• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA Damage

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Suppressive Effects of Various Antioxidants on Melamine-induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

  • Park, Seul-Ki;Lee, Mi-Young
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2009
  • Melamine, which is used to produce melamine resin for various industrial applications, has a high nitrogen content by mass. For this reason, it has been illegally added to foods to increase their apparent protein content. In the present investigation, melamine-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA was evaluated by Comet assay. The in vitro oxidative DNA damage caused by melamine increased in a dose-dependent manner. This DNA damage was significantly inhibited by treatment with ascorbate. Moreover, the traditional Korean medicinal herb, named Acanthopanax, red ginseng and green tea markedly reduced the DNA damage. Various edible plant extracts also inhibited melamine-induced oxidative DNA damage in vitro. Melamine enhanced intracellular ROS generation, and this effect was suppressed by treatment with various antioxidants.

Schisandra Chinensis Inhibits Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation Via Antioxidant Activity

  • Jeong, Jin-Boo;Jeong, Hyung-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2009
  • Schisandra chinensis have been traditionally used in Asia for the treatment of dyspnea, cough, mouth dryness, spontaneous diaphoresis, nocturnal diaphoresis, nocturnal emission, dysentery, insomnia and amnesia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by ROS in non cellular and cellular system. DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay were used to measure the antioxidant activities. Phi X-174RF I plasmid DNA cleavage assay and intracellular DNA migration assay were used to evaluate the protective effect on oxidative DNA damage. MTT assay and lipid peroxidation assay were used for evaluating the protective effect on oxidative cell damage. It was found to scavenge DPPH radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical and it inhibited oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and cell death induced by hydroxyl radical. These data indicate that Schisandra chinensis possesses a spectrum of antioxidant and DNA-protective properties

Antigenotoxicity of Vegetable or Fruit Extract against Cigarette Smoke Condensate (담배연기응축물의 DNA 손상작용과 야채 및 과일추출물의 보호효과)

  • Lee, Hyeong-Ju;Heo, Chan;Kim, Nam-Yee;Heo, Moon-Young
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 2011
  • Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is known to be carcinogenic compound. CSC contains many organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic amine compounds (HCAs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also generated and induce oxidative DNA damage during the metabolism of CSC. The rat microsome mediated and DNA repair enzyme treated comet assays together with conventional comet assay were performed to evaluate the mechanisms of CSC genotoxicity. The organic extract of CSC induced oxidative and microsome mediated DNA damage. Vitamin C as a model antioxidant reduced DNA damage in endonuclease III treated comet assay. One of flavonoid, galangin as a CYP1A1 inhibitor, reduced DNA damage in the presence of S-9 mixture. The ethanol extracts of the mixed vegetables (BV) or the mixed fruits (BF) showed potent inhibitory effects against CSC induced DNA damage with oxidative DNA lesions and in the prescence of S-9 mixture. These results indicate that BV and BF could prevent CSC-induced cellular DNA damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing cytochrome P450 in mammalian cells.

DNA Damage of Lipid Oxidation Products and Its Inhibition Mechanism (지질산화생성물의 DNA손상작용 및 그 억제기구)

  • KIM Seon-Bong;KANG Jin-Hoon;PARK Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.419-430
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    • 1987
  • The damage of plasmid DNA by lipid peroxidation and its inhibition were investigated through the model system of DNA and linoleic acid at $37^{\circ}C$. The degree of DNA damage increased in proportion to the increase of concentration and peroxidation of linoleic acid. DNA damage induced from linoleic acid peroxidation was greatly inhibited by the addition of active oxygen scavengers, especially, singlet of oxygen scavenge$(\alpha-tocopherol,\;cysteine)$ and superoxide anion scavenger(superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid) in reaction system. These active oxygens, such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were rapidly generated in the early stage of peroxidation (POV below 100 mg/kg) and also scanvenged by the addition of superoxide dismutase and catalase, respectively. Hydroperoxide isolated from autoxidised linoleic acid showed DNA damage. Hydroperoxide induced-DNA damage was not inhibited by active oxygen scavengers. Lipid oxidation products, malonaldehyde and hexanal, also influenced on the DNA damage. Accordingly, it is speculated that DNA damage by lipid oxidation products is due to active oxygens such as singlet oxygen and superoxide anion formed in the early stage of peroxidation, direct action of hydroperoxide and formation of low molecular carbonyl compound-DNA complex. Furthermore, DNA damage induced by lipid peroxidation was remarkably inhibited by the addition of active oxygen scavengers and natural antioxidative fractions extracted from garlic and ginger. These antioxidative fractions also suppressed the generation of active orygens and linoleic acid oxidation. It is assumed that the inhibition of DNA damage by garlic and ginger extracts is due to the scavenging effect of active oxygens and the inhibition of hydroperoxide and oxidation products formation.

