• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNA Damage

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Induction of G1 Arrest by Methanol Extract of Lycopus lucidus in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells (택란 메탄올 추출물에 의한 인체 폐암 세포주 A549의 G1 arrest 유발)

  • Park, Hyun-Jin;Jin, Soojung;Oh, You Na;Yun, Seung-Geun;Lee, Ji-Young;Kwon, Hyun Ju;Kim, Byung Woo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1109-1117
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    • 2013
  • Induction of G1 Arrest by Methanol Extract of Lycopus lucidus in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells Lycopus lucidus, a herbaceous perennial, is used as a traditional remedy in East Asia, including China and Korea. It has been reported that L. lucidus has anti-allergic effects, inhibitory effects on cholesterol acyltransferase in high glucose-induced vascular inflammation, and anti-proliferative effects in human breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer effects of L. lucidus have not yet been fully determined. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect and the mechanism of action of L. lucidus in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells using methanol extracts of L. lucidus (MELL). MELL treatment showed cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner and induced G1 arrest in A549 cells. The induction of G1 arrest by MELL was associated with the up-regulation of phospho-CHK2 and the down-regulation of Cdc25A phosphatase. In addition, MELL treatment induced decreased expression of G1/S transition-related proteins, including CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1 and cyclin E. MELL also regulated the mRNA expression of CDK2 and cyclin E. On the other hand, the expression of p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was not induced by MELL. Collectively, these results suggest that MELL may exert an anti-cancer effect by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through the ATM/CHK2/Cdc25A/CDK2 pathway in A549 cells.

Effect of Pumpkin, Corn Silk, Adzuki Bean, and Their Mixture on Weight Control and Antioxidant Activities in High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Rats (호박즙, 옥수수수염차, 팥차 및 혼합물이 식이유도 비만동물모델에서 체중과 항산화 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Hee;Lee, Eunji;Park, Eunju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.1239-1248
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    • 2016
  • Pumpkin juice (PJ), corn silk tea (CT), and adzuki bean tea (AT) have long been used for treatment of obesity in Korea. This study investigated the efficacy of PJ, CT, AT, and their mixture (PCA) on alteration of body weight and antioxidant metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. After being fed HFD for 4 weeks, SD rats were divided into six groups fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD+PJ [250 mg/kg body weight (BW)], HFD+CT (250 mg/kg BW), HFD+AT (250 mg/kg BW), and HFD+PCA (PJ : CT : AT=1:1:1, 250 mg/kg BW) for another 9 weeks. HFD consumption resulted in total lipid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol accumulation in adipose tissue, which was reduced by administration of PJ, CT, AT, or PCA. The plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity value and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity significantly increased compared to the HFD group. The liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in the PCA group than the HFD group. HFD-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes, as measured by comet assay, decreased in the PJ, AT, and PCA-supplemented groups. The PCA group exerted a superior antigenotoxic effect compared to other treatments. PCA recovered the concentration of plasma adiponectin, which was reduced by HFD. Adipocyte surface area (%) was significantly higher in the HFD group than the ND group, significantly lower in the PJ and PCA groups than the HFD group, and not significantly different compared with the ND group. Based on the results, supplementation of PJ, CT, AT, and PCA exhibited lipid-lowering effects in adipocytes of HFD-induced obese rats. Furthermore, the PCA group exhibited superior antioxidant activity in all treated groups. This study suggests that a mixed beverage consisting of PJ, CT, and AT may be a significant source of natural antioxidants, which might be helpful in preventing obesity and progress of various oxidative stresses induced by HFD.

Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Socheongja and Socheong 2, Korean Black Seed Coat Soybean Varieties, against Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Damage in HaCaT Human Skin Keratinocytes (HaCaT 인간 피부 각질세포에서 과산화수소 유도 산화 손상에 대한 소청자 및 소총2호의 항산화 및 세포보호 효능)

  • Choi, Eun Ok;Kwon, Da Hye;Hwang, Hye-Jin;Kim, Kook Jin;Lee, Dong Hee;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.454-464
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    • 2018
  • Black soybeans are used as food sources as well as for traditional medicines because they contain an abundance of natural phenolic compounds. In this study, total phenolic contents (TPCs) of Korean black seed coat soybean varieties Socheongja (SCJ), Socheong 2 (SC2) and Cheongja 2 (CJ2) as well as their antioxidant capacities were investigated. Among them, TPCs were abundantly present in the order of CJ2$H_2O_2$-stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes. Our results revealed that treatment with SCJ and SC2 prior to $H_2O_2$ exposure significantly increases the viability of HaCaT cells, indicating that the exposure of HaCaT cells to SCJ and SC2 conferred a protective effect against oxidative stress. SCJ and SC2 also effectively inhibited $H_2O_2$-induced apoptotic cell death through the blocking of mitochondrial dysfunction. SCJ and SC2 also attenuated the phosphorylation of Histone H2AX. Furthermore, they effectively induced the levels of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) 1, a potent antioxidant enzyme, which is associated with the induction of nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2-like factor 2 (Nrf2); however, the protective effects of SCJ and SC2 were significantly reversed by Auranofin, a TrxR inhibitor. These results indicate that they have protective activity through the blocking of cellular damage related to oxidative stress via the Nrf2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our study indicated that SCJ and SC2 might potentially serve as novel agents for the treatment and prevention of skin disorders caused by oxidative stress.

Multiplication of Infectious Flacherie and Densonucleosis Viruses in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori (가잠의 전염성 연화병 및 농핵병 바이러스 증식에 관한 연구)

  • 김근영;강석권
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1984
  • Flacherie, as one of the most prevalent silkworm diseases, causes severe economic damage to sericultural industry and its pathogens have been proved to be flacherie virus (FV) and densonucleosis virus (DNV). Multiplications of the viruses in the larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were studied by the sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy. The quantitative and qualitative changes of nucleic acids and proteins were investigated from the midgut and hemolymph in the silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV. The histopathological changes of epithelial cells of infected midgut also were examined by an electron microscope. 1. Purified fractions of FV or DNV in a sucrose density gradient centrifugation yielded one homogenous and sharp peak without a shoulder, suggesting no heterogenous materials in the preparation. Electron microscopy also revealed that FV and DNV were spherical particles, 27nm and 21nm in diameter, respectively. 2. Silkworm larvae showed a decrease in body weight on the 6th day and in midgut weight on the 3rd day after inoculation with FV or DNV. 3. DNA content was higher in the midgut when infected with FV or DNV, but the hemolymph of the infected larvae showed no difference during first 6 days after inoculation, after which DNA concentration declined rapidly. 4. RNA synthesis of silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV was stimulated in the midgut, but RNA content was reduced in the hemolymph at the early stage of virus multiplication. At the late stage of virus multiplication, however, it was extremely reduced in both midgut and hemolymph. 5. The concentration of protein in the midgut and hemolymph of silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV showed no difference from that of the healthy larvae at the early stage of virus multiplication, but it was significantly reduced at the late stage of virus multiplication. 6. There was no difference in the electrophoretic patterns of RNAs extracted from the midgut of healthy or virus-infected larvae. 7. The electrophoresis of proteins extracted from the midgut infected with FV or DNV, when carried out on the 1st and 5th day after virus inoculation, showed no difference from that of the healthy larvae. But, there was an additional band with medium motility in the proteins on the 8th day after virus inoculation, while a band with low mobility shown in the proteins of healthy larvae disappeared in the infected larvae. However, a band with high mobility in the healthy larvae was separated into two fractions in the infected larvae. 8. The electrophoretic pattern of hemolymph proteins of the silkworm larvae infected separately with FV and DNV was similar to that of the healthy larvae, but the concentration of hemolymph proteins in the infected larvae was lower than that of the healthy larvae at the late stage. 9. Two types of inclusion bodies were shown by the double staining of pyronin-methyl green in the columnar cell of the midgut on the 8th day after FV inoculation. 10. Electron microscopy of the infected midgut revealed that the 'cytoplasmic wall' of the goblet cell thickened on the 5th day after FV inoculation and several types of the cytopathogenic structures, such as virus$.$specific vesicles, virus particles, linear structures, tubular structures, and high electron-dense matrices were observed in the cytoplasm of the goblet cell. The virus particles were also observed in the microvilli and the structures similar to spherical virus particles were observed around the virus-specific vesicles, suggesting the virus assembly in the cytoplasm. 11. Fluorescence micrograph of the infected midgut stained with acridine orange showed that the nucleus, the site of DNV multiplication in the columnar cell, enlarged on the 5th day after virus inoculation. 12. Electron microscopic examination of DNV infected midgut revealed that the nucleolus of the columnar cell was broken into granules and those granules dispersed into apical region of the nucleus on the 5th day after virus inoculation. On the 8th day after inoculation, it was also observed that the nucleus of the columnar cell was full with the high electron-dense virogenic stroma which were similar to virus particles. These facts suggest that the virogenic stroma were the sites of virus assembly in the process of DNV multiplication.

