• Title, Summary, Keyword: D/N value

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REMARK ON AVERAGE OF CLASS NUMBERS OF FUNCTION FIELDS

  • Jung, Hwanyup
    • Korean Journal of Mathematics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2013
  • Let $k=\mathbb{F}_q(T)$ be a rational function field over the finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$, where q is a power of an odd prime number, and $\mathbb{A}=\mathbb{F}_q[T]$. Let ${\gamma}$ be a generator of $\mathbb{F}^*_q$. Let $\mathcal{H}_n$ be the subset of $\mathbb{A}$ consisting of monic square-free polynomials of degree n. In this paper we obtain an asymptotic formula for the mean value of $L(1,{\chi}_{\gamma}{\small{D}})$ and calculate the average value of the ideal class number $h_{\gamma}\small{D}$ when the average is taken over $D{\in}\mathcal{H}_{2g+2}$.

Effects of Organic Acids Mix and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Storage Quality of Sliced Bacon

  • Muhlisin, Muhlisin;Kang, Sun-Moon;Choi, Won-Hee;Lee, Keun-Taik;Cheong, Sung-Hee;Lee, Sung-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.710-718
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    • 2011
  • The effects of organic acids mix (0.4%) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the storage quality of sliced bacon were investigated. Pork bellies were treated with or without organic acids at the curing stage. The organic acids mix comprised 35% sodium acetate, 25% salt, 15% calcium lactate, 11% trisodium citrate, 7% ascorbate, and 7% citric acid. The cured pork bellies were smoked and packaged with 50% $CO_2$ + 50% $N_2$ (50% $CO_2$-MAP) and 100% $N_2$ (100% $N_2$-MAP), and stored at $5^{\circ}C$ for 14 d. The 50% $CO_2$-MAP showed a higher pH value (p<0.05) up to 10 d, a lower protein deterioration (p<0.05) as measured by volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) from 6 to 14 d, and a higher color value of lightness (CIE $L^*$) compared to 100% $N_2$-MAP. The development of lipid oxidation measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values seemed to be effectively controlled throughout the storage period in both 50% $CO_2$-MAP and 100% $N_2$-MAP regardless of the application of organic acids. The 50% $CO_2$-MAP inhibited the growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (p<0.05) both in non-added and bacon added with organic acids mix. The 50% $CO_2$-MAP alone seemed to be effective in delaying the growth of bacteria since the use of organic acids mix gave no additional effects. The addition of organic acids mix lowered the pH value (p<0.05), effectively retarded the protein deterioration (p<0.05), and showed a higher color value of lightness (CIE $L^*$) value (p<0.05) and lower color value of redness (CIE $a^*$) value (p<0.05). In conclusion, 50% $CO^2$-MAP showed better quality and self-life of sliced bacon during storage. However, the beneficial effect of organic acids mix was not noticed in the concentration used in this experiment.

Determination of the Nutritive Value of Tropical Biomass Products as Dietary Ingredients for Monogastrics Using Rats: 1. Comparison of Eight Forage Species at Two Levels of Inclusion in Relation to a Casein Diet

  • Phuc, Bui Huy Nhu;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian;Thomke, Sigvard
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.986-993
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    • 2001
  • In balance experiments with rats either 25 or 50% of the casein protein in the control diet was replaced with one of the following eight sun-dried tropical biomass products: water spinach plants (WS) (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), leucaena leaves (LL) (Leuceana leucocephala), duckweed plants (DW) (Lemma minor L.), groundnut foliage (OF) (Arachis hypogaea L.), trichantera leaves (Tric) (Trichantera gigantea), indicago leaves (Ind) (Indigofera hirsuta), mungbean foliage (Mb) (Phaseolus aureus), and cassava leaves (CL) (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The experiment included 102 rats with six individuals per treatment group. In three of the 16 biomass treatment groups, feed intake and weight gain of the rats were unacceptably low, and therefore they were excluded from the statistical evaluation, The crude protein (CP) content of the biomass products varied between 20.9% (Tric) and 33.2% (DW), whereas the content of NDF varied between 18.5% (Ind) and 32.2% (DW) of dry matter (DM). The total content of essential amino acids (g/16 g N) was comparable with that of alfalfa meal, except for GF and Tric, which were inferior. Between plant species, differences in dietary digestibility of organic matter (dOM) and CP (dCP) were observed (p<0.001). Also, the replacement level negatively influenced dOM and dCP (p<0.001). The lowest values for dOM (p<0.001) were observed for diets including biomass products with the highest content of NDF (OF, Tric, Mb, LL). Digestibility of CP was negatively affected by level of protein replacement. Significant (p<0.001) differences were found in N-retention and biological value among diets with different biomass products. The most favourable overall results were obtained for DW, WS and CL. The main factors affecting the nutritive value of the diets tested were their NDF content, dCP and AA profile of the biomass. Also antinutritive component(s) may have influenced the process of digestion and metabolism of some of the biomass products.

