• Title, Summary, Keyword: DRL

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Regulation of Leaf Polarity during Leaf Development (잎의 발생과정에 있어서의 극성제어)

  • Cho, Kiu-Hyung;Jun, Sang-Eun;Tsukaya , Hirokazu;Kim, Gyung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2008
  • Leaves are indeterminate organs and possess a lot of genes which is involved in establishing leaf polarities. These polarities are regulated relatively early during leaf development and defined relative to the factors intrinsic to the primordia and interactions with the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Recently, several genes that control the polarity of lateral organs have been identified. Our genetic study of deformed root and leaf1 (drl1) mutant, which produces narrow, filament‐like leaves and defective meristems, revealed that DRL1 is involved in the regulation of SAM activity and leaf polarity. The DRL1 gene was found to encode a novel protein showing homology to Elongator‐associate protein (EAP) of yeast KTI12. The amino acid sequence of DRL1 is universally conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. DRL1 and the plant DRL1 homologs clearly formed a monophyletic clade, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of DRL1 homologs was maintained in the genomes of all land plants.

Measurement and Analysis of Pediatric Patient Exposure Dose Using Glass dosimeter and a PC-Based Monte Carlo Program (Glass dosimeter와 PCXMC Program을 이용한 소아피폭선량 측정 및 분석)

  • Kim, Young-Eun;Lee, Jeong-Hwa;Hong, Sun-Suk;Lee, Kwan-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2012
  • Exposed dose of young child should be managed necessarily. Young child is more sensitive than adult of a Radioactivity, especially, and lives longer than adult. Must reduce exposed dose which follows The ALARA(As Low As Reasonably Achievable)rule is recommended by ICRP(International Commission on Radiological Protection)within diagnostic useful range. Therefore, We have to prepare Pediatric DRL(Diagnostic Reference Level) in Korea as soon as possible. Consequently, in this study, wish to estimate organ dose and effective dose using PCXMC Program(a PC-Based Monte Carlo Program), and measure ESD(Entrance surface dose)and organ dose using Glass dosimeter, and then compare with DRL which follows EC(European Commission)and NRPB(National Radiological Protection Board). Using glass dosimeter and PCXMC programs conforming to the International Committee for Radioactivity Prevention(ICRP)-103 tissue weighting factor based on the item before the organs contained in the Chest, Skull, Pelvis, Abdomen in the organ doses and effective dose and dose measurements were evaluated convenience. In a straightforward way to RANDO phantom inserted glass dosimeter(GD352M)by using the hospital pediatric protocol, and in a indirect way was PCXMC the program through a virtual simulation of organ doses and effective dose were calculated. The ESD in Chest PA is 0.076mGy which is slightly higher than the DRL of NRPB(UK) is 0.07mGy, and is lower than the DRL of EC(Europe) which is 0.1mGy. The ESD in Chest Lateral is 0.130mGy which is lower than the DRL of EC(Europe) is 0.2mGy. The ESD in Skull PA is 0.423mGy which is 40 percent lower than the DRL of NRPB(UK) is 1.1mGy and is 28 percent lower than the DRL of EC(Europe) is 1.5mGy. The ESD in Skull Lateral is 0.478mGy which is half than the DRL of NRPB(UK) is 0.8mGy, is 40 percent lower than the DRL of EC(Europe) is 1mGy. The ESD in Pelvis AP is 0.293mGy which is half than the DRL of NRPB(UK) is 0.60mGy, is 30 percent lower than the DRL of EC(Europe)is 0.9mGy. Finally, the ESD in Abdomen AP is 0.223mGy which is half than the DRL of NRPB(UK) is 0.5mGy, and is 20 percent lower than the DRL of EC is 1.0mGy. The six kind of diagnostic radiological examination is generally lower than the DRL of NRPB(UK)and EC(Europe) except for Chest PA. Shouldn't overlook the age, body, other factors. Radiological technician must realize organ dose, effective dose, ESD when examining young child in hospital. That's why young child is more sensitive than adult of a Radioactivity.

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Determination of Derived Release Limits for a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (CANDU형 원전에서의 유도방출한도 결정)

  • Kim, Kyo-Youn;Hwang, Hae-Ryong;Kim, Jong-Kyung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.23-35
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    • 1994
  • A computer code DRL was developed to calculate the derived release limits at CANDU type nuclear power plants. The derived release limits resulting from DRL code is to set guidelines for the release of radionuclides in airborne and water-borne effuents during normal operations of a CANDU type nuclear power plant. The DRL code generally follows the methodology Prescribed in the CSA standard N288.1-M87 and uses the Parameter values recommended in the same standards. The DRL code was used to calculate a set of preliminary derived release limits for the Wolsong NPP.