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Genes Associated with Radiation Adaptive Response Induced by Low Level Radiation from $^{99m}Tc$ in Human Cell Lines (인체세포주에서 저선량 $^{99m}Tc$에 의해 발현되는 방사선 적응반응에 관련된 유전자에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, An-Sung;Bom, Hee-Seung;Choi, Chan;Kim, Ji-Yeul;Lim, Wook-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.313-323
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to search activated genes that could be related to radiation adaptive response (RAR) induced by low-level radiation from $^{99m}Tc$ in human cell lines. Methods: We used gene discovery array (GDA) and representational difference analysis (RDA) methods. $^{99m}Tc$-pertechnetate was added to $2{\times}106/mL$ NC-37 cells (human lymphoblastic cells) to make concentrations ranging from 148 MBq/mL to 148 Bq/mL by serial 10 fold dilutions. After 44 hours, 2 Gy gamma irradiation was given to them using a Cs-137 cell irradiator. Results: As compared to the control (Con) group to which no $^{99m}Tc$ was added, those cells to which 148 and 14.8 KBq of $^{99m}Tc$ were added showed significantly lower damage to chromosomes, which was evaluated by metaphase analysis. Cells with 148 KBq $^{99m}Tc$ (T148 group) showed most significant protection. Activated genes in the T148 group as compared to Con group were evaluated by GDA and GDA methods. GDA revealed genes of casein kinase 2 (CK2) beta chain, immunoglobulins (lg), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B, and two novel genes. Twenty RAR related clones were selected by RDA method. The size of those genes was from 234 to 603 base pairs. Conclusions: RAR was induced by low dose irradiation from $^{99m}Tc$ in NC-37 cell lines. Genes related to the response included CK2, lg, HLA-B in human lymphoblastic cell lines.

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p53 and K-ras Expression in Interstitial Lung Disease (간질성 폐질환에서 p53 및 K-ras 암표지자의 발현)

  • Oh, In-Jae;Kim, You-Il;Kim, Kyu-Sik;Yoo, Young-Kwon;Kim, Soo-Ok;Lee, Eun-Woo;Lim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Young-Chul;Park, Kyung-Ok;Park, Chang-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2001
  • Background : Approximately 10-13% of patients with interstitial lung disease(ILD) die of lung cancer, and patients with ILD have been reported to have a 7 fold higher incidence of lung cancer compared to the normal population. Recently, overexpression of the p53 and p21 proteins were observed in the epithelial cells from pathologic specimens of ILD. Overexpression of these proteins may result from chronic or recurrent DNA damage by unknown causes of inflammation. However, these proteins may also contribute to oncogenesis if other genetic alterations such as K-ras are superimposed. Methods : Immunohistochemical stains for p53 and K-ras proteins were performed with pathologic specimens from 38 cases with ILD(M/F : 27/11, mean agea : $54{\pm}10$ years) and from 10 control subjects. Results : The p53 protein was expressed in 21.1% (8/38 ILD cases) and K-ras protein expression was observed in 65.8% (25/38 ILD cases). However, neither p53 nor the K-ras protein staining was observed in the control subjects. Conclusion : A significant proportion of cases with ILD expressed the p53 and K-ras proteins in their bronchial epithelial cells. These proteins may be potentially oncogenic with the addition of further genetic alterations. However, to clarify the significance of these findings, further studies looking for correlations with the incidence of lung cancer and other genetic changes are needed.

