• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA Repair

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Cellular DNA Repair of Oxidative Deoxyribose Damage by Mammalian Long-Patch Base Excision Repair

  • Sung Jung-Suk;Son Mi-Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2005
  • 2-Deoxyribonolactone (dL) arises as a major DNA damage induced by a variety of agents, involving free radical attack and oxidation of C1'-deoxyribose in DNA. We investigated whether dL lesions can be repaired in mammalian cells and the mechanisms underlying the role of DNA polymerase $\beta$ in processing of dL lesions. Pol $\beta$ appeared to be trapped by dL residues, resulting in stable DNA-protein cross-links. However, repair DNA synthesis at site-specific dL sites occurred effectively in cell-free extracts, but predominantly accompanied by long-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway. Reconstitution of long-patch BER demonstrated that FEN1 was capable of removing the displaced flap DNA containing a 5'-dL residue. Cellular repair of dL lesions was largely dependent on the DNA polymerase activity of Pol $\beta$. Our observations reveal repair mechanisms of dL and define how mammalian cells prevent cytotoxic effects of oxidative DNA lesions that may threaten the genetic integrity of DNA.

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DNA Repair Enhancement by Radioprotective Ginseng Protein Fraction (항 방사선 인삼단백분획의 DNA수복능력 증진효과)

  • Kim, Choon-Mi;Choi, Mi-Kyung
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.449-454
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    • 1992
  • The effect of radioprotective ginseng protein fraction on DNA repair capacity was determined by measuring the amount of $^{3}H-thymidine$ incorporated into DNA in the process of repair synthesis for UV damaged DNA. CHO-Kl cells were prepared whose semiconservative replication was inhibited by trimethylpsoralen plus near-UV(PUVA) treatment. When the cells were exposed to UV light alone, the DNA repair capacity was increased at first and then decreased as UV dose increased. However, when the ginseng fraction was treated to the cells, the DNA repair capacity was kept increasing regardless of UV dose increment. When the concentration of protein contained in the added fraction was increased gradually, the repair capacity was also increased almost linearly showing dose-response relationship of the effect. These results suggest that the enhancement of DNA repair capacity of the cell can be one of the mechanisms of radioprotection by the ginseng fraction.

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THE EFFECT OF GENETIC VARIATION IN THE DNA BASE REPAIR GENES ON THE RISK OF HEAD AND NECK CANCER (DNA 염기손상 치유유전자의 변이와 두경부암 발생 위험성)

  • Oh, Jung-Hwan;Yoon, Byung-Wook;Choi, Byung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.509-517
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    • 2008
  • DNA damage accumulates in cells as a result of exposure to exogenous agents such as benzopyrene, cigarette smoke, ultraviolet light, X-ray, and endogenous chemicals including reactive oxygen species produced from normal metabolic byproducts. DNA damage can also occur during aberrant DNA processing reactions such as DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The major of DNA damage affects the primary structure of the double helix; that is, the bases are chemically modified. These modification can disrupt the molecules'regular helical structure by introducing non-native chemical bonds or bulky adducts that do not fit in the standard double helix. DNA repair genes and proteins scan the global genome to detect and remove DNA damage and damage to single nucleotides. Direct reversal of DNA damage, base excision repair, double strand break. DNA repair are known relevant DNA repair mechanisms. Four different mechanisms are distinguished within excision repair: direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and mismatch repair. Genetic variation in DNA repair genes can modulate DNA repair capacity and alter cancer risk. The instability of a cell to properly regulate its proliferation in the presence of DNA damage increase risk of gene mutation and carcinogenesis. This article aimed to review mechanism of excision repair and to understand the relationship between genetic variation of excision repair genes and head and neck cancer.

DNA Repair Synthesis Induced by Bleomycin in HeLa $S_3$ Cells Pretreated with Base Analogs (鹽基相似體를 前處理한 HeLa $S_3$ 細胞에 있어 Bleomycin에 의한 DNA 回復合成)

  • Um, Kyung-Il;Park, Sang-Dai
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 1977
  • Dose response of DNA repair synthesis induced by bleomycin was dose-dependent in lower doses, and maximum rate of it at 5 $\\mu$g/ml represents about 15% of total cells analyzed. At higher doses DNA-repair synthesis was reduced and the rate of it remained unchanged even prolonged treatment. Pretreatment with BUdR or IUdR was found to enhance DNA repair synthesis and also to interfere with semiconservative DNA synthesis at higher doses. Time dependence study showed that DNA repair synthesis occurred as long as for 24 hours after removal of bleomycin. These results seem to suggest that bleomycin is not to be an effective chemical in inducing excision repair and that damages induced in DNA by this drug might include not only strand breaks but other types of DNA damage.

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Gamma-ray Induced DNA Repair Synthesis in Relation to Chromosome Exchanges in Mammalian Cells in Vitro (哺乳動物細胞에 있어 감마線에 의한 DNA 回復合成과 染色體交換과의 聯關性)

  • Park, Sang-Dai
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 1975
  • Dose response and time dependence of DNA repair synthesis were investigated to determine the possible relationship between DNA repair synthesis and chromosome exchanges in $\\gamma$-ray irradiated BHK-21 and KB cell lines. DNA repair synthesis induced by $\\gamma$-ray was dose dependent up to 5kR, then leveling off occurred until 50 kR was reached. Time dependence of DNA repair synthesis was continued for up to 1$\\sim$2 hours after irradiation although the initial dose responses were cell line specific. Chromosome exchanges induced by $\\gamma$-ray showed different radiosensitivities in these cell lines and did not show a correlation with the DNA repair synthesis.

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Genetic Variation in a DNA Double Strand Break Repair Gene in Saudi Population: A Comparative Study with Worldwide Ethnic Groups

  • Areeshi, Mohammed Yahya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7091-7094
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    • 2013
  • DNA repair capacity is crucial in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. However, it can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes and this may lead to the development of many diseases including malignancies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity is necessary for better prevention. Homologous recombination (HR), a major double strand break repair pathway, plays a critical role in maintaining the genome stability. The present study was performed to determine the frequency of the HR gene XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) polymorphisms in Saudi Arabian population in comparison with epidemiological studies by "MEDLINE" search to equate with global populations. The variant allelic (T) frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) was found to be 39%. Our results suggest that frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) DNA repair gene exhibits distinctive patterns compared with the Saudi Arabian population and this might be attributed to ethnic variation. The present findings may help in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

Influence of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on Expression of DNA Repair Genes in Cervical Cancer Cells

  • Gupta, Rakesh Kumar;Bajpai, Deepti;Singh, Neeta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3457-3461
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    • 2015
  • Background: Previous studies have suggested that Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has potential to reduce cancer risk. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Noni, cisplatin, and their combination on DNA repair genes in the SiHa cervical cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: SiHa cells were cultured and treated with 10% Noni, $10{\mu}g/dl$ cisplatin or their combination for 24 hours. Post culturing, the cells were pelleted, RNA extracted, and processed for investigating DNA repair genes by real time PCR. Results: The expression of nucleotide excision repair genes ERCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC4 and base excision repair gene XRCC1 was increased 4 fold, 8.9 fold, 4 fold, and 5.5 fold, respectively, on treatment with Noni as compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). In contrast, expression was found to be decreased 22 fold, 13 fold, 16 fold, and 23 fold on treatment with cisplatin (p<0.05). However, the combination of Noni and cisplatin led to an increase of 2 fold, 1.6 fold, 3 fold, 1.2 fold, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions: Noni enhanced the expression of DNA repair genes by itself and in combination with cisplatin. However, high expression of DNA repair genes at mRNA level only signifies efficient DNA transcription of the above mentioned genes; further investigations are needed to evaluate the DNA repair protein expression.

