• Title, Summary, Keyword: Daily Precipitation Patterns

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Classification of Daily Precipitation Patterns in South Korea using Mutivariate Statistical Methods

  • Mika, Janos;Kim, Baek-Jo;Park, Jong-Kil
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1125-1139
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    • 2006
  • The cluster analysis of diurnal precipitation patterns is performed by using daily precipitation of 59 stations in South Korea from 1973 to 1996 in four seasons of each year. Four seasons are shifted forward by 15 days compared to the general ones. Number of clusters are 15 in winter, 16 in spring and autumn, and 26 in summer, respectively. One of the classes is the totally dry day in each season, indicating that precipitation is never observed at any station. This is treated separately in this study. Distribution of the days among the clusters is rather uneven with rather low area-mean precipitation occurring most frequently. These 4 (seasons)$\times$2 (wet and dry days) classes represent more than the half (59 %) of all days of the year. On the other hand, even the smallest seasonal clusters show at least $5\sim9$ members in the 24 years (1973-1996) period of classification. The cluster analysis is directly performed for the major $5\sim8$ non-correlated coefficients of the diurnal precipitation patterns obtained by factor analysis In order to consider the spatial correlation. More specifically, hierarchical clustering based on Euclidean distance and Ward's method of agglomeration is applied. The relative variance explained by the clustering is as high as average (63%) with better capability in spring (66%) and winter (69 %), but lower than average in autumn (60%) and summer (59%). Through applying weighted relative variances, i.e. dividing the squared deviations by the cluster averages, we obtain even better values, i.e 78 % in average, compared to the same index without clustering. This means that the highest variance remains in the clusters with more precipitation. Besides all statistics necessary for the validation of the final classification, 4 cluster centers are mapped for each season to illustrate the range of typical extremities, paired according to their area mean precipitation or negative pattern correlation. Possible alternatives of the performed classification and reasons for their rejection are also discussed with inclusion of a wide spectrum of recommended applications.

A Simulation Model for the Intermittent Hydrologic Process (II) - Markov Chain and Continuous Probability Distribution - (간헐(間歇) 수문과정(水文過程)의 모의발생(模擬發生) 모형(模型)(II) - Markov 연쇄와 연속확률분포(連續確率分布) -)

  • Lee, Jae Joon;Lee, Jung Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.523-534
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study is to develop computer simulation model that produce precipitation patterns from stochastic model. In the paper(I) of this study, the alternate renewal process(ARP) is used for the daily precipitation series. In this paper(Il), stochastic simulation models for the daily precipitation series are developed by combining Markov chain for the precipitation occurrence process and continuous probability distribution for the precipitation amounts on the wet days. The precipitation occurrence is determined by first order Markov chain with two states(dry and wet). The amounts of precipitation, given that precipitation has occurred, are described by a Gamma, Pearson Type-III, Extremal Type-III, and 3 parameter Weibull distribution. Since the daily precipitation series shows seasonal variation, models are identified for each month of the year separately. To illustrate the application of the simulation models, daily precipitation data were taken from records at the seven locations of the Nakdong and Seomjin river basin. Simulated data were similar to actual data in terms of distribution for wet and dry spells, seasonal variability, and precipitation amounts.

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Forecasting of Urban Daily Water Demand by Using Backpropagation Algorithm Neural Network (역전파 알고리즘을 이용한 상수도 일일 급수량 예측)

  • Rhee, Kyoung Hoon;Moon, Byoung Seok;Oh, Chang Ju
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study is to establish a method of estimating the daily urban water demend using Backpropagation algorithm is part of ANN(Artificial Neural Network). This method will be used for the development of the efficient management and operations of the water supply facilities. The data used were the daily urban water demend, the population and weather conditions such as treperarture, precipitation, relative humidity, etc. Kwangju city was selected for the case study area. We adjusted the weights of ANN that are iterated the training data patterns. We normalized the non-stationary time series data [-1,+1] to fast converge, and choose the input patterns by statistical methods. We separated the training and checking patterns form input date patterns. The performance of ANN is compared with multiple-regression method. We discussed the representation ability the model building process and the applicability of ANN approach for the daily water demand. ANN provided the reasonable results for time series forecasting.

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Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Summer Extreme Precipitation Events in the Republic of Korea, 2002~2011 (우리나라 여름철 극한강수현상의 시·공간적 특성(2002~2011년))

  • Lee, Seung-Wook;Choi, Gwangyong;Kim, Baek-Jo
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.393-408
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the spatio-temporal characteristics of summer extreme precipitation events in the Republic of Korea are examined based on the daily precipitation data observed at approximately 360 sites of both Automatic Weather Station (AWS) and Automated Synoptic Observation System (ASOS) networks by the Korea Meteorological Administration for the recent decade(2002~2011). During the summer Changma period(late June~mid July), both the frequency of extreme precipitation events exceeding 80mm of daily precipitation and their decadal maximum values are greatest at most of weather stations. In contrast, during the Changma pause period (late July~early August), these patterns are observed only in the northern regions of Geyeonggi province and western Kangwon province as such patterns are detected around Mt. Sobaek and Mt. Halla as well as in the southern regions of Geyeonggi province and western Kangwon province during the late Changma period (mid August~early September) due to north-south oscillation of the Changma front. Investigation of their regional patterns confirms that not only migration of the Changma front but also topological components in response to the advection of moistures such as elevation and aspect of major mountain ridges are detrimental to spatio-temporal patterns of extreme precipitation events. These results indicate that each local administration needs differentiated strategies to mitigate the potential damages by extreme precipitation events due to the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of their frequency and intensity during each Changma period.