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Comparative Analysis of the Conserved Functions of Arabidopsis DRL1 and Yeast KTI12

  • Jun, Sang Eun;Cho, Kiu-Hyung;Hwang, Ji-Young;Abdel-Fattah, Wael;Hammermeister, Alexander;Schaffrath, Raffael;Bowman, John L.;Kim, Gyung-Tae
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2015
  • Patterning of the polar axis during the early leaf developmental stage is established by cell-to-cell communication between the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia. In a previous study, we showed that the DRL1 gene, which encodes a homolog of the Elongator-associated protein KTI12 of yeast, acts as a positive regulator of adaxial leaf patterning and shoot meristem activity. To determine the evolutionally conserved functions of DRL1, we performed a comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of DRL1 and its yeast homolog, KTI12, and found that while overall homology was low, well-conserved domains were presented. DRL1 contained two conserved plant-specific domains. Expression of the DRL1 gene in a yeast KTI12-deficient yeast mutant suppressed the growth retardation phenotype, but did not rescue the caffeine sensitivity, indicating that the role of Arabidopsis Elongator-associated protein is partially conserved with yeast KTI12, but may have changed between yeast and plants in response to caffeine during the course of evolution. In addition, elevated expression of DRL1 gene triggered zymocin sensitivity, while overexpression of KTI12 maintained zymocin resistance, indicating that the function of Arabidopsis DRL1 may not overlap with yeast KTI12 with regards to toxin sensitivity. In this study, expression analysis showed that class-I KNOX genes were downregulated in the shoot apex, and that YAB and KAN were upregulated in leaves of the Arabidopsis drl1- 101 mutant. Our results provide insight into the communication network between the SAM and leaf primordia required for the establishment of leaf polarity by mediating histone acetylation or through other mechanisms.

Research Trends on Deep Reinforcement Learning (심층 강화학습 기술 동향)

  • Jang, S.Y.;Yoon, H.J.;Park, N.S.;Yun, J.K.;Son, Y.S.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2019
  • Recent trends in deep reinforcement learning (DRL) have revealed the considerable improvements to DRL algorithms in terms of performance, learning stability, and computational efficiency. DRL also enables the scenarios that it covers (e.g., partial observability; cooperation, competition, coexistence, and communications among multiple agents; multi-task; decentralized intelligence) to be vastly expanded. These features have cultivated multi-agent reinforcement learning research. DRL is also expanding its applications from robotics to natural language processing and computer vision into a wide array of fields such as finance, healthcare, chemistry, and even art. In this report, we briefly summarize various DRL techniques and research directions.

Distributed Localization for Reducing Error Propagation in Wireless Sensor Networks (센서네트워크에서 에러 전파를 고려한 분산 위치 추정 기법)

  • Kim, Taeyoung;Shon, Minhan;Choo, Hyunseung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.1068-1069
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    • 2010
  • 무선센서네트워크에서 저가의 센서 필드를 구성하기 위해 센서노드의 위치 추정은 매우 중요하다. 소수의 위치를 알고 있는 센서노드인 앵커노드를 이용하여 모든 일반노드들의 위치를 알게 하는 방법으로 DRLS이 있으며, 이 기법은 이전의 기법들에 비해 상대적으로 정확한 위치 추정을 가능하게 한다. 하지만 DRLS는 이웃하는 앵커노드가 없는 일반노드의 경우 위치 추정 정확도를 심각하게 낮추는 에러 전파가 일어나는 문제점이 있다. 본 논문은 DRLS의 에러전파를 줄이기 위한 Distributed Localization for Reducing Error Propagation (DLREP)를 제안한다. DLREP는 각 일반노드들이 DRLS를 이용하여 위치 추정을 한 뒤 한 번의 추가적인 브로드캐스트를 더 수행하여 각 일반노드가 추가적인 앵커노드의 위치 정보를 얻게 한다. 그리고 이 정보를 이용하여 앵커노드 위치를 중심으로한 초기 위치의 회전을 통해 일반노드의 에러전파가 된 위치에 대한 수정을 가한다. DLREP는 위치 측정이 완료된 DRLS에 적용되어 더 정확한 센서노드의 위치 추정을 할 수 있도록 하는 진보된 위치 추정 기법이다.

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A Study on the Age Determination with the Aid of Mandibular Molar Development (하악 구치 발육을 이용한 연령감정에 관한 연구)

  • Young-Don Hur;Jong-Mo Ahn;Chang-Lyuk Yoon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 1994
  • Age determination in children have been criticized because they rely on subjective estimations of tooth development, as seen in radiographs. This study was undertaken to obtain the objective estimation of developing teeth. The panoramic radiograph of 254 males and 254 females ranging from 6 to 14 years of age were studied. The structures measured were crown height, apex width and root length. The data weree statistically investigated with SPSS/PC + package. The results were as follows : 1. With the aid of a multiple regression model, a linear relationship between some of these distances and age was shown. 2. In th total material(6-14yr) and four-yr. intervals, linear equations are as follow : Boys : 6-14 age = 683 + 145.6 44RL + 126.6.45RL + 71.1 46DRL - 161.3 46DAW 6-10 age = 1202 + 72.6 46DRL + 100.2 44RL + 75.1 45RL 8-12 age = 3818 + 75.9 45RL - 190.9 44AW 10-14 age = 4151 + 58.6 45RL - 84.0 45AW - 130.6 44AW Girls : 6-14 age = 1587 + 104.9 45RL + 113.4 44RL - 233.1 46DAW + 81.4 47DRL - 255.9 46MAW 6-10 age = 1821 + 55.8 46DRL + 67.2 45RL - 184.2 46MAW + 56.3 44RL 8-12 age = 2435 + 68.2 45RLL + 71.3 44RL 10-14 age = 3485 + 49.9 47DRL - 51.3 45AW - 179.9 47DAW + 33.4 45RL + 39.4 44RL (DRL, length of distal root in molars. RL, root length in premolars. DAW, width of distal apex in molars. MAW, width of mesial apex in molars. AW, width of apex n molars)

