• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA methyltransferase 3a

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Recombinant α and β Subunits of M.AquI Constitute an Active DNA Methyltransferase

  • Pinarbasi, Hatice;Pinarbasi, Ergun;Hornby, David
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.348-351
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    • 2002
  • AquI DNA methyltransferase, M.AquI, catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the C5 position of the outermost deoxycytidine base in the DNA sequence 5'CYCGRG3'. M.AquI is encoded by two overlapping ORFs (termed $\alpha$ and $\beta$) instead of the single ORF that is customary for Class II methyltransferase genes. The structural organization of the M.AquI protein sequence is quite similar to that of other bacterial C5-DNA methyltransferases. Ten conserved motifs are also present in the correct order, but only on two polypeptides. We separately subcloned the genes that encode the $\alpha$ and $\beta$ subunits of M.AquI into expression vectors. The overexpressed His-fusion $\alpha$ and $\beta$ subunits of the enzyme were purified to homogeneity in a single step by Nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant proteins were assayed for biological activity by an in vitro DNA tritium transfer assay. The $\alpha$ and $\beta$ subunits of M.AquI alone have no DNA methyltransferase activity, but when both subunits are included in the assay, an active enzyme that catalyses the transfer of the methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to DNA is reconstituted. We also showed that the $\beta$ subunit alone contains all of the information that is required to generate recognition of specific DNA duplexes in the absence of the $\alpha$ subunit.

Exocyclic GpC DNA methyltransferase from Celeribacter marinus IMCC12053 (Celeribacter marinus IMCC12053의 외향고리 GpC DNA 메틸트랜스퍼라아제)

  • Kim, Junghee;Oh, Hyun-Myung
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2019
  • DNA methylation is involved in diverse processes in bacteria, including maintenance of genome integrity and regulation of gene expression. CcrM, the DNA methyltransferase conserved in Alphaproteobacterial species, carries out $N^6$-adenine or $N^4$-cytosine methyltransferase activities using S-adenosyl methionine as a co-substrate. Celeribacter marinus IMCC12053 from the Alphaproteobacterial group was isolated from a marine environment. Single molecule real-time sequencing method (SMRT) was used to detect the methylation patterns of C. marinus IMCC12053. Gibbs motif sampler program was used to observe the conversion of adenosine of 5'-GANTC-3' to $N^6$-methyladenosine and conversion of $N^4$-cytosine of 5'-GpC-3' to $N^4$-methylcytosine. Exocyclic DNA methyltransferase from the genome of strain IMCC12053 was chosen using phylogenetic analysis and $N^4$-cytosine methyltransferase was cloned. IPTG inducer was used to confirm the methylation activity of DNA methylase, and cloned into a pQE30 vector using dam-/dcm- E. coli as the expression host. The genomic DNA and the plasmid carrying methylase-encoding sequences were extracted and cleaved with restriction enzymes that were sensitive to methylation, to confirm the methylation activity. These methylases protected the restriction enzyme site once IPTG-induced methylases methylated the chromosome and plasmid, harboring the DNA methylase. In this study, cloned exocyclic DNA methylases were investigated for potential use as a novel type of GpC methylase for molecular biology and epigenetics.

Molecular Cloning of Putrescine N-Methyltransferase Gene from Burley 21 Tobacco (Burley 21 담배에서 Putrescine N-Methyltransferase 유전자의 클로닝)

  • 이정헌;김선원;류명현;박성원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2003
  • Recently, many researches for plant alkaloids, one of the largest groups of natural products, are reported because of their various pharmacological activity. This study was carried out to clone putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) gene which is a key enzyme in diverting polyamine metabolism towards the biosynthesis of nicotine and related alkaloids from Burley tobacco. To induce expression of PMT gene in tobacco plant, the floral meristem was removed and then mRNA was purified from root. cDNA encoding PMT gene was isolated by RT PCR and cloned. Three different groups of clones were screened by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion analysis and were characterized. The data of these screening revealed that three types of PMT are present in Burley tobacco. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of this three genes encoding putative PMT with those of other tobaccos revealed that two types of PMT are newly discovered from Nicotiana tabacum cv. Br21 tobacco and they were same as PMT2, PMT3 of N. tabacum cv. Xanthi.

