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Effects of Coated Liposome from Discorea rhizoma Extract (DRE) -on Hypoglycemic, Serum Insulin, and Lipid Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced (산약 추출물의 리포좀 처리가 Streptozotocin으로 유발된 당뇨 마우스의 혈당 강하 효과와 혈장 인슐린 및 지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Kyung-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.310-317
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    • 2013
  • To investigate the effects of coated liposome from Discorea rhizoma extract (DRE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced, we evaluated changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, blood insulin and blood lipid concentrations in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: (DC), diabetic DRE at 10 mg/kg (DRE-1), diabetic DRE at 50 mg/kg (DRE-2), and diabetic DRE at 250 mg/kg (DRE-3). Mice had free access to water and diet (10 weeks). The DC group showed higher blood cholesterol than the DRE-1, DRE-2, DRE-3 groups. In glucose tolerance test, the DRE-1, DRE-2, and DRE-3 groups increased after 30 minutes in decremental glycemic response area under the curve. Fasting blood glucose levels in the DRE groups significantly decreased through 4 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were also lower in the DRE groups. On the other hand, the DRE-1, DRE-2 and DRE-3 groups showed higher HDL-cholesterol and insulin levels than the DC group. Moreover, blood glucose and lipid levels significantly decreased in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice treated with DRE. These results indicate that DRE may reduce elevated blood glucose levels and serum lipid concentrations in hypoglycemic and diabetic mice, suggesting its usefulness as a functional food.

Characteristics of Recycled Wafer for Solar Cell According to DRE Process (DRE 공정이 태양전지용 재생웨이퍼 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, D.G.;Kong, D.Y.;Yun, S.H.;Seo, C.T.;Lee, Y.H.;Cho, C.S.;Kim, B.H.;Bae, Y.H.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2011
  • of materials and simplification of process. Micro-blasting is one of the promising method for recycling of waste wafer due to their simple and low cost process. Therefore, in this paper, we make recycling wafer through the micro-blaster. A surface etched by micro-blaster forms particles, cracks and pyramid structure. A pyramid structure formed by micro-blaster has a advantage of reflectivity decrease. However, lifetime of minority carrier is decreased by particles and cracks. In order to solve this problems, we carried out the DRE(Damage Romove Etching). There are two ways to DRE process ; wet etching, dry etching. After the DRE process, we measured reflectivity and lifetime of minority carrier. Through these results, we confirmed that a wafer recycled can be used in solar cell.

Characteristics of Antidiabetic Effect of Dioscorea rhizoma(2) - Prevention of Diabetic Neuropathy by NGF Induction - (산약의 항당뇨 특성 연구(2) - NGF 유도 신경병증예방 -)

  • Kang, Tong-Ho;Choi, Sang-Zin;Lee, Tae-Ho;Son, Mi-Won;Park, Ji-Ho;Kim, Sun-Yeou
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.430-435
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    • 2008
  • The main cause of diabetic neuropathy, one of the most debilitating complications, is the chronic hyperglycemia, the increase sorbitol or the decrease of nerve growth factor(NGF). NGF, a protein, plays a major role in the development and maintenance of peripheral nervous system. Systemic administration of NGF prevents manifestations of neuropathy in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy. In the previous investigation, we report the hypoglycemia effect of Dioscorea rhizoma extract(DRE) in diabetic mice. The present study shows protective effect of DRE on diabetic neuropathy by induction of NGF protein. We investigated the NGF level in salivary gland and sciatic nerve of normal mouse and the effect of DRE on sciatic nerve conductivity and thermal hyperalgesia test in Type 2 db/db mouse. DRE increased endogenous NGF level in salivary gland and sciatic nerve of mouse. And sensory nerve conductivity velocity(SNCV), motor nerve conductivity velocity(MNCV) and thermal hyperalgesia increased in DRE treatment mice compared with control group. On the basis of our results, we conclude that DRE increase induction of endogenous NGF level and have protective effect on diabetic neuropathy by induction of NGF. Therefore, we propose that long-term use of DRE might help prevention of diabetes-associated complication; diabetic neuropathy.

