• Title/Summary/Keyword: DNA damage

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Plasmid DNA damage by neutron and ${\gamma}$-ray in the presence of BSH (BSH 존재시 중성자 및 ${\gamma}$-ray 조사에 따른 plasmid DNA의 손상)

  • Chun, Ki-Jung;Seo, Won-Sook
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.65-68
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    • 2006
  • In this study, the extent of plasmid DNA damage was observed according to concentration of BSH(Boron Sulfhydryl Hydride) and irradiation doses of neutron and ${\gamma}$-ray. The plasmid used was both pBR 322 (2870 bp) and ${\Phi}X174$ RF(5386 bp) DNA. Plasmid DNA damage by irradiation in the presence of BSH was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the neutron experiment, DNA damage of both plasmid DNAs was increased according to increasing the concentration of BSH and neutron doses. But in the ${\gamma}$-ray experiment, there appeared no dose dependency as compared to the neutron experiment. The extent of the plasmid DNA damage in the presence of BSH was somewhat different according to irradiation by neutron or ${\gamma}$-ray.

Evaluation of Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata on H2O2-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage Using an Alkaline Comet Assay in Human HepG2 Cells

  • Hah, Dae-Sik;Kim, Chung-Hui;Ryu, Jae-Doo;Kim, Eui-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Shu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2007
  • To evaluate the protective effect of Houttuynia cordata on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cell line, we used an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay). The DNA damage was analyzed by tail moment (TM) and tail length (TL), which used markers of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. The $100{\mu}g/ml$ of methanolic extract of Houttuynia cordata root showed significant protective effects (p < 0.01) against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells and increased cell viability against hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study indicate that Houttuynia cordata root methanol extract acts as a potential antioxidant, and exhibits potential anticancer properties, which may provide a clue to find applications in new pharmaceuticals for oxidative stability.

Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on DNA Damage and Plasma Protein Expression in Mouse

  • Oh, Sang-Nam;Oh, Eun-Ha;Im, Ho-Sub;Jo, Gyu-Chan;Sul, Dong-Geun;Kim, Young-Whan;Lee, Eun-Il
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2005
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmentally prevalent xenobiotics that exert complex effects on the biological system and characterized as probably carcinogenic materials. Single cell gel electrophoresis assays were performed in order to evaluate DNA damage occurring in the T-and B lymphocytes, spleens (T/B-cell), bone marrow, and livers of mouse exposed to mixture of PAHs (Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(e)pyrene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene) at dose of 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg body weight for 2 days. DNA damage of the cells purified from mice was increased in dose dependent manner. In the blood cells and organs, DNA damage was also discovered to vary directly with PAHs. Especially T-cells had been damaged more than B-cell. Plasma proteomes were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis with pH 4-7 ranges of IPG Dry strips and many proteins showed significant up-and -down expressions with the dose dependent manner. Of these, significant 4 spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and signal transduction.

Anti-oxidative effects of Phellinus linteus and red ginseng extracts on oxidative stress-induced DNA damage

  • Park, Byung-Jae;Lim, Yeong-Seok;Lee, Hee-Jung;Eum, Won-Sik;Park, Jin-Seu;Han, Kyu-Hyung;Choi, Soo-Young;Lee, Kil-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.500-505
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    • 2009
  • Anti-oxidative effect of Phellinus linteus (P. linteus) and red ginseng extracts on DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated in this study. P. linteus (PLE) and red ginseng extracts (RGE) inhibited the breaking of E. coli ColE1 plasmid DNA strands as well as nuclear DNA of rat hepatocytes damaged by oxidative stress. In addition, a reaction mixture of PLE and RGE showed synergistic inhibitory effect against DNA damage. These results suggest that PLE and RGE have a cellular defensive effect against DNA damage induced by ROS.

Antioxidant Activity and Protection from DNA Damage by Water Extract from Pine (Pinus densiflora) Bark

  • Jiang, Yunyao;Han, Woong;Shen, Ting;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2012
  • Water extract from Pinus densiflora (WPD) was investigated for its antioxidant activity and its ability to provide protection from DNA damage. A series of antioxidant assays, including a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a reducing power assay, a metal-chelating assay, a superoxide radical scavenging assay, and a nitrite scavenging ability, as well as a DNA damage protection assay were performed. Total phenolic content was found to be 211.32 mg Tan/g WPD. The extract scavenged 50% DPPH free radical at a concentration of 21.35 ${\mu}g/mL$. At that same concentration, the reducing power ability of WPD was higher than that of ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. The extract chelated 68.9% ferrous ion at the concentration of 4 mg/mL. WPD showed better nitrite scavenging effect at the lower pH. Meanwhile, WPD exhibited a strong capability for DNA damage protection at 1 mg/mL concentration. Taken together, these data suggest water extract from Pinus densiflora could be used as a suitable natural antioxidant.