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Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Alveolar Macrophage of Rat (폐포대식세포에서 내독소 자극에 의한 Superoxide Dismutase 유전자발현의 조절 기전)

  • Park, Kye-Young;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Hyun, In-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.522-534
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    • 1995
  • Background: In the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), oxygen radiclls are known to be involved in one part. Superoxide dismutase(SOD) protects oxygen radical-induced tissue damage by dismutating superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. In eukaryotic cells, two forms of SOD exist intracellularly as a cytosolic, dimeric copper/zinc-containing SOD(CuZnSOD) and a mitochondrial, tetrameric manganese-containing SOD(MnSOD). But there has been little information about SOD gene expression and its regulation in pulmonary alveolar macrophages(PAMs). The objective of this study is to evaluate the SOD gene expression induced by LPS and its regulation in PAMs of rat. Method: In Sprague-Dawley rats, PAMs obtained by broncholaveolar lavage were purified by adherence to plastic plate. To study the effect of LPS on the SOD gene expression of PAMs, they were stimulated with different doses of LPS($0.01{\mu}g/ml{\sim}10{\mu}g/ml$) and for different intervals(0, 2, 4, 8, 24hrs). Also for evaluating the level of SOD gene regulation actinomycin D(AD) or cycloheximide(CHX) were added respectively. To assess whether LPS altered SOD mRNA stability, the rate of mRNA decay was determined in control group and LPS-treated group. Total cellular RNA extraction by guanidinium thiocyanate/phenolfchlorofonn method and Northern blot analysis by using a $^{32}P$-labelled rat MnSOD and CuZnSOD cDNAs were performed. Results: The expression of mRNA in MnSOD increased dose-dependently, but not in CuZnSOD. MnSOD mRNA expression peaked at 8 hours after LPS treatment. Upregulation of MnSOD mRNA expression induced by LPS was suppressed by adding AD or CHX respectively. MnSOD mRNA stability was not altered by LPS. Conclusion: These findings show that PAMs of rat could be an important source of SOD in response to LPS, and suggest that their MnSOD mRNA expression may be regulated transcriptionally and require de novo protein synthesis without affecting mRNA stability.

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Histological Change of Uterus Endometrium and Expression of the Eggshell-related Genes according to Hen Age (닭의 산란연령에 따른 자궁내막조직의 변화 및 난각 관련 유전자의 발현양상)

  • Park, Ji Ae;Cho, Eun Jung;Park, Jung Yeon;Sohn, Sea Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 2017
  • The eggshell is an intricate and highly ordered structure composed of multiple layers and a calcified matrix. The eggshell is formed at the uterine segment of the chicken oviduct. In this study, histological changes in the uterine endometrium and the expression of the eggshell-related genes were investigated according to hen age. We analyzed the expression of eggshell protein-related genes, such as OCX-32, OCX-36, OC-17, OC-116, and eggshell-ion-related genes, such as CABL-1, SPP1, SCNN1G, ATP2A2, CA2, and CALM1. In chicken uterine endometrium, histological deformation, fibrosis, atrophy and elimination of micro-villi were found with increasing hen age. The concentration of blood-ion components did not significantly change with age. The amount of telomeric DNA in uterine endometrial cells decreased with increasing hen age. The expression of most of the eggshell-related genes changed significantly with increasing hen age. The expression of some ovo-proteins, which play a role in eggshell formation, increased with increasing hen age; however, there were no significant correlations among eggshell protein genes. Eggshell ion-related genes, such as ATP2A2, SCNN1G, CA2, and CALM1, were closely related to each other. The OCX-32 and OCX-36 genes were closely related to some of the eggshell ion genes. Eggshell protein-related genes, such as the OCX-32, OCX-36 genes and ion-related genes such as CALB-1, ATP2A2, SCNN1G, CA2, CALM1, affected eggshell formation, mutually or independently. This study shows that, uterine although endometrial cell damage occurs with increasing hen age, normal eggshells can be formed in old hens. This suggests that eggshell protein-and eggshell ion-related genes also control the homeostasis of eggshell formation.

