• Title, Summary, Keyword: DPPH

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Coffee Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Defense System in Broiler Chickens (사료 내 항산화원으로서 커피박 첨가가 닭의 사양성적, 혈액생화학성상 및 항산화 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Young-Hyun;Kang, Sun-Young;Jang, In-Surk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2012
  • The effects of dietary supplementation of dried coffee meal (CM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, the weights of immune-related organs, and the antioxidant defense system in broiler chicks were examined. A total of 162, 3-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to three dietary groups: control group (CON), control diet added with 0.5% CM (CM0.5), and control diet added with 1.0% CM (CM1.0). In vitro antioxidant activity test, coffee extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in radical scavenging activity. Dietary addition of 0.5 and 1.0% of CM did not have negative effects on growth performance and feed conversion during the experimental periods, whereas dietary CM significantly (P<0.05) increased the relative weight of thymus without changes in the other organ weights. In addition, birds fed the diet supplemented with CM (0.5 and 1.0%) significantly increased blood albumin without affecting other components including glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol compared with those fed control diet. In antioxidant defense system, the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase and the level of glutathione in the small intestine and liver were not affected by dietary supplementation of CM. However, hepatic lipid peroxidation in birds fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% CM was significantly (P<0.05) decreased compared with that in control birds. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of CM(0.5~1.0%) has potential for use as a natural antioxidant source without negative effect on growth performance in broiler chickens.

Antioxidative Activities of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit and Leaf Extracts (아로니아 베리 열매 및 잎 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Hye Mi;Kong, Bong Ju;Kwon, Soon Sik;Kim, Kyeong Jin;Kim, Hae Soo;Jeon, So Ha;Ha, Ji Hoon;Kim, Jin-Sook;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the antioxidative effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit and leaf extracts were investigated. The free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activities ($FSC_{50}$) of the ethylacetate and aglycone fractions of fruit extracts were 16.29 ${\mu}g/mL$, and 12.29 ${\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of fruit extract was higher than that of leaf extracts. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities ($OSC_{50}$) of the ethylacetate and aglycone fractions of fruit extracts on ROS generated in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay showed 2.86 ${\mu}g/mL$, and 1.80 ${\mu}g/mL$, respectively. ROS scavenging activity of the aglycone fraction of fruit extracts was similar to that of L-ascorbic acid (1.50 ${\mu}g/mL$). The ROS scavenging activity of fruit extracts was higher than that of leaf extracts. The cellular protective effects of aglycone fraction of fruit extracts (${\tau}_{50}$ = 72.3 min) on the $^1O_2$-induced cellular damage of human erythrocytes especially were increased in a concentration dependent manner (5 ~ 50 ${\mu}g/mL$). ${\tau}_{50}$ (72.3 min) of the aglycone fraction showed 1.9 times higher than (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (38 min), known as lipophilic antioxidant at 10 ${\mu}g/mL$. These results incidicate that A. melanocarpa fruit extracts have higher antioxidant effects than leaf extracts and could be applicable to functional cosmetics materials for antioxidants by protecting skin exposed to solar UV radiation against ROS including $^1O_2$.

Effect of black garlic on antioxidant activity and amino acids composition in Cheonggukjang (흑마늘 첨가에 따른 청국장의 항산화 및 아미노산의 변화)