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Possibility of Climate Change and Simulation of Soil Moisture Content on Mt. Hallasan National Park, Chejudo Island, Korea

  • Kim, Eun-Shik;Kim, Young-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 2000
  • Changing patterns and the possibility of climate change in the area of Cheiudo island, the southernmost Island in Korea, were analyzed using daily temperature and Precipitation data observed at the Cheiu Regional Meteorological Office from May 1923 to December 1998. A hydrologic simulation model "BROOK" was used to simulate and analyze the dynamics of daily soil moisture content and soil moisture deficit by applying the daily weather data. During the period, significantly increasing pattern was observed in temperature data of both annual and monthly basis, while no significantly changing pattern was observed in precipitation data. During the last 76 years. mean annual temperature was observed to have risen about 1.4$^{\circ}C$, which may show the Possibility of the initiation of climate change on the island whose validity should be tested in future studies after long-term studies on temperature. Based on the simulation, due to increased temperature, significant increase was predicted in evapotranspiration. while no significant decrease was detected in simulated soil moisture content during the period. Changing pattern of annual soil moisture content was markedly different from those of precipitation. In some dominant trees, negative effects of the drought of the late season for the previous year were shown to be statistically significant to radial growth of the tree for the current year. As annual variation of radial growth of trees is mainly affected by the soil moisture content. the information on the dynamics of soil moisture deficit possibly provides us with useful information for the interpretation of tree growth decline on the mountain. mountain.

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Effect of precipitation on soil respiration in a temperate broad-leaved forest

  • Jeong, Seok-Hee;Eom, Ji-Young;Park, Joo-Yeon;Chun, Jung-Hwa;Lee, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2018
  • Background: For understanding and evaluating a more realistic and accurate assessment of ecosystem carbon balance related with environmental change or difference, it is necessary to analyze the various interrelationships between soil respiration and environmental factors. However, the soil temperature is mainly used for gap filling and estimation of soil respiration (Rs) under environmental change. Under the fact that changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change are expected, the effects of soil moisture content (SMC) on soil respiration have not been well studied relative to soil temperature. In this study, we attempt to analyze relationship between precipitation and soil respiration in temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest for 2 years in Gwangneung. Results: The average soil temperature (Ts) measured at a depth of 5 cm during the full study period was $12.0^{\circ}C$. The minimum value for monthly Ts was $-0.4^{\circ}C$ in February 2015 and $2.0^{\circ}C$ in January 2016. The maximum monthly Ts was $23.6^{\circ}C$ in August in both years. In 2015, annual precipitation was 823.4 mm and it was 1003.8 mm in 2016. The amount of precipitation increased by 21.9% in 2016 compared to 2015, but in 2015, it rained for 8 days more than in 2016. In 2015, the pattern of low precipitation was continuously shown, and there was a long dry period as well as a period of concentrated precipitation in 2016. 473.7 mm of precipitation, which accounted for about 51.8% of the precipitation during study period, was concentrated during summer (June to August) in 2016. The maximum values of daily Rs in both years were observed on the day when precipitation of 20 mm or more. From this, the maximum Rs value in 2015 was $784.3mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ in July when 26.8 mm of daily precipitation was measured. The maximum was $913.6mg\;CO_2\;m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ in August in 2016, when 23.8 mm of daily precipitation was measured. Rs on a rainy day was 1.5~1.6 times higher than it without precipitation. Consequently, the annual Rs in 2016 was about 12% higher than it was in 2015. It was shown a result of a 14% increase in summer precipitation from 2015. Conclusions: In this study, it was concluded that the precipitation pattern has a great effect on soil respiration. We confirmed that short-term but intense precipitation suppressed soil respiration due to a rapid increase in soil moisture, while sustained and adequate precipitation activated Rs. In especially, it is very important role on Rs in potential activating period such as summer high temperature season. Therefore, the accuracy of the calculated values by functional equation can be improved by considering the precipitation in addition to the soil temperature applied as the main factor for long-term prediction of soil respiration. In addition to this, we believe that the accuracy can be further improved by introducing an estimation equation based on seasonal temperature and soil moisture.