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Loop-free Delay-constrained Routing algorithm with Load balancing (로드 밸런싱 기능을 갖는 루프 프리 지연 제악 라우팅 알고리즘)

  • Choe, Yeong-Su;Jeong, Jin-Uk
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.8C no.4
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    • pp.479-488
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    • 2001
  • 디지털 오디오나 비디오와 같은 멀티미디어 트래픽 QoS 제약 조건(종단간 지연, 대역폭 가용성, 패킷 분실률, 지터 등)을 요구하고 있다. 이러한 멀티미디어 트래픽의 제약 조건을 보장하기 위해서는 데이터 전송을 하기 전에 실시간 채널을 설정할 필요가 있으며 그러한 채널의 설정은 QoS 제약 조건을 고려한 효율적인 경로 설정 알고리즘을 필요로 한다. 일반적으로 네트워크에서 지연 제약 조건과 최소 비용을 만족하는 경로를 찾는 것은 NP-complete임이 증명되었다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 간단하고 분산된 루프 프리 라우팅 알고리즘(Loop-free Delay-constrained Routing algorithm with Load balancing : DRL)을 제안한다. 제안한 DRL은 지연 제약 조건을 만족하는 경로를 선택하며 네트워크의 상태에 따라 부하를 분산시키는 기능을 갖고 있다. 또한 지연 제약 라우팅을 위해 각 노드에서는 한정된 네트워크 상태 정보만을 필요로 한다. 시뮬레이션 결과는 DRL이 LDP와 마찬가지로 지연 제약조건을 만족하는 경로를 제공하면서 DCUR에 비해 루프가 발생하지 않는 경로 설정을 수행한다는 것을 보여주고 있다.

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A Transconductance Driven-Right-Leg Circuit with Improved Guarding Circuit (개선된 가딩(Guarding) 회로를 사용한 트랜스콘덕턴스 DRL 회로)

  • Hwang, In-Duk
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.58 no.8
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    • pp.1644-1650
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    • 2009
  • An improved guarding circuit is applied to a transconductance driven-right-leg circuit to decrease common-mode current at measurement electrodes due to power-line interference. After showing conventional guarding circuit is instable due to gain-peaking when used with a transconductance DRL circuit, the effect of the proposed guarding circuit modified to suppress the gain-peaking by inserting a series resistor between shields and a shield driver was analyzed. It is shown that, besides stability, the proposed guarding circuit provides two other advantages: 1) The gain of the shield driver can be set to be unit nominally. 2) The loop gain of the transconductance DRL loop can be increased due to pole-zero canceling. The proposed circuit was implemented and the advantages were confirmed.

Establishment of Release Limits for Airborne Effluent into the Environment Based on ALARA Concept (ALARA 개념(槪念)에 의한 기체상방사성물질(氣體狀放射性物質)의 환경방출한도(環境放出限度) 설정(設定))

  • Lee, Byung-Ki;Cha, Moon-Hoe;Nam, Soon-Kwon;Chang, Si-Young;Ha, Chung-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.50-63
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    • 1985
  • A derivation of new release limit, named Derived Release Limit(DRL), into the atomsphere from a reference nuclear power plant has been performed on the basis of the new system of dose limitation recommended by the ICRP, instead of the (MPC)a limit which has been currently used until now as a general standard for radioactive effluents in Korea. In DRL Calculation, a Concentration Factor Method was applied, in which the concentrations of long-term routinely released radionuclides were in equilibrium with dose in environment under the steady state condition. The analytical model used in the exposure pathway analysis was the one which has been suggested by the USNRC and the exposure limits applied in this analysis were those recommended by the USEPA lately. In the exposure pathway analysis, all of the pathways are not considered and some may be excluded either because they are not applicable or their contribution to the exposure is insignificant compared with other pathways. In case, the environmental model developed in this study was applied to the Kori nuclear power plant as the reference power plant, the highest DRL value was calculated to be as $9.10{\times}10^6Ci/yr$ for Kr-85 in external whole body exposure from the semi-infinite radioactive cloud, while the lowest DRL value was observed 3.64Ci/yr for Co-60 in external whole body exposure from the contaminated ground, by the radioactive particulates. The most critical exposure pathway to an individual in the unrestricted area of interest (Kilchun-Ri, 1.3 km to the north of the release point) seems to be the exposure pathway from the contaminated ground and the most critical radionuclide in all pathways appears to be Co-60 in the same pathway. When comparing the actual release rate from KNU-l in 1982 with the DRL's obtained here the release of radionuclides from KNU-1 were much lower than the DRL's and it could be conclued that the exposure to an individual had been kept below the exposure limits recommended by the USEPA.

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