• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA barcodes

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Identification of Marker Nucleotides for the Molecular Authentication of Araliae Continentalis Radix Based on the Analysis of Universal DNA Barcode, matK and rbcL, Sequences (범용성 DNA 바코드(matK, rbcL) 분석을 통한 독활(獨活) 유전자 감별용 Marker Nucleotide 발굴)

  • Kim, Wook Jin;Yang, Sungyu;Choi, Goya;Moon, Byeong Cheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : Araliae Continentalis Radix and Angelicae Pubescentis Radix have been used as the same medicinal name Korean and Chinese traditional medicines, respectively. The authentic Araliae Continentalis Radix is described only the root of Aralia continentalis in the Korean Pharmarcopoeia. However, the dried root of Angelica biserrata, Levisticum officinale, or Heracleum moellendorffii also has been distributed adulterants of Araliae Continentalis Radix. To develop a reliable method for identifying Araliae Continentalis Radix from adulterants, we carried out the analyses of universal DNA barcode sequences.Methods : Four plants species were collected from different habitate and nucleotide sequences of matK and rbcL were analyzed. The species-specific sequences and phylogenetic relationship were estimated using entire sequences of two DNA barcodes, respectively.Results : In comparative analysis of matK sequences, we were identified 104 positions of marker nucleotide for Ar. continentalis, 3 for An. biserrata, 4 for L. officinale and 8 for H. moellendorffii enough to distinguish individual species, respectively. Furthermore, we obtained marker nucleotides in rbcL at 42 positions for Ar. continentalis, 5 for An. biserrata and 2 for H. moellendorffii, but not for L. officinale. The phylogenetic tree of matK and rbcL were showed that all samples were clustered into four groups constituting homogeneous clades within the species.Conclusions : We confirmed that species-specific marker nucleotides of matK sequence provides distinct genetic information enough to identify four species. Therefore, we suggest that matK gene is useful DNA barcode for discriminating authentic Araliae Continentalis Radix from inauthentic adulterants.

Three Feather Mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) Isolated from Black-Tailed Godwit, Limosa limosa in Korea

  • Han, Yeong-Deok;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2019
  • Feather mites comprise two superfamilies(Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) and are highly specialized ectosymbionts of birds. To date, this group contains more than 2,500 species worldwide. Fifty-five feather mite species have been reported in Korea, and only one species of genus Alloptes has been recorded from black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa. Three new records of feather mites from the L. limosa in Korea are added in this study: Avenzoaria punctata Gaud, 1972, Bregetovia limosae (Buchholz, 1869), and Montchadskiana buchholzi (Canestrini, 1878). The genus Bregetovia Dubinin, 1951 is also new report for this country. In this paper, we provide the morphological descriptions and illustrations based on the present specimens. Additionally, we determined partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I(COI) from three feather mites as DNA barcodes.

Four Unrecorded Species of Genus Alloptes (Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Alloptidae) from Charadriiform Birds in South Korea

  • Han, Yeong-Deok;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2019
  • Four feather mites, Alloptes(Apodalloptes) orthogramme Gaud and Mouchet, 1957, Alloptes(Conuralloptes) limosae Dubinin, 1951, Alloptes (C.) procerus Gaud, 1972 and Alloptes (Sternalloptes) fauri Gaud, 1957 are reported for the first time in South Korea. These specimens were collected from four charadriiform bird species: Actitis hypoleucos, Larus crassirostris, Limosa limosa, and Numenius phaeopus. The family Alloptidae Gaud, 1957 and a genus Alloptes Canestrini, 1879 are newly added to the invertebrate fauna of South Korea as well. Here, we provide the morphological description and illustrations based on the present specimens. Additionally, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I(COI) were newly-generated for using as DNA barcodes.

New record of four Korean feather mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Pterolichidae) isolated from the birds in the family Rallidae

  • Han, Yeong-Deok;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.6 no.spc
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    • pp.152-163
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    • 2017
  • Four feather mite species, Grallobia fulicae (Trouessart, 1885), Grallobia gallinulae Gaud, 1968, Grallolichus proctogamus (Trouessart, 1885) and Megniniella gallinulae (Buchholz, 1869), previously unrecorded in South Korea are reported. Specimens of Grallobia fulicae and Grallolichus proctogamus were collected from the eurasian coot, Fulica atra in Cheongju-si. Grallobia gallinulae and M. gallinulae were found on the common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus in Yesan-gun. The genera Grallobia Hull, 1934, Grallolichus Gaud, 1960 and Megniniella Gaud, 1958 are new records for South Korea. Here, we provide illustrations and morphological descriptions of these four feather mite species as well as the partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as DNA barcodes.

New record of two Korean feather mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Astigmata) isolated from water birds

  • Han, Yeong-Deok;Choe, Seongjun;Eom, Keeseon S.;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.6 no.spc
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2017
  • Two feather mites, Scutomegninia phalacrocoracis Dubinin and Dubinina, 1940 and Ptiloxenus major ($M{\acute{e}}gnin$ and Trouessart, 1884) are reported for the first time in Korea. Specimens of S. phalacrocoracis and P. major were collected from the great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo and great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus, respectively. The genera Scutomegninia Dubinin, 1951 and Ptiloxenus Hull, 1934 are also new reports for South Korea. Here, we provide morphological descriptions and illustrations of these two species. Additionally, we provide partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as DNA barcodes.

