• Title/Summary/Keyword: Dairy manure

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Effects of Thermal Pretreatment Temperature on the Solubilization Characteristics of Dairy Manure for Dry Anaerobic Digestion

  • Ahn, Heekwon;Lee, Seunghun;Kim, Eunjong;Lee, Jaehee;Sung, Yongjoo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2014
  • The effect of thermal pretreatment conditions on hydrolysis characteristics of dairy manure and sawdust mixtures has been evaluated. Thermal pretreatment temperature varied between 35 and $120^{\circ}C$ and the period of the treatment changed between 30 and 1440min (24h). As thermal pretreatment temperature and duration increased, organic material solublization rates were improved. Maximum solubilizations of chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrates, and volatile fatty acids(VFAs) were observed when dairy manure treated for one day at $120^{\circ}C$. Although one day treatment duration at $120^{\circ}C$ showed the highest SCOD, soluble carbohydrates, and VFAs concentration, its hydrolysis rate was only about 12%. The results reveal that the thermal pretreatment conditions tried in this study are not enough to solubilize the organic matter contained in dairy manure and sawdust mixtures. In order to maximize hydrolysis performance, the further research needs to determine the factors influences on organic material solubilization in addition to thermal pretreatment temperature and duration.

Evaluation of Leachate Replacement Effect on Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure and Sawdust Bedding Mixtures

  • Jo, Hyeonsoo;Lee, Seunghun;Kim, Eunjong;Ahn, Heekwon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.293-305
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    • 2017
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of leachate replacement frequency on solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of dairy manure using 22 L volume lab-scale digesters at mesophilic temperature ($37^{\circ}C$) in batch mode. Three different leachate replacement strategies (no replacement, once every three days, and once every nine days) were applied and three digesters per each treatment were operated for 45 days. Results showed that leachate replacement test unit every nine days resulted in 1.6 times more methane production ($53.8N{\cdot}mL\;g^{-1}{\cdot}VS$) from SSAD compared to test unit every three days ($34.0N{\cdot}mL\;g^{-1}{\cdot}VS$). No leachate replacement strategy applied group showed slightly higher methane production ($56.3N{\cdot}mL\;g^{-1}{\cdot}VS$) than every nine days replaced one. When added the methane production potential of replaced leachate itself to the methane produced from digester, leachate replacement every nine days resulted in quite similar methane production ($56.5N{\cdot}mL\;g^{-1}{\cdot}VS$) to no leachate replacement group. Even though methane production potential of replaced leachate itself added to the methane produced from digester, every three days replacement showed only $34N{\cdot}mL$ methane production per gram of volatile solids. These results suggest that farmers do not need to replace leachate during SSAD of dairy manure and sawdust mixture in order to maximize methane production. If there are any concerns with accumulation of inhibiting substances in the digester, the 9-day cycle leachate replacement is appropriate.

Evaluation of Mixing Effects on Solid-state Anaerobic Digestion Performance of Dairy Manure and Sawdust Bedding Mixtures

  • Jo, Hyeonsoo;Lee, Seunghun;Lee, Jaehee;Kim, Eunjong;Ahn, Heekwon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2016
  • The influence of mixing on biogas production and organic material removal performance of solid state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and sawdust bedding mixtures was evaluated using 22 L volume lab-scale digesters. After 45 days of anaerobic digestion at $37^{\circ}C$, cumulative methane yield of unmixed test unit ($73.1N{\cdot}mL/g-VS$) was almost 1.3 times of that of mixed one ($56.3N{\cdot}mL/g-VS$). The biodegradable volatile solids removal rate of unmixed test unit was 67%, which was almost 28% greater than mixed one. Our results reveal that unmixed condition is better than mixed one in terms of biogas production and organic material reduction.

Adsorption of phosphate in water on a novel calcium hydroxide-coated dairy manure-derived biochar

  • Choi, Yong-Keun;Jang, Hyun Min;Kan, Eunsung;Wallace, Anna Rose;Sun, Wenjie
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.434-442
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    • 2019
  • The present study investigated a novel calcium hydroxide-coated dairy manure-derived biochar (Ca-BC) for adsorption of phosphate from water and dairy wastewater. The Ca-BC showed much higher adsorption of phosphate than that of dairy manure-derived biochar. The Ca-BC possessed mainly the calcium hydroxide and various functional groups resulting in high reactivity between phosphate and calcium hydroxide in the Ca-BC. The adsorption of phosphate onto Ca-BC followed pseudo-second order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models indicating chemisorptive interaction occurred on energetically heterogeneous surface of Ca-BC. The maximum adsorption capacity of the Ca-BC was higher than those of iron oxide and zinc oxide-coated biochars, but lower than those of CaO- and MgO-coated biochars. However, the Ca-BC showed high reactivity per surface area for adsorption of phosphate indicating importance of surface functionalization of biochar. On the other hand, the adsorption of phosphate in dairy wastewater on Ca-BC was lower than that in water owing to competition between other anions in wastewater and phosphate. Overall, the Ca-BC would be a low cost and effective adsorbent for recovery of phosphate from water and wastewater.

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Dairy Manure and Crude Glycerin (젖소분뇨와 Crude Glycerin의 통합혐기소화)

  • Lee, Sae-Min;Lee, Sang-Rak
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the mixture ratio included 20% (GLY 20), 40% (GLY 40), and 60% (GLY 60) based on VS with the control group (GLY 0) with no crude glycerin added. Maintaining stable pH, GLY 20 and GLY 0 showed the highest total output of biogas (1.24 L/L/d) and methane(0.78 L/L/d) as its volatile solids reduction rate was 53.56%. In case of GLY 40 and GLY 60, their pH was rapidly reduced after seven days of the study, so that their anaerobic digestion was all stopped.In the results of the study, it is desirable to add crude glycerin less than 20%, and it would be necessary to have the future researches on more detailed organic loading rate of each ratio, and analysis on economic feasibility.

Influences of Mixing Frequency on the Composting Performance of the Broiler and Dairy Manure Mixtures (퇴비재료의 교반빈도가 육계분과 유우분 혼합물 퇴비화 성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Park K.J.;Bae Y.H.;Hong J.H.;Wi T.W.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.41-44
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    • 2006
  • Broiler manure has much nutrient that can be used as the organic fertilizer to enhance the fertility of soil. However, if it is used directly without biodegradation of organic materials and destruction of weed seed and harmful bacteria, it can produce the generation of weed and disease of plant. Composting of manure is a biodegradation of organic materials into inorganic materials and humus. To proceed biodegradation of manure effectively and enhance the composting performance, optimum environmental condition for microbial growing should be maintained. Environmental variables which can influence the growing activity of microbes are moisture content, pH, porosity, C/N of the composting materials and oxygen supply quantity. Oxygen and porosity are usually supplied by aeration or mixing of materials. This study was intended to investigate the effect of mixing frequency on the composting performance. Mixing of composting materials was performed by turning the bioreactor up and down by hand without any mechanical energy. The broiler manure was captured from the greenhouse type broiler ham as the compounds of broiler manure and rice-hulls, which were used as the base materials. To compost the compounds of broiler manure and rice-hulls, dairy manure was mixed to get appropriate characteristics of composting material. Composting temperature over $55^{\circ}C$ for killing pathogen and weed seed was maintained for longer period with increase of mixing frequency.

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Analysis of the Structure of the Bacterial Community in the Livestock Manure-based Composting Process

  • Sasaki, Hiraku;Nonaka, Jun;Otawa, Kenichi;Kitazume, Osamu;Asano, Ryoki;Sasaki, Takako;Nakai, Yutaka
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2009
  • We investigated the structure of bacterial communities present in livestock manure-based composting processes and evaluated the bacterial succession during the composting processes. Compost samples were derived separately from swine manure, dairy manure and sewage sludge. The structure of the bacterial community was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using universal eubacterial primers. The genus Bacillus and related genera were mainly detected following the thermophilic composting phase of swine and dairy manure composts, and the members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were mainly detected in the cattle manure waste-based and sewage sludge compost. We recovered and sequenced limited number of the bands; however, the PCR-DGGE analysis showed that predominant diversities during the composting processes were markedly changed. Although PCR-DGGE analysis revealed the presence of different phyla in the early stages of composting, the members of the phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were observed to be one of the predominant phyla after the thermophilic phase.

Evaluation of Dairy Manure Production in Bedded Pack Barn (깔짚우사 내 젖소분뇨 발생량 평가)

  • Jo, Hyun-Soo;Lee, Seung-Hun;Lee, Jae-Hee;Ahn, Hee-Kwon
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to determine the amount of manure production from Holstein dairy cattle raised in bedded pack barn and the appropriate bedding material removal time. Total six heads of dairy cows (about 715 kg weight) were raised in three pens (two heads per pen) for 62 days. Average daily production of manure containing sawdust bedding was 21.2 kg per head and that of manure excluding bedding was 18.7 kg. Moisture content of bedding materials were significantly increased up to 86% of water holding capacity (WHC) of sawdust during the first 30 days. It kept very stable level after 30 to 50 days. Theoretically, 30 days after adding fresh bedding seems to be proper removal time only based on WHC. On the other hand, from a practical perspective, maximum 50 days after adding new bedding would be fine by comprehensively considering various factors such as bedding material purchasing cost, feeding environment and manure treatment.

Event Mean Concentration of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from a Dairy and Crop Farming Complex Watershed

  • Yoon, Kwang-Sik;Shirmohammadi, Adel;Choi, Woo-Jung;Jung, Jae-Woon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2006
  • Event mean concentration (EMC) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is primary information for non-point source pollution assessment of a watershed. The EMCs for various types of agriculture such as dairy and crop farming under different climate and geologic conditions are not fully investigated. A diary- and cropfarming complex agricultural watershed in Piedmont region in Maryland, USA has been monitored for 10 years as a section 319 national monitoring program of US EPA. Dairy manure was the main source of fertilizer for crop farming in this watershed. Observed mean concentrations of N and P for each event were analyzed. Distribution of EMCs for N and P showed a wide range of variations. Representative EMCs of T-N and $NO_{3}-N$ tended to be higher than those reported for other agricultural watersheds. This study confirmed that site-specific EMC information for various agricultural practices is required for better assessment of non-point source pollution using EMC method.

Dairy Manure Composting and Ammonia Gas Biofiltration - Using Coconut Peels- (유우분의 퇴비화 및 암모니아가스의 생물학적 탈취 - 코코넛 껍질의 이용 -)

  • 박금주;홍지형;최원춘
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2002
  • 축산업의 규모가 커짐에 따라 가축분뇨의 발생이 집중화되고 있으며 이 축산폐기물은 올바르게 처리하지 않을 경우 대기 및 수질환경의 오염원이 될 수 있다. 축산농가에서는 분뇨처리의 문제가 가축사육의 중요한 부분으로 대두되고 있다. 가축분뇨를 퇴비화 처리하는 과정에서 발생하는 암모니아가스는 악취의 주요성분을 이루고 있을 뿐만 아니라 퇴비 내에 존재하는 질소성분을 밖으로 유출하는 결과를 초래한다. 따라서 퇴비화하는 과정에서 악취발생의 저감과 또한 발생된 악취의 탈취는 퇴비 내에 포함되어 있는 질소 비료성분의 유출을 방지하고 작업장의 불쾌감과 환경오염을 방지한다는 측면에서 매우 중요한 과제이다. (중략)

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