• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA barcodes

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DNA Barcoding of Isaacsicalanus paucisetus (Copepoda: Calanoida: Spinocalanidae) from the Hydrothermal Vent in the North Fiji Basin, Southwestern Pacific Ocean

  • Park, Chailinn;Lee, Won-Kyung;Kim, Se-Joo;Ju, Se-Jong
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.182-184
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    • 2020
  • Isaacsicalanus paucisetus Fleminger, 1983, a monotypic species of the family Spinocalanidae Vervoort, 1951, was first reported from a hydrothermal vent field in the East Pacific Rise off the mouth of the Gulf of California. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I(mtCOI) DNA barcodes are considered a useful tool to assist traditional taxonomy and species discrimination in calanoid copepods. However, the mtCOI DNA barcodes of I. paucisetus have not been reported due to the species rarity and the difficulty of sampling. In this study, we firstly determined the mtCOI DNA barcodes of the I. paucisetus newly collected from a hydrothermal vent in the North Fiji Basin of the southwestern Pacific. All mtCOI DNA barcodes of I. paucisetus were identical and intraspecies variations of spinocalanid species were 0.0-3.0%. Interspecies and intergeneric variations were 13.4-25.2% and 16.7-24.1%, respectively. The DNA barcodes of I. paucisetus obtained in the present study would be helpful for understanding taxonomic relationships of widespread spinocalanid species.

DNA Barcoding for the Hydrothermal Vent Crab Austinograea Species (Crustacea: Bythograeidae) from the North Fiji Basin, Southwestern Pacific Ocean

  • Lee, Won-Kyung;Ju, Se-Jong;Hou, Bo Kyeng;Kim, Se-Joo
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.30-32
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    • 2019
  • The brachyuran crab Bythograeidae Williams, 1980 is common in hydrothermal vent fields worldwide and has recorded to sixteen species of six genera. In this study, we firstly determined the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) DNA barcodes for the fifth species of Austinograea, A. hourdezi, from hydrothermal vent regions of the North Fiji Basin in southwestern Pacific Ocean. All CO1 DNA barcodes of A. hourdezi were identical. The interspecies variations of three bythograeid genera were 10.9-13.3% for Austinograea, 6.6-15.7% for Bythograea, and 9.7% for Gandalfus. These results would be helpful to understand taxonomy of brachyuran crabs living in hydrothermal vent fields using CO1 DNA barcodes.

Mutation Analysis of Synthetic DNA Barcodes in a Fission Yeast Gene Deletion Library by Sanger Sequencing

  • Lee, Minho;Choi, Shin-Jung;Han, Sangjo;Nam, Miyoung;Kim, Dongsup;Kim, Dong-Uk;Hoe, Kwang-Lae
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2018
  • Incorporation of unique barcodes into fission yeast gene deletion collections has enabled the identification of gene functions by growth fitness analysis. For fine tuning, it is important to examine barcode sequences, because mutations arise during strain construction. Out of 8,708 barcodes (4,354 strains) covering 88.5% of all 4,919 open reading frames, 7,734 barcodes (88.8%) were validated as high-fidelity to be inserted at the correct positions by Sanger sequencing. Sequence examination of the 7,734 high-fidelity barcodes revealed that 1,039 barcodes (13.4%) deviated from the original design. In total, 1,284 mutations (mutation rate of 16.6%) exist within the 1,039 mutated barcodes, which is comparable to budding yeast (18%). When the type of mutation was considered, substitutions accounted for 845 mutations (10.9%), deletions accounted for 319 mutations (4.1%), and insertions accounted for 121 mutations (1.6%). Peculiarly, the frequency of substitutions (67.6%) was unexpectedly higher than in budding yeast (~28%) and well above the predicted error of Sanger sequencing (~2%), which might have arisen during the solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and PCR amplification of the barcodes during strain construction. When the mutation rate was analyzed by position within 20-mer barcodes using the 1,284 mutations from the 7,734 sequenced barcodes, there was no significant difference between up-tags and down-tags at a given position. The mutation frequency at a given position was similar at most positions, ranging from 0.4% (32/7,734) to 1.1% (82/7,734), except at position 1, which was highest (3.1%), as in budding yeast. Together, well-defined barcode sequences, combined with the next-generation sequencing platform, promise to make the fission yeast gene deletion library a powerful tool for understanding gene function.

Phylogenetic analysis of Viburnum (Adoxaceae) in Korea using DNA sequences

  • CHOI, Yun Gyeong;YOUM, Jung Won;LIM, Chae Eun;OH, Sang-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.206-217
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    • 2018
  • The nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined from all species of Viburnum in Korea with multiple accessions to reconstruct the phylogeny and to evaluate the utility of the DNA sequences as DNA barcodes. The results of phylogenetic analyses of the cpDNA and ITS data are consistent with the findings of previous studies of Viburnum. Four morphologically closely related species, V. dilatatum, V. erosum, V. japonicum, and V. wrightii, were included in a strongly supported sister clade of V. koreanum and V. opulus. Viburnum odoratissimum is suggested to be sister to the V. dilatatum/V. koreanum clade in the cpDNA data, while V. odoratissimum is a sister to V. furcatum in the ITS data. Viburnum burejaeticum and V. carlesii are strongly supported as monophyletic. Our analyses of DNA barcode regions from multiple accessions of the species of Viburnum in Korea confirm that six out of ten species in Korea can be discriminated at the species level. The V. dilatatum complex can be separated from the remaining species according to molecular data, but the resolution power to differentiate a species within the complex is weak. This study suggests that regional DNA barcodes are useful for molecular species identification in the case of Viburnum when flowering or fruiting materials are not available.

Monitoring conservation effects on a Chinese indigenous chicken breed using major histocompatibility complex B-G gene and DNA Barcodes

  • Tu, Yunjie;Shu, Jingting;Ji, Gaige;Zhang, Ming;Zou, Jianmin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1558-1564
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    • 2018
  • Objective: We report monitoring conservation effect for a Chinese indigenous chicken (Langshan) breed using major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and DNA barcords. Methods: The full length of MHC B-G gene and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in generations 0, 5, 10, 15, 16, and 17 was measured using re-sequencing and sequencing procedures, respectively. Results: There were 292 single nucleotide polymorphisms of MHC B-G gene identified in six generations. Heterozygosity (He) and polymorphic information content (PIC) of MHC B-G gene in generations 10, 15, 16, and 17 remained stable. He and PIC of MHC B-G gene were different in six generations, with G10, G15, G16, G17 >G5>G0 (p<0.05). For the COI gene, there were five haplotypes in generations 0, 5, 10, 15, 16, and 17. Where Hap2 and Hap4 were the shared haplotypes, 164 individuals shared Hap2 haplotypes, while Hap1 and Hap3 were the shared haplotypes in generations 0 and 5 and Hap5 was a shared haplotype in generations 10, 15, 16, and 17. The sequence of COI gene in 6 generations was tested by Tajima's and D value, and the results were not significant, which were consistent with neutral mutation. There were no differences in generations 10, 15, 16, and 17for measured phenotypic traits. In other generations, for annual egg production, with G5, G10, G15, G16, G17>G0 (p<0.05). For age at the first egg and age at sexual maturity, with G10, G15, G16, G17>G5>G0 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Combined with the results of COI gene DNA barcodes, MHC B-G gene, and phenotypic traits we can see that genetic diversity remained stable from generations 10 to 17 and the equimultiple random matching pedigrees conservation population conservation effect of Langshan chicken was effective as measured by these criteria.

Molecular Authentication and Phylogenetic Analysis of Plant Species for Breeae and Cirsii Herba based on DNA barcodes (DNA 바코드 분석을 통한 소계(小薊) 및 대계(大薊) 기원식물 감별과 종간 유연관계 분석)

  • Moon, Byeong Cheol;Lee, Young Mi;Ji, Yunui;Choi, Goya;Chun, Jin Mi;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The origin of Breeae Herba (So-gye) and Cirsii Herba (Dae-gye) is differently prescribed in Korean and Chinese modern pharmacopoeia. Since the similar morphological characteristics and chaotic plant names, moreover, the aerial part of Carduus crispus have been used as the Cirsii Herba. To develop a reliable method for correct identification of these herbal medicines and to evaluate the genetic relationship of these closely related plant species, we analyzed sequences of DNA barcode regions. Methods : Thirty-one samples of 6 medicinal plants (B. segeta, B. setosa, C. japonicum var. maackii, C. setidens, C. chanroenicum, and C. crispus) were collected from different habitate and nucleotide sequences of DNA barcode regions (rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL) were analyzed after amplification using appropriate primers reported in previous studies. The nucleotides of species-specific authentic marker and phylogenetic relations were estimated based on the entire sequences of DNA barcodes by the analysis of ClastalW and UPGMA, respectively. Results : In comparative analysis of DNA barcode sequences, we obtained specific nucleotides to discriminate the medicinal plant of Breeae/Cirsii Herba in species level and evaluated the phylogenetic relationship of these species. Futhermore, we identified distinct marker nucleotides enough to authenticate respective species. These sequence differences at corresponding positions were avaliable genetic markers to determine the botanical origins of Breeae Herbal as well as Cirsii Herba. Conclusions : These marker nucleotides would be useful to identify the official herbal medicines by providing of definitive information that can identify each plant species and distinguish from unauthentic adulterants and substitutes.

DNA Barcoding Korean Birds

  • Yoo, Hye Sook;Eah, Jae-Yong;Kim, Jong Soo;Kim, Young-Jun;Min, Mi-Sook;Paek, Woon Kee;Lee, Hang;Kim, Chang-Bae
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.323-327
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    • 2006
  • DNA barcoding, an inventory of DNA sequences from a standardized genomic region, provides a bio-barcode for identifying and discovering species. Several recent studies suggest that the sequence diversity in a 648 bp region of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) might serve as a DNA barcode for identifying animal species such as North American birds, insects and fishes. The present study tested the effectiveness of a COI barcode in discriminating Korean bird species. We determined the 5' terminus of the COI barcode for 92 species of Korean birds and found that species identification was unambiguous; the genetic differences between closely related species were, on average, 25 times higher than the differences within species. We identified only one misidentified species out of 239 specimens in a genetic resource bank, so confirming the accuracy of species identification in the banking system. We also identified two potential composite species, calling for further investigation using more samples. The finding of large COI sequence differences between species confirms the effectiveness of COI barcodes for identifying Korean bird species. To bring greater reliability to the identification of species, increased intra- and interspecies sampling, as well as supplementation of the mitochondrial barcodes with nuclear ones, is needed.

Development of molecular biological techniques for the differentiation of medicinal plant species (약용작물의 기원 판별에 관한 분자생물학적 기술 개발 현황)

  • Han, Eun-Heui;Kim, Yun-Hee;Lee, Shin-Woo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 2015
  • Medicinal plants resources are becoming important assets since their usages have been expanded to the development of functional foods for human health, more attractive cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. However, their phylogenetic origins and names are different from each country and quite often they are mixed each other resulting in the confusion for consumers. In particular, when they are very similar based on their morphological characteristics and distributed as dried roots, it is extremely difficult to differentiate their origins even by specialists. Recently, "DNA barcodes" have been extensively applied to identify their origin of medicinal plant species. In this review, we tried to overview the current research achievements for the development of suitable "DNA barcodes" regarding to the differentiation of medicinal plant species. Furthermore, more advanced techniques including amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR, multiplex single base extension (MSBE), high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analyses are also discussed for their practical applications in the authentification of particular medicinal plant species.

DNA Barcoding of Nereiphylla hera (Annelida: Polychaeta: Phyllodocidae) from South Korea

  • Kim, Hana;Choi, Hyun Ki
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.156-159
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    • 2019
  • The phyllodicd polychaete species, Nereiphylla hera Kato and Mawatari, 1999 is reported from the intertidal habitats of the eastern coast of South Korea. We determined the DNA barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of N. hera and compared nucleotide variation with its congeners. The intra-specific genetic distance between the three COI sequences of N. hera was ranged from 0 to 0.4%. The inter-specific distances between N. hera and other Nereiphylla species ranged from 18.8 to 22.3%. In this study, we reported the first COI barcodes of N. hera with the morphologcial diagnosis and the photographs. These results would be helpful to understand taxonomy of Nereiphylla.

A taxonomic review of the genus Acteniceromorphus Kishii, 1955 (Coleoptera; Elateridae) in Korea

  • Han, Taeman;Park, In Gyun;Park, Haechul
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 2015
  • The genus Acteniceromorphus is taxonomically reviewed for the first time in Korea. From the previously recorded three species, two species, A. selectus (Candèze, 1894) and A. fulvipennis (Lewis, 1894) are confirmed as misidientification of species which are endemic to Japan. Another species, A. chlamydatus (Lewis, 1894) is unavailable any Korean specimens. Additionally, we found A. ferrugineipennis (Candèze, 1879) as new to Korea. We also provide a comparison of DNA barcoding for two species previously misidentified and the newly recorded species, except A. chlamydatus. DNA barcoding result shows that each species is clearly delimited at species-level from each other by large interspecific genetic distance over 7.2%.