Effect of Seeding and Mixing Conditions on Struvite Crystallization (Seeding 및 혼합조건이 Struvite 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Kim, Dae-Keun;Kang, Joo-Hyoung;Lee, Sang-Ill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2007
  • This study was aimed to find out methods for preventing scale formation from the struvite treated water, and improving ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency in the application of struvite crystallization for ammonium fluoride wastewater wastement. During the struvite mystallization seeding effects varied with G.td value applied as mixing conditions in the experiment. The removal efficiency of ammonium nitrogen$(NH_4^+-N)$ and phosphorus$(PO_4^{3-}-P)$ increased over 90% in the condition of low $G{\cdot}t_d$ value. In the experiment with seeding, $G{\cdot}t_d$ value was shown to decease four times lower than the one without seeding. When adding over 2% seeding materials in the total water volume, ammonium nitrogen removal efficiencies gradually increased, of which observation was also revealed in a paired-sample T-test with 95% reliability.

Predictive Value of Baseline Plasma D-dimers for Chemotherapy-induced Thrombocytopenia in Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer: A Pilot Study

  • Tanriverdi, Ozgur
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.293-297
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    • 2013
  • Background: : Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is an important cause of morbitity in patients with cancer. Aim: To investigate the effect of the baseline plasma D-dimer level, an important marker for thrombotic activity, on chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with stage III colon cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 (28 men) eligible patients were divided into two groups according to whether they exhibited chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia: Group 1 (n=21) and Group 2 (n=22). Comparison was made using demographic, histopathologic, and laboratory variables. Additionally, baseline plasma D-dimer levels underwent receiver operation characteristics curve analysis, and areas under the curve were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood rates were then determined. Results: The incidence of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia had a significant correlation with baseline platelet count (r=0.568, P=0.031) and baseline plasma D-dimer levels (r=0.617, P=0.036). When the cut-off point for the latter was set as 498 ng/mL, the area under the curve was 0.89 (95%CI: 0.74-0.93), the sensitivity was 91.4%, the specificity was 89.7%, the positive likelihood rate was 3.64 and the negative likelihood rate was 0.24 for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia diagnosis. Conclusions: The baseline level of plasma D-dimer could help to differentiate high-risk patients for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.

The Effect of Particle Shape and Size on the Settling Characteristics in Suspension (서스펜션 중에서 입자의 형태와 크기가 침강특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ji-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.4 no.8
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    • pp.927-933
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    • 1994
  • The effect of particle shape and size on the settling characteristics in monodisperse suspensions of non-spherical particles was investigated. The slope index n values which was obtained from the plot of logarithm of settling rate vs. voidage were increased with the decrease of particle size because different amount of liquid could be adsorbed on irregular particle shape and/or size at same volume concentration. From the experimental results, an equation, $n_{i}=n(a+b/d_{v})$ where n is value of spherical particles, dv is minimum particle diameter and a, b are constants for characteristic of particles.