Role of RUNX Family Transcription Factors in DNA Damage Response

  • Samarakkody, Ann Sanoji;Shin, Nah-Young;Cantor, Alan B.
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2020
  • Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous stresses that can result in DNA damage. In response, they have evolved complex pathways to maintain genomic integrity. RUNX family transcription factors (RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3 in mammals) are master regulators of development and differentiation, and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. A growing body of research also implicates RUNX proteins as regulators of the DNA damage response, often acting in conjunction with the p53 and Fanconi anemia pathways. In this review, we discuss the functional role and mechanisms involved in RUNX factor mediated response to DNA damage and other cellular stresses. We highlight the impact of these new findings on our understanding of cancer predisposition associated with RUNX factor dysregulation and their implications for designing novel approaches to prevent cancer formation in affected individuals.

Antioxidant and Oxidative DNA Damage Protection Potential of Methanol Extract of Red Tea Stem

  • Yadav, Anil Kumar;Kang, Sun Chul
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2013
  • This study was undertaken to determine free radical scavenging capacity and oxidative DNA damage protecting activity of methanol extract of red tea stem. The extract was subjected to assess their antioxidant potential using various in vitro systems such as $DPPH^{\bullet}$, $ABTS^{{\bullet}+}$, super oxide and nitric oxide free radicals and it exhibited $IC_{50}$ values of $68.88{\pm}1.1$, $12.08{\pm}0.65$, $404.38{\pm}1.6$, $93.6{\pm}2.7{\mu}g/mL$ respectively. Red tea extract also showed ferric reducing ability (FRAP) with 2606.85 mmol Fe (II)/g of extract. Furthermore, Methanol extract of red tea stem showed significant DNA damage protecting activity in concentration dependent manner against $H_2O_2+UV$ induced photolysis on pUC19 plasmid DNA. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of Red Tea stem has strong antioxidant potential along oxidative DNA damage protecting capacity that would be the significant sources of natural antioxidants, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stress generated diseases. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidants, which may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

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Oxidative DNA Damage from Nanoparticle Exposure and Its Application to Workers' Health: A Literature Review

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek;Song, Se-Wook;Kim, Hyeon-Yeong
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.177-186
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    • 2013
  • The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industry is increasing, bringing with it a number of adverse health effects on workers. Like other chemical carcinogens, NPs can cause cancer via oxidative DNA damage. Of all the molecules vulnerable to oxidative modification by NPs, DNA has received the greatest attention, and biomarkers of exposure and effect are nearing validation. This review concentrates on studies published between 2000 and 2012 that attempted to detect oxidative DNA damage in humans, laboratory animals, and cell lines. It is important to review these studies to improve the current understanding of the oxidative DNA damage caused by NP exposure in the workplace. In addition to examining studies on oxidative damage, this review briefly describes NPs, giving some examples of their adverse effects, and reviews occupational exposure assessments and approaches to minimizing exposure (e.g., personal protective equipment and engineering controls such as fume hoods). Current recommendations to minimize exposure are largely based on common sense, analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations.

Effects of 60-Hz Magnetic Fields on DNA Damage Responses in HT22 Mouse Hippocampal Cell Lines

  • Mun, Gil-Im;Lee, Seungwoo;Kim, Nam;Lee, Yun-Sil
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2015
  • Previously, we investigated extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) on diverse DNA damage responses, such as phosphorylated H2AX (${\gamma}H2AX$), comet tail moments, and aneuploidy production in several non-tumorigenic epithelial or fibroblast cell lines. However, the effect of ELF-MF on DNA damage responses in neuronal cells may not be well evaluated. Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-MF on the DNA damage responses in HT22 non-tumorigenic mouse neuronal cells. Exposure to a 60-Hz, 2 mT ELF-MF did not produce any increased ${\gamma}H2AX$ expression, comet tail moments, or aneuploidy formation. However, 2 mT ELF-MF transiently increased the cell number. From the results, ELF-MF could affect the DNA damage responses differently, depending on the cell lines.

DNA damage to human genetic disorders with neurodevelopmental defects

  • Lee, Youngsoo;Choi, Inseo;Kim, Jusik;Kim, Keeeun
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2016
  • Although some mutations are beneficial and are the driving force behind evolution, it is important to maintain DNA integrity and stability because it contains genetic information. However, in the oxygen-rich environment we live in, the DNA molecule is under constant threat from endogenous or exogenous insults. DNA damage could trigger the DNA damage response (DDR), which involves DNA repair, the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, and the induction of programmed cell death or senescence. Dysregulation of these physiological responses to DNA damage causes developmental defects, neurological defects, premature aging, infertility, immune system defects, and tumors in humans. Some human syndromes are characterized by unique neurological phenotypes including microcephaly, mental retardation, ataxia, neurodegeneration, and neuropathy, suggesting a direct link between genomic instability resulting from defective DDR and neuropathology. In this review, rare human genetic disorders related to abnormal DDR and damage repair with neural defects will be discussed.