Identification of a Sequence Containing Methylated Cytidine in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacterium flavum Using Bisulfite DNA Derivatization and Sequencing

  • Jang, Ki-Hyo;Chambers, Paul J.;Britz, Margaret L.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.819-824
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    • 2001
  • The principal DNA modification systems of the amino-acid-producing bacteria Corynebacterium glutamicum AS019, Brevibacterium flavum BF4, and B. lactofermentum BL1 was investigated using two approaches; digestion of plasmid DNA isolated from these species TseI and Fnu4HI, and sequence analysis of the putative methyltransferase target sites following the derivatization of DNA using metabisulfite treatment. The C. glutamicum and B. flavum strains showed similar digestion patterns to the two enzymes, indicating that the target for cytidine methyltransferase recognizes 5'-GCSGC-3'(where S is either G or C). Mapping the methylated cytidine sites by bisulfite derivatization, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing, was only possible when the protocol included an additional step eliminating any underivatized DNA after PCR amplification, thereby indicating that the derivatization was not $100\%$ efficient. This may have been due to the high G0C content of this genus. It was confirmed that C. glutamicum AS019 and B. flavum BF4 methylated the cytidine in the $Gm^5CCGC$ sequences, yet there were no similar patterns of methylation in B. lactofermentum, which was consistent with the distinctive degradation pattern seen for the above enzymes. These findings demonstrate the successful application of a modified bisulfite derivatization method with the Corynebacterium species for determining methylation patterns, and showed that different species in the geneus contain distinctive restriction and modification systems.

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Amino Acid Sequence Homology of Hybrid Poplar O-methyltransferuse Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis

  • Park, Young-Goo;Sul, Ill-Whan;Shin, Dong-Ill;Park, Jang-Won;Park, Hee-Sung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2001
  • In $\lambda$-Zap II vector system, a cDNA library was constructed for the developing secondary xylem mRNA from hybrid poplar, Populus nigra x maximowiczii. A cDNA clone of 1.5 kb in size, pOMTB1.4 encoding a lignin-bispecific O-methyltransferase was screened by plaque hybridization using a probe of 540 bp cDNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the cDNA library and identified by nucleotide sequencing. Its nucleotide sequence contains one open reading frame of 366 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence in comparison with that of Populus tremuloides showed the differences of 9 amino acids and revealed 85-99% homology among alfalfa, poplar and aspen.

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Expression of $O^6$-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and Sensitivity to Anticancer Alkylating Agents in Human Cancer Cells (사람 암세포에서의 $O^6$-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase의 발현과 알킬화 항암제에 대한 감수성)

  • 오혜영;정해관;한의식;정성철;허옥순;손수정;김영미;홍성렬;이향우
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.122-131
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    • 1995
  • Five human cancer cell lines (HeLa S3, Hep 3B, KATO III, Hs 683, HeLa MR) and one human normal cell line (WI-38) were examined cell viability, northern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and in situ hybridization for the expression $O_{6}$ -methylguanine-DNAmethyltransferase (MGMT), which can repair $O_{6}$ -methylguanine produced in DNA by alkylating agents. In cell viability test, the lethal sensitivities of each strain against anti-tumor drug N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)- N-nitrosourea (BCNU) were counted, and both BCNU treated and untreated cell extracts were examined for their MGMT inducibility by RNA dot blot analysis. Cell lines did not show MGMT induction by BCNU pretreatment. Tlle MGMT activity was assayed by measuring the $^3$H radioactivity transferred from the substrate DNA containing [methyl-$^3$H)-O$_{6}$ -methylguanine to acceptor molecules in the cell extracts. Extracts from the majority of tumor strains and normal cells contained substantial MGMT activity of varying degree, while the known Mer$^{[-10]}$ cell (lacked or severely depleted in MGMT activity) Hela MR, and Hs 683 (proved to be Mer$^{[-10]}$ ) were much more sensitive to BCNU than the rest of tumor strains, as measured by cell viability test. Overall results above, KATO III showed the highest expression level of MGMT among the strains examined. Furthermore, with all the tumor and normal strains tested, a good correlation was observed between MGMT expression and cellular resistance to BCNU. The varying levels of expression of MGMT in human cancer cells found in this study should provide a molecular basis for MGMT expression among tumor strains from different tissue origin, the information of antitumor agents selection for chemotherapy of cancers.

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Sperm chromatin and DNA integrity, methyltransferase mRNA levels, and global DNA methylation in oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

  • Rahiminia, Tahereh;Yazd, Ehsan Farashahi;Fesahat, Farzaneh;Moein, Mohammad Reza;Mirjalili, Ali Mohammad;Talebi, Ali Reza
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To investigate sperm chromatin/DNA integrity, global DNA methylation, and DNMT mRNA transcription in men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) compared with normozoospermic men. Methods: Semen samples from 32 OAT patients who comprised the case group and 32 normozoospermic men who comprised the control group were isolated and purified using a standard gradient isolation procedure according to World Health Organization criteria. DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B transcripts were then compared between groups using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Global DNA methylation in sperm was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protamine deficiency and the proportion of apoptotic spermatozoa were evaluated using chromomycin A3 (CMA3), aniline blue (AB), and toluidine blue (TB) staining, as well as the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The p-values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: Significantly higher proportions of AB+, TB+, CMA3+, and TUNEL+ spermatozoa, as well as DNMT3A and DNMT3B transcription, were found in the OAT group. Positive correlations were detected between sperm parameters, DNA/chromatin damage, and DNMT3A and DNMT3B transcripts. Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in the OAT patients and had a significant correlation with abnormal results of all sperm chromatin integrity tests, but was not associated with DNMT1, DNMT3A, or DNMT3B expression. Conclusion: Oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men showed abnormal sperm parameters, abnormal chromatin/DNA integrity, and a higher global DNA methylation rate, as well as overexpression of DNMT mRNA.