  • Jeong, Tae-Seong;Kim, Jin-Hak;An, Shin-Ae;Won, Yong-Duk;Lee, Shin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2013
  • The antioxidant activity and amino acid composition of various Cheonggukjang extracts, such as the water extract from Cheonggukjang (CWE), the alcohol extract from Cheonggukjang (CEE), the water extract from Cheonggukjang with black garlic (BWE) and the alcohol extract from Cheonggukjang with black garlic (BEE), were examined to investigate the effect of black garlic on the sensory quality and functional properties of Cheonggukjang. The total polyphenol contents of various extracts were 7.03 mg/100 g (BWE), 3.64 mg/100 g (CWE), 2.88 mg/100 g (BEE) and 0.81 mg/100 g (CEE). The radical scavenging activity of the DPPH radical was highest in BWE (91.83%), followed by BEE (37.35%), CWE (25.54%) and CEE (14.80%), in that order. The SOD-like activity was highest in BWE (20.20%), followed by BEE (9.22%), CWE (7.91%) and CEE (6.45%). The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were highest in BWE (35.18%), followed by BEE (28.33%), CWE (17.40%) and CEE ((14.93%). The total amino acid content of Cheonggukjang (CC) was higher than that of Cheonggukjang with black garlic (CCWB), but the essential amino acid content of CCWB (43.18%) was higher than that of CC (42.27%). The 27 kinds of free amino acid were found in CC, but only 23 kinds were found in CCWB. The L-lysine content was highest (9.23%) in CC, and the L-phenylalanine content was highest (23.14%) in CCWB. The free amino acids (L-threonine, L-serine, L-sarcosine, L-proline, L-alanine, L-valine and D,L-${\beta}$-aminoisobutyric acid) were found in CC but not in CCWB. The ${\gamma}$-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) was found in CCWB but not in CC. These results suggest that the addition of black garlic has beneficial effects on the functionality of Cheonggukjang without decreasing its sensory characteristics.

Effects of Heat-treated Brown Rice on Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities (열처리 온도에 따른 현미 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 활성 변화)

  • Kwak, Jieun;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kim, Hye-Won;Lee, Jeom-Sig
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.534-541
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, the effects of heat treatments on the phenolic components and antioxidative activities of various rice cultivars (from Hwaseongbyeo, Keunnunbyeo, Hongjinjubyeo, and Heugkwangbyeo) were investigated. Each brown rice cultivar was heated at six temperatures (40, 60, 90, 120, 150, and $180^{\circ}C$) for 15 min. The total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 70% ethanol extracts from heated brown rice were quantified using spectrophotometrical methods, and antioxidant activities determined using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power. Hongjinjubyeo had the highest TPC (6.50 mg GAE/g, DB) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (5.85 AAE/g, DB) at $60^{\circ}C$. Also, Heugkwangbyeo showed considerable values for TPC (6.57 and 6.89 mg GAE/g, DB) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (6.29 and 6.11 AAE/g, DB) at $40^{\circ}C$ and $180^{\circ}C$, respectively. Overall, the antioxidant activities of both Hongjinjubyeo and Heugkwangbyeo extracts had a strong positive correlation ($R^2{\geq}0.916$, ${\alpha}$=0.01) with TPC and TFC. These results indicate that heat treatment effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of Hongjinjubyeo and Heugkwangbyeo.

Anti-oxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of Pig Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates (돈피젤라틴 효소분해물의 항산화 활성 및 신경세포보호효과)

  • Kim, Dong Wook;Park, Kimoon;Ha, Goeun;Jung, Ju Ri;Chang, Ounki;Ham, Jun-Sang;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Park, Beom-Young;Song, Jin;Jang, Aera
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.258-267
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and neuroprotective effect of pig skin extracts (PS) and pig skin gelatin hydrolysates (LPS) using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). The extraction yield of PS was 3 fold higher than that of LPS. The protein content of PS was about 10 fold higher than that of LPS (p<0.05). Also LPS increased antioxidative activity dose dependently, and the activity was significantly higher than PS at all concentration (p<0.05). DPPH radical scavenging activity of LPS at 50 mg/mL was 92.97%, which was similar to $1{\mu}M$ vitamin C as a positive control. ABTS radical scavenging activity of LPS (20 mg/mL) was 89.83% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of LPS at 1 mg/mL was $141.39{\mu}M$ Trolox Equvalent/g. No significant change of human neuroblastoma cells was determined by MTT test. Cell death by oxidative stress induced by $H_2O_2$ and amyloid beta 1-42 ($A{\beta}_{1-42}$) was protected by LPS rather than PS. Acetylcholine esterase was significantly inhibited, by up to 33.62% by LPS at 10 mg/mL. Therefore, these results suggest that pig skin gelatin hydrolysates below 3 kDa have potential to be used as anti-oxidative and neuroprotective functional additives in the food industry, while further animal test should be determined in the future.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Useful Components from Sweet Potato Leaves (고구마 잎의 유용성분 추출조건 최적화)

