasing ductility and energy dissiption, is the use of energy-absorbing systems. In this regard, the cyclic behavior of a chevron bracing frame system equipped with multi-pipe dampers (CBF-MPD) was investigated through finite element method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and improve the behavior of the CBF using MPDs. Three-dimensional models of the chevron brace frame were developed via nonlinear finite element method using ABAQUS software. Finite element models included the chevron brace frame and the chevron brace frame equipped with multi-pipe dampers. The chevron brace frame model was selected as the base model for comparing and evaluating the effects of multi-tube dampers. Finite element models were then analyzed under cyclic loading and nonlinear static methods. Validation of the results of the finite element method was performed against the test results. In parametric studies, the influence of the diameter parameter to the thickness (D/t) ratio of the pipe dampers was investigated. The results indicated that the shear capacity of the pipe damper has a significant influence on determining the bracing behavior. Also, the results show that the corresponding displacement with the maximum force in the CBF-MPD compared to the CBF, increased by an average of 2.72 equal. Also, the proper choice for the dimensions of the pipe dampers increased the ductility and energy absorption of the chevron brace frame.

A new study in designing MTMDs in SDOF and MDOF systems based on the spectral analysis method

  • Baigoly, Morteza;Shargh, Farzan H.;Rofooei, Fayaz R.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.243-259
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    • 2020
  • This study aims to optimize, design, and predict the MTMDs performance in SDOF systems using spectral analysis, and then apply their results to MDOF structures. Given the importance of spectral analysis in the design of new engineering structures, achieving a method for designing TMDs based on this theory can be of great importance for structural designers. In this study, several convenient combinations of MTMDs in an SDOF system are first considered to minimize the maximum displacement. For calculating the frequency ratios of dampers, an innovative technique is adopted in which the values of different modal responses obtained from the spectral analysis are approached together. This procedure is done using a harmony search (HS) algorithm. Also, using the random vibration theory, the damping ratio of the dampers is obtained. Then, an equation is presented for predicting the performance of MTMDs. For evaluating this equation, three structures with different stories are designed. Some of the presented combinations of dampers are added to them. The time history analyses are employed to analyze the structures under 30 different accelerograms. The findings indicated that the proposed equation could efficiently predict the performance of the MTMDs. Furthermore, four different patterns of damper distribution along the height of the structures are defined. The effect of them on the maximum deformation of the structures in time history analyses is discussed, and an equation is presented to estimate this effect. The results indicated that the average and maximum error percentages of the proposed equations are about three and seven percent, respectively, compared to the time history analyses results, which are negligible values.

Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Ship Berthing System Using Active Fenders (능동형 펜더 기반의 접안지원시스템 개발 및 실선실험)

  • Kim, Chang-Woo;Lee, Dong-Hun;Park, Jung-Suk;Kim, Young-Bok
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.494-500
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    • 2020
  • Maneuvering vessels in the harbor is an interesting problem in marine cybernetics. The vessel, operated by the pilot and moving very slowly in shallow water, usually is assisted by thrusters, the main propulsion system, and tugboats. In this paper, we suggest a new vessel berthing technique using dampers (cylinder-type fenders) and a system of winches for complex and dangerous berthing situations. We found that control of the fender stroke and rope tension enabled a safe and quick berthing process. The effectiveness and usefulness of this berthing system was verified using a ship of about 2,000 tons.

Control Performance Evaluation of Smart Mid-story Isolation System with RNN Model (RNN 모델을 이용한 스마트 중간층 면진시스템의 제어성능 평가)

  • Kim, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.774-779
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    • 2020
  • The seismic response reduction capacity of a smart mid-story isolation system was investigated using the RNN model in this study. For this purpose, an RNN model was developed to make a dynamic response prediction of building structures subjected to seismic loads. An existing tall building with a mid-story isolation system was selected as an example structure for realistic research. A smart mid-story isolation system was comprised of an MR damper instead of existing lead dampers. The RNN model predicted the seismic responses accurately compared to those of the FEM model. The simulation time of the RNN model can be reduced significantly compared to the FEM model. After the numerical simulations, the smart mid-story isolation system could effectively reduce the seismic responses of the existing building compared to the conventional mid-story isolation system.