Molecular Cloning of Human Genomic DNA for Epinephrine Synthesizing Enzyme, Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase (Epinephrine 합성효소인 phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase의 인간 genomic DNA의 유전자 크로닝)

  • Suh, Yoo-Hun;Huh, Sung-Oh;Chun, Yang-Sook;Kim, Hun-Sik;Lim, Jung-Kyoo;Park, Chan-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1988
  • To obtain information about the structure of the human phenylethanolamin N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and to further define the extent of the evolutionary relationships among PNMT molecules of several spesies, a full length cDNA clone for bovine adrenal PNMT was used to screen a charon 4A genomic library. One phage was isolated and identified, which included the entire PNMT gene. The length of inserted genomic DNA was 13.1-Kilobase (Kb) containing two internal EcoRI sites. Construction of a restriction map and subsequent Southern and dot blot analysis with 5'-and3'-specific cDNA probes allowed the identification of exon-containing fragments. This is the first report of the cloning of gene for human epinephrine synthesizing enzyme.

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Methyl Donor Status Influences DNMT Expression and Global DNA Methylation in Cervical Cancer Cells

  • Poomipark, Natwadee;Flatley, Janet E;Hill, Marilyn H;Mangnall, Barbara;Azar, Elnaz;Grabowski, Peter;Powers, Hilary J
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3213-3222
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    • 2016
  • Background: Methyl donor status influences DNA stability and DNA methylation although little is known about effects on DNA methyltransferases. The aim of this study was to determine whether methyl-donor status influences DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) gene expression in cervical cancer cells, and if so, whether there are associated effects on global DNA methylation. Materials and Methods: The human cervical cancer cell line, C4-II, was grown in complete medium and medium depleted of folate (F-M+) and folate and methionine (F-M-). Growth rate, intracellular folate, intracellular methionine and homocysteine in the extracellular medium were measured to validate the cancer cell model of methyl donor depletion. Dnmt expression was measured by qRT-PCR using relative quantification and global DNA methylation was measured using a flow cytometric method. Results: Intracellular folate and methionine concentrations were significantly reduced after growth in depleted media. Growth rate was also reduced in response to methyl donor depletion. Extracellular homocysteine was raised compared with controls, indicating disturbance to the methyl cycle. Combined folate and methionine depletion led to a significant down-regulation of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b; this was associated with an 18% reduction in global DNA methylation compared with controls. Effects of folate and methionine depletion on Dnmt3a and 3b expression were reversed by transferring depleted cells to complete medium. Conclusions: Methyl donor status can evidently influence expression of Dnmts in cervical cancer cells, which is associated with DNA global hypomethylation. Effects on Dnmt expression are reversible, suggesting reversible modulating effects of dietary methyl donor intake on gene expression, which may be relevant for cancer progression.

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone Induces Retinoic Acid Receptor β Hypermethylation through DNA Methyltransferase 1 Accumulation in Esophageal Squamous Epithelial Cells

  • Wang, Jing;Zhao, Shu-Lei;Li, Yan;Meng, Mei;Qin, Cheng-Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2207-2212
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    • 2012
  • Overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) has been detected in many cancers. Tobacco exposure is known to induce genetic and epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of malignancy. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is an important carcinogen present in tobacco smoke; however the detailed molecular mechanism of how NNK induces esophageal carcinogenesis is still unclear. We found that DNMT1 was overexpressed in ESCC tissues compared with paired non-cancerous tissues, the overexpression being correlated with smoking status and low expression of $RAR{\beta}$. The latter could be upregulated by NNK treatment in Het-1A cells, and the increased DNMT1 expression level reflected promoter hypermethylation and downregulation of retinoic acid receptor ${\beta}$($RAR{\beta}$). RNA interference mediated knockdown of DNMT1 resulted in promoter demethylation and upregulation of $RAR{\beta}$ in KYSE30 and TE-1 cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that NNK treatment in Het-1A cells could enhance cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, DNMT1 overexpression is correlated with smoking status and low expression of $RAR{\beta}$ in esophageal SCC patients. NNK could induce $RAR{\beta}$ promoter hypermethylation through upregulation of DNMT1 in esophageal squamous epithelial cells, finally leading to enhancement of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis.