• Title, Summary, Keyword: DALY

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Differences in the burden of disease of the elderly by socioeconomic status (노인의 사회계층간 질병부담격차)

  • Lee, Chae-Eun;Kwon, Soon-Man
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2008
  • Burden of disease analysis provides a unique perspective on health by integrating fatal and non-fatal outcomes, yet allows the outcome of two classes to be examined separately. Although many studies have shown the inequality in health outcomes across socioeconomic status (SES), an analysis and comparison of Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) between different socioeconomic groups has been rare. This paper calculates the DALY and analyzes the distribution of DALYs for different SES. This study draws from 3,278 cases from the survey on "The Livelihood and Welfare Needs of the Elderly (2004)". It first provides a comprehensive assessment of the burden of 10 chronic diseases of the elderly based on DALY. Then this paper analyzes inequalities in the burden of disease by the levels of SES such as education, income, family size, occupation, and subjective economic conditions. For the elderly, the burden of disease is the highest for hypertension, arthritis and cancer. DALY rate per 1,000 people for the most socio-economically disadvantaged group is expressed as a multiple of the standardized rate for the least disadvantaged group (Rate Ratios). Family size is strongly related to. the difference in the burden of disease between SES groups, and the elderly Who live alone have higher DALY rate than those who live with their family. Other significant variables related to SES groups include subjective economic conditions, occupation, elderly income, and household income.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Screening in Rural Iran

  • Zehtab, Nooshin;Jafari, Mohammad;Barooni, Mohsen;Nakhaee, Nouzar;Goudarzi, Reza;Zadeh, Mohammad Hassan Larry
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.609-614
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    • 2016
  • Background: Although breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, economic evaluation of breast cancer screening is not fully addressed in developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening using mammography in 35-69 year old women in an Iranian setting. Materials and Methods: This was an economic evaluation study assessing the cost-effectiveness of a population-based screening program in 35-69 year old women residing in rural areas of South east Iran. The study was conducted from the perspective of policy-makers of insurance. The study population consisted of 35- to 69-year old women in rural areas of Kerman with a population of about 19,651 in 2013. The decision tree modeling and economic evaluation software were used for cost-effectiveness and sensitivity analyses of the interventions. Results: The total cost of the screening program was 7,067.69 US$ and the total effectiveness for screening and no-screening interventions was 0.06171 and 0.00864 disability adjusted life years averted, respectively. The average cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted US$ for screening intervention was 7,7082.5 US$ per DALY averted and 589,027 US $ for no-screening intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio DALY averted was 6,264 US$ per DALY averted for screening intervention compared with no-screening intervention. Conclusions: Although the screening intervention is more cost-effective than the alternative (noscreening) strategy, it seems that including breast cancer screening program in health insurance package may not be recommended as long as the target group has a low participation rate.

Estimating the Burden of Cancers Attributable to Smoking Using Disability Adjusted Life Years in Indonesia

  • Kristina, Susi Ari;Endarti, Dwi;Sendjaya, Natalia;Pramestuty, Octy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1577-1581
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    • 2016
  • Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Recent data on selected cancer incidence and mortality related to smoking in the Indonesian population are provided in this study. Morbidity and mortality data were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012 and the population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated using the standard methodology developed by the World Health Organization. Using these data, we calculated disability adjusted life year (DALY) values for smoking-related cancer. The DALY was estimated by summation of the years lived with disability (YLD) and years life lost due to premature death (YLL). The cancer cases related to smoking in Indonesia numbered 45,132, accounting for 35,580 cancer deaths. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer can be considered as the highest priority in both men and women. Furthermore the greatest YLD due to smoking in Indonesian men and women were from pancreas and lung cancers. For YLL among men, the highest years lost were from lung and liver cancers. On the other hand, among women lung oral cavity and lip were most important. Based on the DALY indicator, burden priorities for Indonesian men were lung cancer (298,980), liver cancer (60,367), and nasopharynx (46,185), while among Indonesian women they were lung cancer (34,119), cervix uteri (9,213) and pancreas cancer (5,433). In total, Indonesian burden of cancers attributed to smoking was 638,682 DALY. This study provides evidence about the burden of cancers caused by smoking as a rational basis for initiating national tobacco control policies in Indonesia.

Measuring the Burden of Hypertension using DALY in Korea (장애보정생존년수(DALY)를 활용한 우리 나라 고혈압의 질병부담 측정)

  • 윤석준;하범만;김창엽
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.89-101
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    • 2001
  • This study estimated the burden of disease due to hypertension in Korea in disability-adjusted life years(DALYs) using vital registration data and the National Health Examination Survey data. Firstly, we estimated the years life lost due to premature death (YLLs) of hypertension using the vital registration data. Secondly, to calculate the years lived with disability (YLDs), we estimated the average age at onset and disease duration using the National Health Examination Survey data. The disability weights for hypertension were estimated by person trade off method. Finally, the burden of hypertension was calculated in DALYs, which are the sum of YLLs and YLDs. The burden of hypertension for males was attributed mainly to YLD(97.9%). DALYs for females were also attributed mainly to YLD(96.7%). DALYS for males were 993,950 person-years and for females were 743,282 person-years. Results of this study provide a rational basis to plan a national health policy regarding the disease burden of hypertension in Korea. We will need accurate epidemiological study results and other study results of national burden of disease in Korea to get more accurate results of this burden of disease study.

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Environmental Impact and External Cost Analysis by LCA : Conventional vs. Organic Rice (전과정평가(Life Cycle Assessment)를 이용한 관행농과 유기농 쌀의 환경성 및 외부비용 분석)

  • Lim, Song-Tak;Lee, Choon-Soo;Yang, Seung-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2010
  • This paper evaluates potential environmental impacts and external costs on rice production of Korea. The investigation is based on LCA in agricultural area which estimates inputs and outputs of rice production system in quantitative way. The results show that environmental impacts on organic rice(4.49E-08 DALY/kg) is level on 4.5% out of conventional rice(9.97E-07 DALY/kg). The external costs of organic and conventional rice are 4.04won/kg and 89.52won/kg respectively. The balance of both organic and conventional rice which is 85.48won/kg represents monetary value on improvement of environmental effects as producing organic rice.

Burden of Disease Due to Secondhand Smoke among Korean Adults at Sub-National Level

  • Zahra, Aqeela;Park, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.33 no.40
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    • pp.256.1-256.13
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    • 2018
  • Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the biggest health hazards. Quantifying the related burden of disease (BOD) is a powerful tool for making evidence-based policies. This study calculated the BOD due to SHS at sub-national level using the most recent statistics of Korea. Methods: SHS related diseases were selected by the systematic review of previous studies. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated by using the standard formula using prevalence of exposure derived from Community Health Survey (CHS) 2013. SHS burden was calculated by multiplying nonsmoker's disability adjusted life years (DALYs) with PAF of SHS. Results: SHS burden at sub-national level ranged between 460 DALYs in Cheonan to 5 DALYs in Pyeongtaek, Songtan region. Median of DALY was highest in districts of metropolitan cities and lowest in small towns and rural areas. Twelve out of fifteen regions with highest DALY per 1,000 were small towns and rural areas. Gender and age standardized DALY was highest in Seogwipo (west) in Jeju-do (1.66/1,000) and lowest in Dong-gu, Ulsan (0.17/1,000). Conclusion: There were substantial variations between regions according to BOD. Regional governments should implement policies according to specific situation in each region and regular monitoring should be done by calculating BOD. Big cities need to focus more on control of active and SHS prevalence. Resources in small towns and rural areas need to be allocated more towards implementation of screening programs, early diagnosis and treatment of diseases especially in the elderly population.

Burden of Disease Due to Outdoor Air Pollution in Korea: Based on PM10

  • Kim, Hyun-Jin;Yoon, Seok-Jun;Kim, Hyeong-Su;Lee, Kun-Sei;Kim, Eun-Jung;Jo, Min-Woo;Oh, In-Hwan
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.387-395
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study measured the burden of disease in Korea related to outdoor air pollution using disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Materials and Methods: As a risk factor of outdoor air pollution, particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 ${\mu}m$($PM_{10}$) was used. First, $PM_{10}$-related diseases and their relative risk (RR) were selected by means of a literature review. Second, population attributable fractions were computed by using formulae including RR and population exposure to $PM_{10}$. Third, DALYs of $PM_{10}$-related diseases in Korea were estimated. Finally, the attributable burden of disease due to $PM_{10}$ was measured as the sum of the products that multiplied the DALYs of $PM_{10}$-related diseases by their population attributable fractions. Results: The disease burden of PM10 was 6.9 DALY per 1,000 persons in 2007. The attributable burden of $PM_{10}$ was 2.68 for lung cancer, 2.41 for COPD, 0.62 for ischemic heart disease, 0.61 for pneumonia, 0.55 for asthma, and 0.03 for preterm. Conclusions: This study showed the environmental burden of disease of $PM_{10}$ and burden of $PM_{10}$-related disease through objective data. It also suggested that active efforts are needed to continuously measure and reduce the burden of environmental diseases in Korea.