A Simulation Model for the Intermittent Hydrologic Process(I) - Alternate Renewal Process (ARP) and Continuous Probability Distribution - (간헐(間歇) 수문과정(水文過程)의 모의발생(模擬發生) 모형(模型)(I) - 교대재생과정(交代再生過程)(ARP)과 연속확률분포(連續確率分布) -)

  • Lee, Jae Joon;Lee, Jung Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.509-521
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    • 1994
  • This study is an effort to develop computer simulation model that produce precipitation patterns from stochastic model. A stochastic model is formulated for the process of daily precipitation with considering the sequences of wet and dry days and the precipitation amounts on wet days. This study consists of 2 papers and the process of precipitation occurrence is modelled by an alternate renewal process (ARP) in paper (I). In the ARP model for the precipitation occurrence, four discrete distributions, used to fit the wet and dry spells, were as follows; truncated binomial distribution (TBD), truncated Poisson distribution (TPD), truncated negative binomial distribution (TNBD), logarithmic series distribution (LSD). In companion paper (II) the process of occurrence is developed by Markov chain. The amounts of precipitation, given that precipitation has occurred, are described by a Gamma. Pearson Type-III, Extremal Type-III, and 3 parameter Weibull distribution. Daily precipitation series model consists of two models, A-Wand A-G model, by combining the process of precipitation occurrence and a continuous probability distribution on the precipitation of wet days. To evaluate the performance of the simulation model, output from the model was compared with historical data of 7 stations in the Nakdong and Seomjin river basin. The results of paper (1) show that it is possible to design a model for the synthetic generation of IX)int precipitation patterns.

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Future Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Mechanisms over the Korean Peninsula Using a Regional Climate Model Simulation

  • Lee, Hyomee;Moon, Byung-Kwon;Wie, Jieun
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.327-341
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    • 2018
  • Extreme temperatures and precipitations are expected to be more frequently occurring due to the ongoing global warming over the Korean Peninsula. However, few studies have analyzed the synoptic weather patterns associated with extreme events in a warming world. Here, the atmospheric patterns related to future extreme events are first analyzed using the HadGEM3-RA regional climate model. Simulations showed that the variability of temperature and precipitation will increase in the future (2051-2100) compared to the present (1981-2005), accompanying the more frequent occurrence of extreme events. Warm advection from East China and lower latitudes, a stagnant anticyclone, and local foehn wind are responsible for the extreme temperature (daily T>$38^{\circ}C$) episodes in Korea. The extreme precipitation cases (>$500mm\;day^{-1}$) were mainly caused by mid-latitude cyclones approaching the Korean Peninsula, along with the enhanced Changma front by supplying water vapor into the East China Sea. These future synoptic-scale features are similar to those of present extreme events. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to accurately understand future extreme events, we should consider not only the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases or aerosol increases, but also small-scale topographic conditions and the internal variations of climate systems.

Trends on Temperature and Precipitation Extreme Events in Korea (한국의 극한 기온 및 강수 사상의 변화 경향에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Young-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.711-721
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study is to clarify whether frequency and/or severity of extreme climate events have changed significantly in Korea during recent years. Using the best available daily data, spatial and temporal aspects of ten climate change indicators are investigated on an annual and seasonal basis for the periods of 1954-1999. A systematic increase in the $90^{th}$ percentile of daily minimum temperatures at most of the analyzed areas has been observed. This increase is accompanied by a similar reduction in the number of frost days and a significant lengthening of the thermal growing season. Although the intra-annual extreme temperature range is based on only two observations, it provides a very robust and significant measure of declining extreme temperature variability. The five precipitation-related indicators show no distinct changing patterns for spatial and temporal distribution except for the regional series of maximum consecutive dry days. Interestingly, the regional series of consecutive dry days have increased significantly while the daily rainfall intensity index and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the $95^{th}$ percentile for 1901-1990 normals have insignificantly increased.

Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Extreme Precipitation Events by Typhoons Across the Republic of Korea (태풍 내습 시 남한의 극한강수현상의 시.공간적 패턴)

  • Lee, Seung-Wook;Choi, Gwangyong
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.384-400
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    • 2013
  • In this study, spatio-temporal patterns of extreme precipitation events caused by typhoons are examined based on observational daily precipitation data at approximately 340 weather stations of Korea Meterological Administration's ASOS (Automated Synoptic Observation System) and AWS (Automatic Weather System) networks for the recent 10 year period (2002~2011). Generally, extreme precipitation events by typhoons exceeding 80mm of daily precipitation commonly appear in Jeju Island, Gyeongsangnam-do, and the eastern coastal regions of the Korean Peninsula. However, the frequency, intensity and spatial extent of typhoon-driven extreme precipitation events can be modified depending on the topography of major mountain ridges as well as the pathway of and proximity to typhoons accompanying the anti-clockwise circulation of low-level moisture with hundreds of kilometers of radius. Yellow Sea-passing type of typhoons in July cause more frequent extreme precipitation events in the northern region of Gyeonggi-do, while East Sea-passing type or southern-region-landfall type of typhoons in August-early September do in the interior regions of Gyeongsangnam-do. These results suggest that when local governments develop optimal mitigation strategies against potential damages by typhoons, the pathway of and proximity to typhoons are key factors.

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