• Title/Summary/Keyword: DNA damage

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Comparison of the Protective Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins and Fruits or Vegetable Juices on DNA Damage in Human Lymphocyte Cells Using the Comet Assay (Comet Assay를 이용한 항산화 비타민과 과일.야채즙의 인체 임파구 세포 DNA 손상 감소 효과 비교)

  • 전은재;박유경;김정신;강명희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.440-447
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    • 2004
  • In this study the in vitro protective effects of several antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, $\alpha$-tocopherol, $\beta$-carotene), fruits and vegetables (strawberry, tangerine, orange and 100% orange juice, carrot juice), on the levels of isolated human lymphocyte DNA damage was measured using Comet assay. Comet assay has been used widely to assess the level of the DNA damage in the individual cells. Lymphocytes were pre-treated for 30 minutes with antioxidant vitamins (10, 50, 100, 500 $\mu$M) or fruits$.$vegetables (10, 100, 500, 1000 $\mu$g/ml), an4 then oxidatively challenged with 100 $\mu$M $H_2O$$_2$ for 5 min at 4$^{\circ}C$. The protective effect of antioxidant vitamins against DNA damage at a concentration of 50 $\mu$M were 50% in vitamin C, 32% in $\alpha$-tocopherol, whereas, fJ-carotene showed a 55% protection at a dose as low as 10 $\mu$M. The inhibitory effects of DNA damage by strawberry, tangerine, orange, orange juices, carrot juices were 50 - 60% with wide ranges of doses. The results of the present study indicate that most the antioxidant vitamins and fruits$.$vegetables juices produced a significant reduction in oxidative DNA damage.

DNA damage repair is suppressed in porcine aged oocytes

  • Lin, Tao;Sun, Ling;Lee, Jae Eun;Kim, So Yeon;Jin, Dong Il
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.63 no.5
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    • pp.984-997
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    • 2021
  • This study sought to evaluate DNA damage and repair in porcine postovulatory aged oocytes. The DNA damage response, which was assessed by H2A.X expression, increased in porcine aged oocytes over time. However, the aged oocytes exhibited a significant decrease in the expression of RAD51, which reflects the DNA damage repair capacity. Further experiments suggested that the DNA repair ability was suppressed by the downregulation of genes involved in the homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. The expression levels of the cell cycle checkpoint genes, CHEK1 and CHEK2, were upregulated in porcine aged oocytes in response to induced DNA damage. Immunofluorescence results revealed that the expression level of H3K79me2 was significantly lower in porcine aged oocytes than in control oocytes. In addition, embryo quality was significantly reduced in aged oocytes, as assessed by measuring the cell proliferation capacity. Our results provide evidence that DNA damage is increased and the DNA repair ability is suppressed in porcine aged oocytes. These findings increase our understanding of the events that occur during postovulatory oocyte aging.

Evaluation of Oxidative DNA Damage Using an Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Comet Assay, and the Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine Amide on Zearalenone-induced Cytotoxicity in Chang Liver Cells

  • Kang, Changgeun;Lee, Hyungkyoung;Yoo, Yong-San;Hah, Do-Yun;Kim, Chung Hui;Kim, Euikyung;Kim, Jong Shu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 2013
  • Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium that are found in cereals and agricultural products. ZEN has been implicated in mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. The toxic effects of ZEN are well known, but the ability of an alkaline Comet assay to assess ZEN-induced oxidative DNA damage in Chang liver cells has not been established. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the Comet assay for the determination of cytotoxicity and extent of DNA damage induced by ZEN toxin, and the second aim was to investigate the ability of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) to protect cells from ZEN-induced toxicity. In the Comet assay, DNA damage was assessed by quantifying the tail extent moment (TEM; arbitrary unit) and tail length (TL; arbitrary unit), which are used as indicators of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. The cytotoxic effects of ZEN in Chang liver cells were mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of oxidative DNA damage. Increasing the concentration of ZEN increased the extent of DNA damage. The extent of DNA migration, and percentage of cells with tails were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner following treatment with ZEN toxin (p < 0.05). Treatment with a low concentration of ZEN toxin (25 ${\mu}M$) induced a relatively low level of DNA damage, compared to treatment of cells with a high concentration of ZEN toxin (250 ${\mu}M$). Oxidative DNA damage appeared to be a key determinant of ZEN-induced toxicity in Chang liver cells. Significant reductions in cytolethality and oxidative DNA damage were observed when cells were pretreated with NACA prior to exposure to any concentration of ZEN. Our data suggest that ZEN induces DNA damage in Chang liver cells, and that the antioxidant activity of NACA may contribute to the reduction of ZEN-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity via elimination of oxidative stress.

