• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA Damage

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Suppressive Effect of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Extract on the DNA and Cell Damage by Dieldrin (Dieldrin에 의한 DNA와 세포 손상에 대한 오가피 추출물의 억제효과)

  • Ryu, A-Reum;Kim, Ji-Hae;Lee, Mi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2012
  • Dieldrin, one of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), induced the damages in neuroblastoma cells and DNA damages in lymphocytes. The ethanol extracts of A. sessiliflorus leaves were examined for the suppressive effects on the dieldrin-induced cell damages. Moreover, the extract was used to test whether it might inhibit the oxidative DNA damage of lymphocytes using Comet assay. The cell and DNA damage by dieldrin were suppressed in vitro upon treating A. sessiliflorus extract. This result suggests that A. sessiliflorus extract might be useful to reduce dieldrin toxicity.

Cellular DNA Repair of Oxidative Deoxyribose Damage by Mammalian Long-Patch Base Excision Repair

  • Sung Jung-Suk;Son Mi-Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2005
  • 2-Deoxyribonolactone (dL) arises as a major DNA damage induced by a variety of agents, involving free radical attack and oxidation of C1'-deoxyribose in DNA. We investigated whether dL lesions can be repaired in mammalian cells and the mechanisms underlying the role of DNA polymerase $\beta$ in processing of dL lesions. Pol $\beta$ appeared to be trapped by dL residues, resulting in stable DNA-protein cross-links. However, repair DNA synthesis at site-specific dL sites occurred effectively in cell-free extracts, but predominantly accompanied by long-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway. Reconstitution of long-patch BER demonstrated that FEN1 was capable of removing the displaced flap DNA containing a 5'-dL residue. Cellular repair of dL lesions was largely dependent on the DNA polymerase activity of Pol $\beta$. Our observations reveal repair mechanisms of dL and define how mammalian cells prevent cytotoxic effects of oxidative DNA lesions that may threaten the genetic integrity of DNA.

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DNA Strand Breaks in Mitotic Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Evaluated by Comet Assay

  • Park, Sojin;Choi, Seoyun;Ahn, Byungchan
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2016
  • DNA damage responses are important for the maintenance of genome stability and the survival of organisms. Such responses are activated in the presence of DNA damage and lead to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. In Caenorhabditis elegans, double-strand breaks induced by DNA damaging agents have been detected indirectly by antibodies against DSB recognizing proteins. In this study we used a comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and to measure the elimination of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. We found that C. elegans brc-1 mutants were more sensitive to ionizing radiation and camptothecin than the N2 wild-type strain and repaired DNA strand breaks less efficiently than N2. This study is the first demonstration of direct measurement of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. This newly developed assay can be applied to detect DNA strand breaks in different C. elegans mutants that are sensitive to DNA damaging agents.

The Effects of Purple Grape Juice Supplementation on Improvement of Antioxidant Status and Lymphocyte DNA Damage in Korean Smokers (포도주스의 보충섭취가 흡연성인의 혈장 항산화 영양상태 및 DNA 손상 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • 박은주;김정신;전은재;김혜영;박유경;강명희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.281-290
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this project was to evaluate whether daily fruit juice consumption could reduce the DNA damage in healthy subjects. The study was performed using 67 healthy volunteers (29 smokers, 38 nonsmokers) who were supple-mented with 480 m1 of grape juice for 8 weeks. Eight weeks of grape juice consumption did not change any anthropometric parameters. Lymphocyte DNA damage before the study was significantly greater (p<0.05) in smoker than nonsmoker, but, grape juice consumption significantly reduced DNA damage in both smoker (26%) and nonsmoker (I7%) to the level where there was no difference remained between the two groups after the intervention trial. This preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was not affected by sex of the subjects in non-smokers. Plasma $\alpha$-carotene, Iyco-pene and ${\gamma}$-totopherol was significantly increased after the trial in smokers, while erythrocyte catalase was significan-tly increased in both smokers and nonsmokers. Total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) level in all subjects was significantly reduced after the intervention, while GSH-Px activity was increased only in nonsmokers. These results suggests that daily consumption of grape juice may protect DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes, and supports the hypothesis that grape juice might exert their effect partially via a decrease in oxidative damage to DNA in humans partly by improving their antioxidative defense system.

Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Anti-Oxidative Parameters are Affected by the Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) M1 and T1 Polymorphism and Smoking Status in Korean Young Adults (흡연 여부에 따른 Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 및 T1 유전자 다형성이 우리나라 젊은 성인의 임파구 DNA 손상과 항산화 영양상태 지표들 간의 관련성에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Jeong-Hwa;Lee, Hye-Jin;Kang, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.366-377
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    • 2011
  • Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a multigene family of phase II detoxifying enzymes that metabolize a wide range of exogenous and endogenous electrophilic compounds. GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms may account for inter-individual variability in coping with oxidative stress. We investigated the relationships between the level of lymphocyte DNA and antioxidative parameters and the effect on GST genotypes. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were characterized in 301 young healthy Korean adults and compared with oxidative stress parameters such as the level of lymphocyte DNA, plasma antioxidant vitamins, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in smokers and non smokers. GST genotype, degree of DNA damage in lymphocytes, erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and plasma concentrations of total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), vitamin C, ${\alpha}$- and ${\gamma}$-tocopherol, ${\alpha}$- and ${\beta}$-carotene, and cryptoxanthin were analyzed. Lymphocyte DNA damage assessed by the comet assay was higher in smokers than that in non-smokers, but the levels of plasma vitamin C, ${\beta}$-carotene, TRAP, erythrocyte catalase, and GSH-Px were lower than those of non-smokers (p < 0.05). Lymphocyte DNA damage was higher in subjects with the GSTM1- or GSTT1-present genotype than those with the GSTM1-present or GSTT1- genotype. No difference in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma TRAP, or vitamin levels was observed in subjects with the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypes, except ${\beta}$-carotene. Significant negative correlations were observed between lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma levels of TRAP and erythrocyte activities of catalase and GSH-Px after adjusting for smoking pack-years. Negative correlations were observed between plasma vitamin C and lymphocyte DNA damage only in individuals with the GSTM1-present or GSTT1- genotype. The interesting finding was the significant positive correlations between lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma levels of ${\alpha}$-carotene, ${\beta}$-carotene, and cryptoxanthin. In conclusion, the GSTM1- and GSTT1-present genotypes as well as smoking aggravated antioxidant status through lymphocyte DNA damage. This finding confirms that GST polymorphisms could be important determinants of antioxidant status in young smoking and non-smoking adults. Consequently, the protective effect of supplemental antioxidants on DNA damage in individuals carrying the GSTM1- or GSTT1-present genotypes might show significantly higher values than expected.

Increased DNA Damage of Lymphocytes in Korean Male Smokers (일부 한국 성인 남성 흡연자들의 림프구 DNA 손상의 증가)

  • Lee, Joo-Hyun;Oh, Eun-Ha;Lee, June-Young;Sul, Dong-Geun;Kim, Joo-Ja;Lee, Eun-Il
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2007
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of DNA damage in human lymphocytes caused by smoking and other lifestyle factors. Methods : The study population consisted of 173 normal healthy male adults from 21 to 59 years old. The demographic and lifestyle variables were obtained from administered questionnaires. The level of lymphocytic DNA damage in the peripheral blood was evaluated by the Comet assay. Statistical analyses were done by general linear model analysis and Dunnett's multiple comparison. Results : The difference in DNA damage between smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant. The means for the Tail%DNA were found to be 10.48 in the current smokers and 9.60 in the non-smokers (p < 0.05). The tail moment means were 1.58 and 1.45 (p < 0.05) for the current smokers and non-smokers, respectively. The number of cigarettes smoked per day did not result in a significant difference in the level of DNA damage among the smokers. Other lifestyle factors such as age, and drinking and exercise habits were not related to DNA damage. Conclusions : The DNA damage in the lymphocytes of smokers was found to be significantly higher than that for non-smokers. However, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was not related to DNA damage. Further study is needed to evaluate the relationship between the amount of smoking and level of damage to DNA. In addition, the status of DNA repair activities should be assessed.