Inhibition of DNA-dependent Protein Kinase by Blocking Interaction between Ku Complex and Catalytic Subunit of DNA-dependent Protein Kinase

  • Kim, Chung-Hui;Cuong, Dang-Van;Kim, Jong-Su;Kim, Na-Ri;Kim, Eui-Yong;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2003
  • Recent studies indicated that cancer cells become resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy drugs by enhanced DNA repair of the lesions. Therefore, it is expected to increase the killing of cancer cells and reduce drug resistance by inhibiting DNA repair pathways that tumor cells rely on to escape chemotherapy. There are a number of key human DNA repair pathways which depend on multimeric polypeptide activities. For example, Ku heterodimer regulatory DNA binding subunits (Ku70/Ku80) on binding to double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) are able to interact with 470-kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and are essential for DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. It has been known that DNA-PK is an important factor for DNA repair and also is a sensor-transmitting damage signal to downstream targets, leading to cell cycles arrest. Our ultimate goal is to develop a treatment of breast tumors by targeting proteins involved in damage-signaling pathway and/or DNA repair. This would greatly facilitate tumor cell cytotoxic activity and programmed cell death through DNA damaging drug treatment. Therefore, we designed a domain of Ku80 mutants that binds to Ku70 but not DNA end binding activity and used the peptide in co-therapy strategy to see whether the targeted inhibition of DNA-PK activity sensitized breast cancer cells to irradiation or chemotherapy drug. We observed that the synthesized peptide (HNI-38) prevented DNA-PKcs from binding to Ku70/Ku80, thus resulting in inactivation of DNA-PK activity. Consequently, the peptide treated cells exhibited poor to no DNA repair, and became highly sensitive to IR or chemotherapy drugs, and the growth of breast cancer cells was inhibited. Additionally, the results obtained in the present study also support the physiological role of resistance of cancer cells to IR or chemotherapy.

Exploiting the Fanconi Anemia Pathway for Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapy

  • Jo, Ukhyun;Kim, Hyungjin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.669-676
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    • 2015
  • Genome instability, primarily caused by faulty DNA repair mechanisms, drives tumorigenesis. Therapeutic interventions that exploit deregulated DNA repair in cancer have made considerable progress by targeting tumor-specific alterations of DNA repair factors, which either induces synthetic lethality or augments the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The study of Fanconianemia (FA), a rare inherited blood disorder and cancer predisposition syndrome, has been instrumental in understanding the extent to which DNA repair defects contribute to tumorigenesis. The FA pathway functions to resolve blocked replication forks in response to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), and accumulating knowledge of its activation by the ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway has provided promising therapeutic opportunities for cancer treatment. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of FA pathway regulation and its potential application for designing tailored therapeutics that take advantage of deregulated DNA ICL repair in cancer.

Environmental Toxic Agents on Genetic Material and Cellular Ativity V. The Roles of DNA Polymerases on Mutagen-Induced DNA Repair Synthesis in Relation to Cell Cycle in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (환경성 유해요인이 유전물질과 세포활성에 미치는 영향 V. CHO세포에서 세포주기에 따라 돌연변이원에 의해 유발된 DNA회복합성에 미치는 DNA중합효소의 역할)

  • 엄경일;김춘광;신은주;문용석;이천복
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 1989
  • Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells echibited a differential sensitivity in the process of DNA repair synthesis induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) or bleomycin (BLM) in relation to cell cycle. Two assays were employed in this study: alkaline elution and unscheduled DNA synthesis. The post-treat-ment with aphidicolin (APC), an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, inhibited DNA repair synthesis induced by EMS in G2 phase, while APC did not show any effect on BLM-induced DNA repair synthesis in all phases. On the other hands, the 2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (ddTTP), an inhibitor of DNA polymerase beta, inhibited DNA repair synthesis induced by EMS or BLM in both of G1 and G2 phases. These results suggested that the involvement of DNA polymerase alpha and beta in DNA repair was dependent on cell stage or used chemical agent.

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