Effects of the NADPH Oxidase p22phox C242T Polymorphism on Endurance Exercise Performance and Oxidative DNA Damage in Response to Aerobic Exercise Training

  • Paik, Il-Young;Jin, Chan-Ho;Jin, Hwa-Eun;Kim, Young-Il;Cho, Su-Youn;Roh, Hee-Tae;Suh, Ah-Ram;Suh, Sang-Hoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.557-562
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    • 2009
  • We examined the effects of the NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism on endurance exercise performance and oxidative DNA damage in response to acute and chronic exercises. One hundred three subjects were recruited, among which 26 healthy subjects (CC: 12, TC: 12, and TT: 2) were studied during rest, exercise at 85% $VO_2max$, and recovery before and after 8 weeks of treadmill running. Lymphocyte DNA damage increased significantly in response to exercise (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma MDA, SOD concentrations and lymphocyte DNA damage between CC genotype and T allele group, but significant endurance training differences were observed. Endurance training increased exercise time to exhaustion in both the CC genotype and T allele groups (p < 0.05) but no significant difference was found between groups. The results of the current study with young, healthy, Korean men are interpreted to mean that 1) the majority had the CC genotype of the NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism (82.5%: CC, 15.5%: TC, 1.9%: TT), 2) acute exercise increased lymphocyte DNA damage, 3) endurance training significantly increased exercise time to exhaustion, and alleviated lymphocyte DNA damage, and 4) The NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T polymorphism, however, did not alter lymphocyte DNA damage or exercise performance at rest, immediately after exercise, or during recovery.

Chemopreventive Effect of Vegetable or Fruit Extract Against Total Diesel Exhaust Particle Extract in NIH/3T3 Cells Using Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (총 디젤분진의 DNA 손상작용과 야채 및 과일추출물의 보호효과)

  • Heo Chan;Kim Nam-Yee;Heo Moon-Young
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 2006
  • In urban areas, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are probably a major component of particulate matters, especially in Korea where drive many diesel vehicles. The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic effects of DEP using single ceil gel electrophoresis. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of DEP genotoxicity, the rat microsome mediated and DNA repair enzyme treated comet assays together with conventional comet assay were performed. Total diesel particles (DEPT) was collected without site fractionation from diesel engine bus and dichloromethane extract was obtained. The organic extract of DEPT revealed DNA damage itself in NIH/3T3 cells. The level of DNA breaks plus oxidative DNA lesions and microsome mediated DNA damage was assessed by modified single cell gel eletrophoresis. DEPT was able to induce oxidative DNA damage as well as microsome mediated DNA damage. Vitamin C as an model antioxidant reduced DNA damage in endonuclase III treated comet assay. One of flavonoid, galangin as a CYP1A1 inhibitor. reduced DNA damage in the presence of S-9 mixture. $DEP_T$ is the sources of oxidative stress, but antioxidants can significantly reduce oxidative DNA dmage. And $DEP_T$ may contain indirect mutagens which can be inhibited by CYP1A1 inhibitors. The ethanol extracts of the mixed vegetables (BV) or the mixed fruits (BF) were evaluated for their in vitro antigenotoxic effects. BV and BF showed potent Inhibitory effects against DEPT induced DNA damage with oxidative DNA lesions and in the prescence of S-9 mixture. These results indicate that BV and BF could prevent cellular DNA damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing cytochrome P4501A1 in cell culture.