Antioxidant activity and protective effects on oxidative DNA damage of Smilax china root (토복령의 항산화 및 산화적 DNA 손상억제 활성)

  • Jang, Tae-Won;Oh, Chang-Gun;Park, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2018
  • Recently, cancer incidence in modern society is increasing sharply. DNA damage is caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors in the human body, cells protect themselves by defense mechanism against DNA damage. Also, Aberrant DNA and deficient DNA repair are closely associated with various diseases, including aging and cancer. Researchers are interested in search for proper materials to inhibition for DNA damage. As knew the side effects of synthetic antioxidant, some researches have been conducted about cancer prevention materials derived from nature. Root of Smilax china, in Liliaceae, is used detoxification and tumor treatments traditionally. However, studies on the inhibitory effect of DNA damage haven't progressed. In this study, antioxidant activity and protective effects on oxidative DNA damage of S. china root were confirmed, relationship between those activities and contents of phenolic compounds in plants were established. S. china root effectively removed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radicals. The quantification and identification of phenolic compounds were confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, its antioxidant activity was associated with some phenolic compounds. In addition, protective effects against hydroxyl radicals and ferrous ion-induced oxidative DNA damage were confirmed in plasmid DNA. In the cellular levels, S. china root suppressed the expression of ${\gamma}$-H2AX and p53 protein in NIH 3T3. Besides, S. china root suppressed H2AX and p53 mRNA levels. In conclusion, S. china root had the effect on DNA protection and antioxidant.

Effect of Acanthopanax extract on the DNA and erythrocyte damage induced by herbicides (제초제로 인한 DNA와 적혈구 손상에 미치는 오가피 추출물의 효과)

  • Seo, Yoo-Na;Kim, Jum-Ji;Sung, Kwang-Soo;Lee, Mi-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.4922-4927
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    • 2010
  • In order to investigate whether the ethanol extract of Acanthopanax sp. might inhibit herbicide-induced DNA damage and erythrocyte damage, the suppression of the oxidative DNA damage of lymphocyte and erythrocyte damage in the presence of the extract were evaluated by comet assay and hemolysis assay, respectively. Phenoxy herbicides, named 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and bipyridyl herbicide paraquat induced oxidative DNA damages of lymphocytes. However, the oxidative DNA damage by 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T or paraquat was inhibited in vitro upon treating Acanthopanax extract. Moreover, the erythrocyte damage was also suppressed in vitro by Acanthopanax extract treatment.

Antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on oxidative DNA damage of leaf from Zelkova serrata with ethyl acetate fractions and hot water extracts (느티나무 잎 에틸아세테이트 분획물 및 열수 추출물의 항산화 및 산화적 DNA 손상 억제 활성)

  • Jang, Tae-Won;Park, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2016
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been played a critical role in damage of DNA. Recently, many effort is focusing to develop the natural antioxidants for controlling ROS. Zelkova serrata, Ulmaceae, is close as plants which are planted in front of Korea villages. Although Zelkova serrata is familiar with Koreans, those of antioxidant activities and protective effects on oxidative DNA damage haven't studied. We demonstrated antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on oxidative DNA damage of Leaf from Zelkova serrata with ethyl acetate fractions (EA) and hot water extracts (HW). Between the extracts, EA showed higher activities in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging, $Fe^{2+}$ chelating and reducing power than HW. Also, those of total phenolic content are 56.63 and 51.61 mg/g respectively. In addition, ${\phi}X$-174 RF I plasmid DNA cleavage assay for inhibitory effect by oxidative DNA damage was both EA and HW has significant protective effect on oxidative DNA damage. The results suggested that leaf from Zelkova serrata with ethyl acetate fractions and hot water extracts have surpassing potential as natural resources with antioxidant and inhibitory effect on oxidative DNA damage.

Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Effects on Oxidative DNA Damage of Callus from Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai

  • Jang, Tae Won;Park, Jae Ho
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative DNA damage of the ethyl acetate fraction from the callus of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (ECA). Callus of A. distichum was induced on MS medium containing NAA (1 mg/L) and 2,4-D (1 mg/L), and a sufficient amount was obtained for the extraction by subculture. Acteoside was analyzed and quantified (0.39 mg/g callus) from ECA using the high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector method. ECA showed very high antioxidative activity as revealed by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The $IC_{50}$ values were 12.4 and $6.8{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. ECA showed protective effects against oxidative DNA damage evaluated by using ${\Psi}X-174$ RF I plasmid DNA. It also inhibited DNA damage by suppressing the oxidative stress-induced protein and mRNA levels of ${\gamma}$-H2AX and p53 in NIH/3T3 cells. In conclusion, ECA protects against oxidative DNA damage through its powerful antioxidant activity.