Prostate Cancer Screening in a Healthy Population Cohort in Eastern Nepal: an Explanatory Trial Study

  • Belbase, Narayan Prasad;Agrawal, Chandra Shekhar;Pokharel, Paras Kumar;Agrawal, Sudha;Lamsal, Madhab;Shakya, Vikal Chandra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2835-2838
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    • 2013
  • Background: Prostate cancer features a substantial incidence and mortality burden, similarly to breast cancer, and it ranks among the top ten specific causes of death in males. Objective: To explore the situation of prostate cancer in a healthy population cohort in Eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal from July 2010 to June 2011. Males above 50 years visiting the Surgical Outpatient Department in BPKIHS were enrolled in the study and screening camps were organized in four Teaching District Hospitals of BPKIHS, all in Eastern Nepal. Digital rectal examination (DRE) was conducted by trained professionals after collecting blood for assessment of serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA). Trucut biopsies were performed for all individuals with abnormal PSA/DRE findings. Results: A total of 1,521 males more than 50 years of age were assessed and screened after meeting the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of individuals, 1,452 (96.2%), had PSA ${\leq}4.0$ ng/ml. Abnormal PSA (>4 ng/ml) was found in 58 (3.8%). Abnormal DRE was found in 26 (1.72%). DRE and PSA were both abnormal in 26 (1.72%) individuals. On the basis of raised PSA or abnormal DRE 58 (3.84%) individuals were subjected to digitally guided trucut biopsy. Biopsy report revealed benign prostatic hyperplasia in 47 (3.11%) and adenocarcinoma prostate in 11 (0.73%). The specificity of DRE was 66.0%with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a positive predictive value of 38.5%. The sensitivity of PSA more than 4ng/ml in detecting carcinoma prostate was 100% and the positive predictive value for serum PSA was 19.0% Conclusions: The overall cancer detection rate in this study was 0.73% and those detected were locally advanced. Larger community-based studies are highly warranted specially among high-risk groups.

Effects of Dioscoreae Rhizoma on Excercise Practice Ability and Blood Fatigue Variable Factor (산약의 운동수행능력 증진 및 항피로 효과)

  • Park, Na-Ri;Lee, Yun-Jin;Lee, Eun-Byeol;Yang, Doo-Hwa;Woo, Chang-Hoon;An, Hee-Duk
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2020
  • Objectives In this study, we analyzed the effect of Dioscoreae Rhizoma on exercise practice ability and blood fatigue variable factor in the forced swimming test. Methods Male mice were divided into four group. Mice were administrated with saline, Discorae Rhizoma extracted by water (DRW), Discorae Rhizoma extracted by 30% ethanol (DRE), red ginseng (RG), orally once per day, for 1 week. Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive swimming time and weights. Glycogen contents of liver and soleus muscle were measured at the end of the experiment. In addition, the biochemical parameters such as asparate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen, creatine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ammonia, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and free fatty acid (FFA) were analyzed. Results Both DRW and DRE showed an improvement of swimming endurance compared with control group. Levels of ALT, ammonia, TG, TC and FFA were significantly decreased in both DRW and DRE compared with control group. Levels of AST, Creatine were significantly reduced in DRE group compared with control group. Moreover LDH showed only a tendency to increase in the DRW and DRE groups. Conclusions In summary, the present study showed that Dioscoreae Rhizoma improved in physical fatigue and exercise practice ability and DRE improved the superior than those of DRW.

A Study on Destruction Potential of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Using High Ionization Energy (고이온화에너지를 이용한 육불화황 (SF6) 분해가능성 연구)

  • Ryu, Jae-Yong;Kim, Jong-Bum;Choi, Chang-Yong;Lee, Sang-Joon;Kwak, Hee-Sung;Yun, Young-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.446-453
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    • 2012
  • Destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of $SF_6$ was tested with varying degrees of ionization and initial concentrations of $SF_6$. The applied dose of ionization energy varied from 0 to 400 kGy. The initial concentration of $SF_6$ gas also varied from 1,000 ppm to 2,500 ppm. In order to assess the effect of a residence time on DRE (Destruction and Removal Efficiency, %), experiments were also conducted at different irradiation times of 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 sec, respectively. The DRE of $SF_6$ increased with an increasing amount of dose and current. Regardless of initial concentration of $SF_6$, 90% level of DRE was achieved by applying over 10 mA of electrical current.

Utility of Digital Rectal Examination, Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Transrectal Ultrasound in the Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Developing Country Perspective

  • Kash, Deep Par;Lal, Murli;Hashmi, Altaf Hussain;Mubarak, Muhammed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3087-3091
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To determine the utility of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) estimation, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Materials and Methods: All patients with abnormal DRE, TRUS, or serum tPSA >4ng/ml, in any combination, underwent TRUS-guided needle biopsy. Eight cores of prostatic tissue were obtained from different areas of the peripheral prostate and examined histopathologically for the nature of the pathology. Results: PCa was detected in 151 (50.3%) patients, remaining 149 (49.7%) showed benign changes with or without active prostatitis. PCa was detected in 13 (56.5%), 9 (19.1%), 26 (28.3%), and 103 (74.6%) of patients with tPSA <4 ng/ml, 4-10 ng/ml, 10-20 ng/ml and >20 ng/ml respectively. Only 13 patients with PCa had abnormal DRE and TRUS with serum PSA <4 ng/ml. The detection rate was highest in patients with tPSA >20 ng/ml. The association between tPSA level and cancer detection was statistically significant (p<0.01). Among 209 patients with abnormal DRE and raised serum PSA, PCa was detected in 128 (61.2%). Conclusions: The incidence of PCa increases with increasing serum level of tPSA. The overall screening and detection rate can be further improved by using DRE, TRUS and TRUS-guided prostate needle biopsies.