Account of montane and insular speciation in some Korean megadriles (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

  • Blakemore, Robert J.;Lee, Seunghan;Seo, Hong-Yul
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2015
  • Surveys of easily accessible or moderately remote South Korean mountains has revealed several common exotic and early species-complexes [Amynthas corticis (Kinberg, 1867) with A. diffringens (Baird, 1869), A. gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Metaphire californica (Kinberg, 1867)], plus an unexpected number of new native taxa. Megascolecid Metaphire muuido sp. nov. and lumbricid Eisenia muuido sp. nov. are newly described from Muuido Island, Incheon. Montane taxa are parthenogenetic Amynthas tokioensis oculo sub-sp. nov. that lacks male pores but is yet comparable to both Amynthas tokioensis (Beddard, 1892) and Metaphire soulensis (Kobayashi, 1938) with its possible new synonym A. chiakensis Hong & James, 2013. Apparently unique sympatric taxa are Amynthas bangtaesan bangtaesan and A. b. confinius sup-spp. nov., Amynthas centurio sp. nov., Amynthas punicans sp. nov., Amynthas seoraksan and A. seoraksan iti sub-spp. nov. These are newly described and their DNA COI gene barcodes, where obtainable, are presented in a phylogram with outgroup Acanthodrilidae Microscolex dubius (Fletcher, 1887) from Lake Biwa Japan being a new exotic record for Asia.

New Record of Kellicottia bostoniensis and Redescription of Two Freshwater Rotifers from Korea (Rotifera: Monogononta)

  • Yang, Hee-Min;Min, Gi-Sik
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.222-227
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    • 2020
  • In this study, we identified three monogonont rotifers from South Korea: Kellicottia bostoniensis (Rousselet, 1908), Trichocerca tenuior (Gosse, 1886), and Lepadella triptera (Ehrenberg, 1830). The distribution records of K. bostoniensis were mainly located in the Nearctic, Neotropic and Western Palearctic regions. After Japan, this is the second record of it in Asia. Trichocerca tenuior and Lepadella triptera have already been recorded in Korea, but the data of two species were insufficient in previous study. Here, we describe the morphological characteristics of the three species and the trophi structures of K. bostoniensis and T. tenuior. This study is the first to characterize the trophi structure of K. bostoniensis, observed using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, we have determined the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. tenuior and L. triptera for their DNA barcodes.

Are Cryptic Species Real?

  • Crous, Pedro W.
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2014
  • Since Darwin and Wallace introduced the concept on the evolution of species, scientists have been furiously debating what species are, and how to define them. This basic yet intriguing question has bothered us ever since, as communicating to fellow biologists about fungal species is the very cornerstone of mycology. For the species presently known, this has largely been accomplished via Latin binomials linked to morphology in the absence of DNA barcodes. In recent years mycologists have embraced the ribosomal ITS as official barcode region for Fungi, and this locus is also mainly used in environmental pyrosequencing studies. Furthermore, DNA data can now also be used to describe sterile species in the absence or lack of distinct morphological structures. Recent developments such as the registration of names in MycoBank, and linking the phenotype to the genotype, have significantly changed the face of fungal systematics. By employing the Consolidated Species Concept, incorporating genealogical concordance, ecology and morphology, robust species recognition is now possible. Several international initiatives have since built on these developments, such as the DNA barcoding of holdings of Biological Resource Centres, followed by the Genera of Fungi Project, aiming to recollect, and epitypify all type species of all genera. What these data have revealed, is that most genera are poly- and paraphyletic, and that morphological species normally encompass several genetic entities, which may be cryptic species. Once we provide a stable genetic backbone capturing our existing knowledge of the past 250 years, we will be able to accommodate novelties obtained via environmental sequencing platforms. Being able to communicate these species to other biologists in a clear manner that is DNA-based, will enable scientists to elucidate the importance, role and ecological interactions that these fungi have on our planet.

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Practical application of the Bar-HRM technology for utilization with the differentiation of the origin of specific medicinal plant species (약용식물의 기원 판별을 위한 Bar-HRM 분석기술의 응용)

  • Kim, Yun-Hee;Shin, Yong-Wook;Lee, Shin-Woo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2018
  • The advent of available DNA barcoding technology has been extensively adopted to assist in the reference to differentiate the origin of various medicinal plants species. However, this technology is still far behind the curve of technological advances to be applied in a practical manner in the market to authenticate the counterfeit components or detect the contamination in the admixtures of medicinal plant species. Recently, a high resolution melting curve analysis technique was combined with the procedure of DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) to accomplish this purpose. In this review, we tried to summarize the current development and bottleneck of processing related to the Bar-HRM technology for the practical application of medicinal plant species' differentiation in a viable global market. Although several successful results have been reported, there are still many obstacles to be resolved, such as limited number of DNA barcodes and single nucleotide polymorphisms, in particular, only one DNA barcode, internal transcribed sequence (ITS) of ribosomal DNA has been reported in the available nuclear genome. In addition, too few cases have been reported about the identification of counterfeit or contamination with processed medicinal plant products, in particular specifically the case of technology based infusion, jam and jelly products and components in which it is noted that DNA can be thereby degraded during the processing of these products and components.