  • Li, Meishan;Jang, Gwi Yeong;Lee, Sang Hoon;Kim, Sung Tae;Lee, Ji Hyun;Hwang, Se Gu;Sin, Hyun Man;Kim, Hong Sig;Kang, Tae Su;Jeong, Heon Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1749-1756
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to establish extraction conditions for useful components from sweet potato leaves. Extraction conditions were heating temperature ($40{\sim}60^{\circ}C$), ratio of solvent to sample (10~30 mL/g), and ethanol concentrations (50~90%). The maximum lutein content was $381.88{\mu}g/g$ under the following conditions: 81.23% ethanol concentration, $46.75^{\circ}C$ temperature, and 25.78 mL/g ratio of solvent. The maximum total polyphenol content was 58.44 mg GAE/g under 67.0%, $53.90^{\circ}C$, and 29.10 mL/g, whereas maximum total chlorophyll content was 769.14 mg/100 g under 93.10%, $69.90^{\circ}C$, and 25.98 mL/g, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity of electron-donating ability ($IC_{50}$) was 0.582 mg/mL under 64.56%, $54.63^{\circ}C$, and 19.57 mL/g, whereas total antioxidant activity was 32.54 mg AA eq/g under 64.42%, $44.51^{\circ}C$, and 26.01 mL/g, respectively. Under these conditions, experimental data matched well with the predicted data. Consequently, the present study was carried out to simulate and optimize sweet potato leaves for useful component extraction.

Changes of quality characteristics of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) potato powder by drying methods (건조방법에 따른 히카마 감자분말의 품질특성 변화)

  • Choi, Sun-Il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Myoung-Lae;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Oh, Ji-Won;Jung, Tae-Dong;Rhee, Seong-Kap;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.915-919
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed in order to provide basic data for predicting the usefulness of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) as a food raw material. The changes in the physicochemical properties of freeze-dried and hot air-dried Jicama were investigated and analyzed. The moisture content of raw Jicama was 81.84%. The crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and carbohydrate content of hot air-dried Jicama powder were 2.85, 0.79, 7.93 and 88.44%, while those of freeze-dried Jicama powder were 3.93, 0.83, 7.92 and 87.32%, respectively on dry basis. Regarding the color values, the lightness of freeze-dried Jicama (92.86) was higher than that of the hot air-dried Jicama (88.01), whereas the redness (-0.67) and yellowness (3.21) of freeze-dried Jicama were lower than those of the hot air-dried Jicama (0.43) and (11.96), respectively. The brown index was lower in the freeze-dried Jicama (0.029) than in hot air-dried Jicama (0.107). The total sugar content showed no significant differences between freeze (46.49 mg/g) and hot air-dried Jicama (45.11 mg/g). Finally, the amylose content was higher in freeze-dried Jicama (5.66%) than in hot air-dried Jicama (6.63%).

Quality characteristic of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) seed oils by roasting conditions and extraction methods (볶음 조건 및 추출 방법에 따른 오미자씨유의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Jeong;Cho, Jeong-Seok;Lee, Yeong-Min;Choi, Ji-Young;Sung, Jun-Hyung;Chung, Hun-Sik;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.845-850
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    • 2015
  • The influence of different roasting temperatures, times and extraction methods on the quality characteristics of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) seed oils was investigated. Roasted Omija seeds were divided into five groups based on roasting temperature-time conditions: no roasting (Raw) and roasting [R11: $150^{\circ}C$, 10 min, R12: $150^{\circ}C$, 20 min, R21: $250^{\circ}C$, 10 min, R22: $250^{\circ}C$, 20 min (R22)]. Oils from each of the raw and roasted Omija seeds were obtained by solvent (n-hexane) and press (machine) extraction. The $L^*$ values decreased, but the $a^*$ and $b^*$ values increased with increasing the roasting temperature and time. The $L^*$ values were lower in the press-extracted oils than in the solvent-extracted oils. The peroxide value (POV) of Omija seed oils decreased with increasing the roasting temperature-time values. The POV value was higher in the press-extracted oils than in the solvent-extracted oils. ABTS (2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical inhibition of Omija seed oils was higher in the solvent-extracted oils than in the press-extracted oils, but there were no significant differences between the two oils. The four major kinds of fatty acid methyl esters detected in Omija seed oils were methyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, methyl arachidate, and methyl eicosanoate. In conclusion, Omija seed oils obtained by solvent extraction and at higher roasting temperature-time values were more effective antioxidants.