Protective Effect of Dioscoreae Rhizoma Extracts in MIA-induced Rat. (MIA로 유발된 골관절염 동물모델에서 산약 추출물의 골관절염 개선 효과)

  • Kim, Min Ju;Park, Hae-Jin;Kim, Kyeong Jo;Lee, Jin A;Shin, Mi-Rae;Roh, Seong-Soo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : Osteoarthritis is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage, which is characterized by chronic pain, stiffness and decrease range of motion. The present study was designed to compare the therapeutic effect of Dioscoreae Rhizoma water extract (DRW) and Dioscoreae Rhizoma 30% ethanol extract (DRE) on the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis rats. Methods : Osteoarthritis was induced by injection of MIA ($50{\mu}{\ell}$ with $80mg/m{\ell}$) into the knee joint cavity of rats. After adaptation period for seven days, rats were divided by 5 groups (n=10/group): normal group, control group, positive control (indomethacin 5 mg/kg), DRW 200 mg/kg treated group, DRE 200 mg/kg treated group (n=10/group). The hind paw weight distribution was measured with the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite ($ONOO^-$) in articulation tissue. Also, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factoralpha ($TNF{\alpha}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) were investigated by western blot analysis. Results : The administration of DRW and DRE significantly decreased the hind paw weight distribution. The ROS and $ONOO^-$ levels of cartilaginous tissue were significantly decreased in DRW and DRE compared to control group. The results showed that DRE decreased inflammatory cytokines such as iNOS and $TNF{\alpha}$. Also DRE decreased MMP-1 and increased TIMP-1. Conclusions : Based on the above results, Dioscoreae Rhizoma extract seems to have the therapeutic effect on osteoarthritis via suppression of inflammation.

Performance Test of Paylad Data Receiving Equipment for STSAT-2 (과학기술위성 2호 탑재체데이터 수신시스템의 성능 시험)

  • Lee, Jong-Ju;Seo, In-Ho;Lee, Chol;Oh, Chi-Wook;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Park, Sung-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.347-352
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    • 2007
  • This paper describes the design and implementation of PFM(Proto Flight Model, PFM) of DRE(Data Receiving Equipment, DRE) for Science and Technology Satellite 2(STSAT-2) and the results of integration performance test. DRE components are X-band receiver, DCE(Data Combine Equipment, DCE) and RAC(Receiving and Archiving Computer, RAC). DCE consists of I&Q data combiner and ECL signal distributor. RAC consists of DRC(Data Receiving Card) and ST2RAS(STSAT-2 Receiving and Archinving Software). X-band receiver receives 10Mbps QPSK I, Q satellite data and sends the data to DCE. DRC stores the I&Q combine data from DCE to RAID. The pre-processing program sorts and stores to satellite status data and payload data. The performance of DRE in the functional and space environments test satisfies the requirements of STSAT-2.

Antiviral Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Distylium racemosum Leaf Extract on Adenovirus 36 (조록나무 잎 에틸 아세테이트 분획물의 아데노바이러스 36에 대한 항바이러스 효과)

  • Kim, Hye-Ran;Yang, Eun Ju;Chang, Jeong Hyun;Chang, Kyung-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.221-229
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    • 2020
  • Distylium racemosum is an evergreen tree growing wild on Jeju Island, which has been reported to exert biological activity. Obesity is induced by genetic, metabolic, environmental, and other factors. Among these, certain bacterial and viral infections have been shown to cause obesity, which is known as infectobesity. Human adenovirus (HAdV)-36 is one of the viruses that are known to cause infectobesity in humans. Unlike extensive research on preventing obesity and developing anti-obesity drugs, little research has been conducted specifically on the prevention and treatment of infectobesity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of phytochemicals from D. racemosum on the replication of HAdV-36. A549 cells infected with HAdV-36 were treated with an ethyl acetate fraction of a D. racemosum leaf extract (DRE), and the virus titer was calculated based on the hemagglutination (HA) titer. The results showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of DRE treatment on HA titers. DRE treatment was also found to inhibit the cytopathic effects of the virus and the expression of viral genes. Quercitrin was identified as the constituent of DRE exerting an inhibitory effect on HAdV-36 replication. This study shows that DRE can be used as a candidate substance for the development of treatment for HAdV-36 infections. In addition, this study provides a basis to further investigate DRE for the development of anti-infectobesity medication.