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Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (comet assay) to Detect DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Cell Level (DNA damage와 Apoptosis를 정량화하는 단세포전기영동법)

  • 류재천;김현주;서영록;김경란
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1997
  • The single cell gel electrophoressis(SCGE) assay, also known as the comet assay, is a rapid, simple, visual and sensitive technique for measuring and analysing DNA breakage in mammalian cells. The SCGE or comet assay is a promising test for the detection of DNA damage and repair in individnal cells. It has widespread potential applications in DNA damage and repair studies, genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. In this microgel electrophoresis technique, cells are embedded in agarose gel on microscope slides, iysed and electrophoresed under alkaline conditions. Cells with increased DNA damage display increased migration of DNA from the nucleus towards the anode. The length of DNA migration indicates the amount of DNA breakage in the cell. The comet assay is also capable of identifying apoptotic cells which contain highly fragmented DNA. Here we review the development of the SCGE assay, existing protocols for the detection and analysis of comets, the relevant underlying principles determining the behaviour of DNA and the potential applications of the technique.

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Chemopreventive Effect of Vegetable or Fruit Extract Against Total Diesel Exhaust Particle Extract in NIH/3T3 Cells Using Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (총 디젤분진의 DNA 손상작용과 야채 및 과일추출물의 보호효과)

  • Heo Chan;Kim Nam-Yee;Heo Moon-Young
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 2006
  • In urban areas, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are probably a major component of particulate matters, especially in Korea where drive many diesel vehicles. The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic effects of DEP using single ceil gel electrophoresis. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of DEP genotoxicity, the rat microsome mediated and DNA repair enzyme treated comet assays together with conventional comet assay were performed. Total diesel particles (DEPT) was collected without site fractionation from diesel engine bus and dichloromethane extract was obtained. The organic extract of DEPT revealed DNA damage itself in NIH/3T3 cells. The level of DNA breaks plus oxidative DNA lesions and microsome mediated DNA damage was assessed by modified single cell gel eletrophoresis. DEPT was able to induce oxidative DNA damage as well as microsome mediated DNA damage. Vitamin C as an model antioxidant reduced DNA damage in endonuclase III treated comet assay. One of flavonoid, galangin as a CYP1A1 inhibitor. reduced DNA damage in the presence of S-9 mixture. $DEP_T$ is the sources of oxidative stress, but antioxidants can significantly reduce oxidative DNA dmage. And $DEP_T$ may contain indirect mutagens which can be inhibited by CYP1A1 inhibitors. The ethanol extracts of the mixed vegetables (BV) or the mixed fruits (BF) were evaluated for their in vitro antigenotoxic effects. BV and BF showed potent Inhibitory effects against DEPT induced DNA damage with oxidative DNA lesions and in the prescence of S-9 mixture. These results indicate that BV and BF could prevent cellular DNA damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing cytochrome P4501A1 in cell culture.