Model reduction techniques for high-rise buildings and its reduced-order controller with an improved BT method

  • Chen, Chao-Jun;Teng, Jun;Li, Zuo-Hua;Wu, Qing-Gui;Lin, Bei-Chun
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.78 no.3
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    • pp.305-317
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    • 2021
  • An AMD control system is usually built based on the original model of a target building. As a result, the fact leads a large calculation workload exists. Therefore, the orders of a structural model should be reduced appropriately. Among various model-reduction methods, a suitable reduced-order model is important to high-rise buildings. Meanwhile, a partial structural information is discarded directly in the model-reduction process, which leads to the accuracy reduction of its controller design. In this paper, an optimal technique is selected through comparing several common model-reduction methods. Then, considering the dynamic characteristics of a high-rise building, an improved balanced truncation (BT) method is proposed for establishing its reduced-order model. The abandoned structural information, including natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal information of the original model, is reconsidered. Based on the improved reduced-order model, a new reduced-order controller is designed by a regional pole-placement method. A high-rise building with an AMD system is regarded as an example, in which the energy distribution, the control effects and the control parameters are used as the indexes to analyze the performance of the improved reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is also applied to a four-storey experimental frame. The results demonstrate that the new controller has a stable control performance and a relatively short calculation time, which provides good potential for structural vibration control of high-rise buildings.

Development of Exhaust Fan with an Embedded Controller for Windowless Swine Housing (무창돈사를 위한 컨트롤러 일체형 환기팬 개발)

  • Kim, Woong
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze temperature distribution characteristics using a model swine housing for temperature sensor adjustable positioning and developed a sensor and controller embedded exhaust fans utilizing ICT fusion technology for windowless swine housing. Temperature measured by the sensor attached on the exhaust fan was also determined that there is no problem, the temperature is located in the upper fan given the measured errors shown in the 1℃ temperature difference between the lower temperature than the other positions in the model swine housing. The performance of the exhaust fan at maximum output was found to be 1920rpm, air flow rate 125㎥/min. When the open area ratio of 70% one proper air volume of the exhaust fan was found to be 75㎥/min, 60pa. Maximum efficiency in all of the output of the exhaust fan is exhibited at about 70% open area ratio of the damper. The number of revolution of the exhaust fan was 1920rpm when the output was a maximum of 100%. AC output phase of the pulse duty ratio change of the controller was shown to change without delay. It was determined that the instant fan speed control is possible.

Numerical performance assessment of Tuned Mass Dampers to mitigate traffic-induced vibrations of a steel box-girder bridge

  • Bayat, Elyas;Bayat, Meysam;Hafezzadeh, Raheb
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.78 no.2
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2021
  • In this paper, the effects of Tuned Mass dampers (TMDs) on the reduction of the vertical vibrations of a real horizontally curved steel box-girder bridge due to different traffic loads are numerically investigated. The performance of TMDs to reduce the bridge vibrations can be affected by the parameters such as dynamic characteristics of TMDs, the location of TMDs, the speed and weight of vehicles. In the first part of this study, the effects of mass ratio, damping percentage, frequency ratio, and location of TMDs on the performance of TMDs to decrease vertical vibrations of different sections of bridge deck are evaluated. In the second part, the performance of TMD is investigated for different speeds and weights of traffic loads. Results show that the mass ratio of TMDs is the more effective parameter in reducing imposed vertical vibration in comparison with the damping ratio. Furthermore, it is found that TMD is very sensitive to its tuned frequency, i.e., with a little deviation from a suitable frequency, the expected performance of TMD significantly decreased. TMDs have a positive and considerable performance at certain vehicle speeds and this performance declines when the weight of traffic loads is increased. Besides, the results reveal that the highest impact of TMD on the reduction of the vertical vibrations is when free vibrations occur for the bridge deck. In that case, maximum reductions of 24% and 59% are reported in the vertical acceleration of the bridge deck for the forced and free vibration amplitudes, respectively. The maximum reduction of 13% is also obtained for the maximum displacement of the bridge deck. The results are mainly related to the resonance condition.