Thioredoxin Peroxidase Manifestation in Radiation-Induced White Rat Lung Tissues (방사선 조사후 손상된 백서 폐조직에서의 Thioredoxin Peroxidase의 발현)

  • Chong, Seong-Cheoll;Park, Joon-Seong;Park, Jee-Won;Lee, Sun-Min;Park, Kwang-Joo;Hwang, Sung-Chul;Lee, Yi-Hyeong;Hahn, Myung-Ho;Oh, Young-Taek;Kim, Hyung-Joong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.650-659
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    • 1999
  • Background/Aims: It is well recognized that all aerobic cells have the protective mechanisms in order to minimize the tissue damage induced by various reactive oxygen species(ROS). Thioredoxin peroxidase(TPX) which has been recently identified and characterized functions to convert peroxide to water. The protein is also found in various subtypes(TPX-A & B, MER5, HS22 and HORF-06) and is known to be ubiquitous in most human cells. Especially, ischemic brain injuries, partial hepatectomy and radiation induced DNA damages. In treating lung cancer, radiation therapy has a major place in the local control and the relief of symptoms, but radiation induced free radical injury and resulting pulmonary fibrosis has been the major drawback of the therapy. However, little is known about the protective mechanisms and biologic modulations against radiation-induced tissue damages. Methods: Eighteen mice were divided into six groups, 3 in each group, and fifteen had received 900cGy of radiation. The mice were sacrificed according to the pre determined time schedule; immediate, 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks after irradiation. Extracts were made from the lungs of each mice, Western blot analysis of various subtypes of TPX were done after SDS-P AGE. Examination of H & E stained slides from the same irradiated specimens and the control specimens were also performed. Results: No difference in the intensity of the immunoreactive bands in the irradiated lung samples of the mice compared to the unirradiated control was observed regardless of the time intervals, although H & E examination of the sample specimens demonstrated progressive fibrotic changes of the irradiated lung samples. Conclusion: In conclusion, according to our data, it is suggested that various thioredoxin peroxidase subtypes and catalase which are known to be increased in many repair processes may not be involved in the repair of the radiation injury to the lung and subsequent fibrosis.

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Risk of the Gastric Cancer Associated with the Interleukin $1\beta$ Gene Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori 감염과 Interleukin $1\beta$ 유전자의 다형성에 따른 위암 발생 위험도)

  • Park, Sang-Hyub;Song-Kyo-Young;Kim, Jin-Jo;Jin-Hyung-Min;Kim, Wook;Park, Cho-Hyun;Park, Seung-Man;Lim-Keun-Woo;Park, Woo-Bae;Kim, Seung-Nam;Jeon, Hae-Myung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: According to the recent studies, it is shown that the polymorphism of Interleukin $1\beta$ gene is associated with the incidence of gastric cancer caused by the Helicobacter pylori infection. Interleukin $1\beta$ is a cytokine markedly inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Interleukin $1\beta$ production associated with Helicobacter pylori gastric infection may exacerbate mucosal damage including chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis, may induce eventual neoplasia. Among these Interleukin $1\beta$ gene polymorphisms, polymorphisms at -31 portion and -511 portion may associated with these processes, eventually increase the risk of gastric cancer. We investigated the risk of gastric cancer according to the Helicobacter pylori infection and genetic polymorphism of Interleukin $1\beta$ in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Methods: 176 individuals with gastric cancer and 40 healthy controls were analyzed. Each group was divided into two groups whether they infected with Helicobacter pylori or not. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood in all groups. The PCR-RFLP method was used for investigating the distribution of genotype of C/C, C/T, T/T at -31 portion and -511 portion. Results: T/T genotype at -511 portion was $19.3\%$ in gastric cancer cases and $10\%$ in controls, which was statistically significant. (P=0.0432) The risk of gastric cancer was increased 4.86 ($1.26\∼18.77$) in group which had T/T genotype. In gastric cancer cases, C/C genotype at 31 portion was $27.6\%$ in group with Helicobacter pylori infection and $12.8\%$ in group without infection, which was statistically significant. (P=0.0047) The risk of gastric cancer was increased 4.82 ($1.81\~12.81$) in group which had C/C genotype. Conclusion: T genotype at -511 portion among the Interleukin $1\beta$ genetic polymorphisms may be the risk factor of gastric cancer. And, with Helicobacter pylori infection, C genotype at -31 portion may be the risk factor of gastric cancer.

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