Onion Supplementation Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation and Leukocyte DNA Damage due to Oxidative Stress in High Fat-cholesterol Fed Male Rats

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Seo, Bo-Young;Lee, Kyung-Hea;Park, Eun-Ju
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to investigate effects of onion, red onion, or quercetin on plasma antioxidant vitamin, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage in rats fed a high fat-cholesterol diet. Forty SD male rats were assigned to normal control, high fat-cholesterol diet (HF), or HF+5% onion powder, HF+5% red onion powder, or HF+0.0l% quercetin. The HF diet resulted in significantly higher plasma lipid peroxidation which decreased with onion, red onion, or quercetin supplementation. Leukocyte DNA damage induced by HF diet decreased significantly in rats fed onion and red onion, while quercetin supplementation had no effect on preventing leukocyte DNA damage. $H_2O_2$ induced leukocyte DNA damage exhibited a highly significant negative correlation with plasma retinol and tocopherols. These results suggest that onion or red onion powder exerts a protective effect with regard to DNA damage in rats fed HF diet. However, 0.01% quercetin in pure form might not be effective at preventing DNA damage.

DNA damage to human genetic disorders with neurodevelopmental defects

  • Lee, Youngsoo;Choi, Inseo;Kim, Jusik;Kim, Keeeun
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2016
  • Although some mutations are beneficial and are the driving force behind evolution, it is important to maintain DNA integrity and stability because it contains genetic information. However, in the oxygen-rich environment we live in, the DNA molecule is under constant threat from endogenous or exogenous insults. DNA damage could trigger the DNA damage response (DDR), which involves DNA repair, the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, and the induction of programmed cell death or senescence. Dysregulation of these physiological responses to DNA damage causes developmental defects, neurological defects, premature aging, infertility, immune system defects, and tumors in humans. Some human syndromes are characterized by unique neurological phenotypes including microcephaly, mental retardation, ataxia, neurodegeneration, and neuropathy, suggesting a direct link between genomic instability resulting from defective DDR and neuropathology. In this review, rare human genetic disorders related to abnormal DDR and damage repair with neural defects will be discussed.

Sirt1 Promotes DNA Damage Repair and Cellular Survival

  • Song, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Mi-Ok;Lee, Ji-Seon;Oh, Je-Sok;Cho, Sung-Uk;Cha, Hyuk-Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.282-287
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    • 2011
  • Sirt1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ($NAD^+$)-dependent histone deacetylase, is known to deacetylate a number of proteins that are involved in various cellular pathways such as the stress response, apoptosis and cell growth. Modulation of the stress response by Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is achieved by the deacetylation of key proteins in a cellular pathway, and leads to a delay in the onset of cancer or aging. In particular, Sirt1 is known to play an important role in maintaining genomic stability, which may be strongly associated with a protective effect during tumorigenesis and during the onset of aging. In these studies, Sirt1 was generated in stably expressing cells and during the stimulation of DNA damage to examine whether it promotes survival. Sirt1 expressing cells facilitated the repair of DNA damage induced by either ionizing radiation (IR) or bleomycin (BLM) treatment. Fastened damaged DNA repair in Sirt1 expressing cells corresponded to prompt activation of Chk2 and ${\gamma}$-H2AX foci formation and promoted survival. Inhibition of Sirt1 enzymatic activity by a chemical inhibitor, nicotinamide (NIC), delayed DNA damage repair, indicating that promoted DNA damage repair by Sirt1 functions to induce survival when DNA damage occurs.

Phenanthrene-induced Oxidative DNA Damage of Lymphocytes and the Suppression by Ginseng Extract (페난트렌에 의한 임파구 DNA의 산화적 손상과 인삼추출물에 의한 억제)

  • Yoo, Ah-Reum;Lee, Mi-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.355-360
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    • 2009
  • Phenanthrene ($C_{14}H_{10}$) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with three aromatic rings, and it can be produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Comet assay was used to examine the oxidative DNA damage of lymphocytes by phenanthrene and to measure the suppressive effects of ginseng extract on the DNA damage in this investigation. The in vitro oxidative DNA damage by phenanthrene increased in a dose-dependent manner in the lymphocyte. However, the DNA damage was significantly inhibited by ascorbate. Moreover, pretreatment, cotreatment and posttreatment with ginseng extract enhanced lymphocyte resistance to the phenanthrene-induced DNA damage. Phenanthrene enhanced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the elevated reactive oxygen species level was reduced by treatment with ginseng extract.