Application of the SCGE Assay for Detecting Induced DNA Damage in Plant Leaves

  • Kim, Jin Kyu;Song, Hi Sup;Kim, Do Young;Gichner, Tomas
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2003
  • The possibility of using the alkaline protocol of the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay as a method for detecting induced DNA damage has been studied for six major plants. The EMS was applied as a model genotoxic agent on young excised leaves of the tested crops for 18 h at 26$^{\circ}C$ in the dark. With increasing concentrations of 0 to 10 mM EMS, the DNA damage, expressed by the averaged median tail moment values, significantly increased in nuclei of all plants studied. As the results, no correlation between the diameter of nuclei and sensitivity to EMS treatment was observed. The data obtained demonstrate the feasibility of using the SCGE assay for detecting induced DNA damage in plants.

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Genetic Screen for Genes Involved in Chk2 Signaling in Drosophila

  • Park, Suk-Young;Song, Young-Han
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2008
  • Chk2 is a well characterized protein kinase with key roles in the DNA damage response. Chk2 is activated by phosphorylation following DNA damage, and relays that signal to various substrate proteins to induce cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. In order to identify novel components of the Chk2 signaling pathway in Drosophila, we screened 2,240 EP misexpression lines for dominant modifiers of an adult rough eye phenotype caused by Chk2 overexpression in postmitotic cells of the eye imaginal disc. The rough eye phenotype was suppressed by mutation of the ATM kinase, a well-described activator of Chk2. Twenty-five EP modifiers were identified (three enhancers and 22 suppressors), none of which correspond to previously known components of Chk2 signaling. Three EPs caused defects in G2 arrest after irradiation with incomplete penetrance when homozygous, and are likely directly involved in the response to DNA damage. Possible roles for these modifiers in the DNA damage response and Chk2 signaling are discussed.

Schisandra Chinensis Inhibits Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Via Antioxidant Activity

  • Jeong, Jin-Boo;Jeong, Hyung-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2009
  • Schisandra chinensis have been traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of dyspnea, cough, mouth dryness, spontaneous diaphoresis, nocturnal diaphoresis, nocturnal emission, dysentery, insomnia and amnesia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by ROS in non cellular and cellular system. DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay were used to measure the antioxidant activities. Phi X-174RF I plasmid DNA cleavage assay and intracellular DNA migration assay were used to evaluate the protective effect on oxidative DNA damage. MTT assay and lipid peroxidation assay were used for evaluating the protective effect on oxidative cell damage. It was found to scavenge DPPH radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical and it inhibited oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and cell death induced by hydroxyl radical. These data indicate that Schisandra chinensis possesses a spectrum of antioxidant and DNA-protective properties

Protection of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Functional Cosmeceutical Poly-Gamma-Glutamate

  • Oh, Yu-Jin;Kwak, Mi-Sun;Sung, Moon-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2018
  • This study compared the radioprotective effects of high-molecular-weight poly-gamma-glutamate (${\gamma}-PGA$, average molecular mass 3,000 kDa) and a reduced form of glutathione (GSH, a known radioprotector) on calf thymus DNA damage. The radiation-induced DNA damage was measured on the basis of the decreased fluorescence intensity after binding the DNA with ethidium bromide. All the experiments used $^{60}Co$ gamma radiation at 1,252 Gy, representing 50% DNA damage. When increasing the concentration of ${\gamma}-PGA$ from 0.33 to $1.65{\mu}M$, the DNA protection from radiation-induced damage also increased, with a maximum of 87% protection. Meanwhile, the maximal DNA protection when increasing the concentration of GSH was only 70%. Therefore, ${\gamma}-PGA$ exhibited significant radioprotective effects against gamma irradiation.

Protective Effect of Crataegus pinnatifida and Cinnamomum cassia on Ethanol-induced Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage in HepG2 Cells

  • Kim, Nam Yee;Song, Eun Jeong;Heo, Moon Young
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2014
  • Plant extracts produced from branches of Crataegus pinnatifida and barks of Crataegus pinnatifida inhibited ethanol-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in liver cells. Furthermore, these two extracts inhibited the expression and activities of CYP2E1 enzyme. Cinnamomum cassia had a better effect on inhibition of DNA damage than Crataegus pinnatifida, as well as showed a high tendency to inhibit CYP2E1 expression and catalytic activities. It is considered that extracts produced from Crataegus pinnatifida or Cinnamomum cassia have an effect to reduce ethanol-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in liver cells. Therefore, we suggest to use Crataegus pinnatifida and Cinnamomum cassia and their ingredients as potential candidate substances to prevent and treat ethanol-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in liver cells.