Antioxidative Activity and Component Analysis of Prunella vulgaris L. Extract/Fractions (하고초 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 성분 분석)

  • Suh, Ji Young;Seong, Joon Seob;Yun, Mid Eum;Lee, Ye Seul;Ha, Ji Hoon;Park, Dong Soon;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.647-657
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the antioxidative effects and active component analysis of 50% ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction obtained from Prunella vulgaris L. were investigated. The free radical scavenging activities ($FSC_{50}$) was investigated at 50% ethanol extract ($15.25{\mu}g/mL$), ethyl acetate fraction ($8.68{\mu}g/mL$), and aglycone fraction ($8.25{\mu}g/mL$) respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities ($OSC_{50}$) in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay was investigated at 50% ethanol extract ($4.68{\mu}g/mL$), ethyl acetate fraction ($1.00{\mu}g/mL$), and aglycone fraction($1.02{\mu}g/mL$) respectively. In the cellular protective effect against $^1O_2$ induced cellular damage of human erythrocytes, extract/fractions of P. vulgaris L. were increased in a concentration dependent manner($1{\sim}25{\mu}g/mL$). Especially, ${\tau}_{50}$ of aglycone fraction at concentrations of $25{\mu}g/mL$ showed the most protective effects at 337.9 min. It's showed nine times higher (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (${\tau}_{50}=38.7min$) as typical antioxidant in the $^1O_2$-induced photohemolysis of human erythrocytes. TLC and HPLC were used to analyse active components in the ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction of P. vulgaris L. In ethyl acetate fraction, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin 3-${\beta}$-D-glucoside, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) were identified. In aglycone fraction, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol were identified. These results indicated that extract/fraction of P. vulgaris L. is may be used in cosmetics industry as natural antioxidants by quenching and/or scavenging $^1O_2$ and other ROS, and protecting cellular membranes.

Effects of Cooking Method and Pasteurization Treatment on Instant Thin Rice Porridge Added with Fruits and Vegetables (조리방법 및 살균처리가 과채류를 첨가한 이유식에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hwa-Jin;Kim, Soojung;Bang, Eun;Shin, Haehun;Cho, Hyung-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2016
  • This study researched the effects of cooking methods on phytochemical-enriched thin rice porridge (RP) of three colors (red, yellow, and green). Each of the RPs was prepared by three cooking methods and retorted through two-steps (step 1, at $80^{\circ}C$ for 15 min; step 2, at $82^{\circ}C$ for 25 min) for pasteurization. Cooking method (CM) 1 involved heating a mixture of all ingredients while CM 2 involved addition of apple/beet (AB, red), sweet-pumpkin/cabbage (PC, yellow) or vitamin/pear (green) while heating rice flour and glutinous rice flour. CM 3 involved mixing pre-cooked fruits and vegetables with cooked thin RP. The viscosity of RP prepared by CM 1 was lower than those of other RPs (P<0.05). The result of colorimetric a value show that red and green color of AB and VP prepared by CM 2 and CM 3 were most vivid. Contents of phytochemicals and antioxidants were higher when RP was prepared by CM 2 and CM 3 compared to CM 1. ${\Delta}E$ values of PC showed no significant difference before and after pasteurization, whereas AB and VP were significantly different (P<0.05). Antioxidant activity after retorting was not significantly different from those of un-retorted RPs. The results of color, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity show that CM 2 or CM 3 were considerably better than CM 1, whereas cooking method had no effect after two-step retorting. Therefore, uncomplicated cooking method such as CM 1 or CM 2 are suited for commercial production of RPs.