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MARKOV-BERNSTEIN TYPE INEQUALITIIES FOR POLYNOMIALS

  • Kwon, K.H.;Lee, D.W.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.63-78
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    • 1999
  • Let $\mu$(x) be an increasing function on the real line with finite moments of all oeders. We show that for any linear operator T on the space of polynomials and any interger n $\geq$ 0, there is a constant $\gamma n(T)\geq0$, independent of p(x), such that $\parallel T_p\parallel\leq\gamma n(T)\parallel P\parallel$, for any polynomial p(x) of degree $\leq$ n, where We find a formular for the best possible value $\Gamma_n(T)\;of\;\gamma n(T)$ and estimations for $\Gamma_n(T)$. We also give several illustrating examples when T is a differentiation or a difference operator and $d\mu$(x) is an orthogonalizing measure for classical or discrete orthogonal polynomials.

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Application of Critical Damage Value to Continuous Drawing Process using FEM (연속 인발공정에서 유한요소법을 이용한 Critical Damage Value 의 적용)

  • 박동인;김병민;고대철
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.291-295
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    • 2003
  • The occurrence of ductile fracture is the working limit of many metal forming processes. It is necessary to predict the criteria and to apply the condition in a process design. Over the years. the way for clarifying conditions have been studied and presented. However such a way needs lots of experiments and analysis. In this study, in order to determine the critical damage value of a used material Cu 4N, it was performed a tensile test and FEM analysis by using DEFORM 2D. For applying the obtained critical damage value it was also performed a upsetting test by using DEFORM 2D. The way of determining a critical damage value which is presented in this study will make possible to find easily it which is one of the working limit factor. And the way of determining a critical damage value will make possible to find in multi-pass drawing process.

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A Bottleneck Search Algorithm for Digraph Using Maximum Adjacency Merging Method (최대 인접 병합 방법을 적용한 방향 그래프의 병목지점 탐색 알고리즘)

  • Lee, Sang-Un
    • The Journal of The Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2012
  • Given digraph network $D=(N,A),n{\in}N,a=c(u,v){\in}A$ with source s and sink t, the maximum flow from s to t is determined by cut (S, T) that splits N to $s{\in}S$ and $t{\in}T$ disjoint sets with minimum cut value. The Ford-Fulkerson (F-F) algorithm with time complexity $O(NA^2)$ has been well known to this problem. The F-F algorithm finds all possible augmenting paths from s to t with residual capacity arcs and determines bottleneck arc that has a minimum residual capacity among the paths. After completion of algorithm, you should be determine the minimum cut by combination of bottleneck arcs. This paper suggests maximum adjacency merging and compute cut value method is called by MA-merging algorithm. We start the initial value to S={s}, T={t}, Then we select the maximum capacity $_{max}c(u,v)$ in the graph and merge to adjacent set S or T. Finally, we compute cut value of S or T. This algorithm runs n-1 times. We experiment Ford-Fulkerson and MA-merging algorithm for various 8 digraph. As a results, MA-merging algorithm can be finds minimum cut during the n-1 running times with time complexity O(N).

Dietary phosphorus deficiency impaired growth, intestinal digestion and absorption function of meat ducks

  • Xu, Huimin;Dai, Shujun;Zhang, Keying;Ding, Xuemei;Bai, Shiping;Wang, Jianping;Peng, Huanwei;Zeng, Qiufeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1897-1906
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) deficiency on intestinal pH value, digestive enzyme activity, morphology, nutrient utilization, and gene expression of NaPi-IIb in meat ducks from 1 to 21 d of age. Methods: A total of 525 one-d-old Cherry Valley ducklings were fed diets (with 7 pens of 15 ducklings, or 105 total ducklings, on each diet) with five levels of nPP (0.22%, 0.34%, 0.40%, 0.46%, or 0.58%) for 21 d in a completely randomized design. Five experimental diets contained a constant calcium (Ca) content of approximately 0.9%. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were measured at 14 and 21 d of age. Ducks were sampled for duodenum and jejunum digestion and absorption function on 14 and 21 d. Nutrient utilization was assessed using 25- to 27-d-old ducks. Results: The results showed ducks fed 0.22% nPP had lower (p<0.05) growth performance and nutrient utilization and higher (p<0.05) serum Ca content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. When dietary nPP levels were increased, BW (d 14 and 21), BWG and FI (all intervals), and the serum phosphorus (P) content linearly and quadratically increased (p<0.05); and the jejunal pH value (d 14), duodenal muscle layer thickness (d 14), excreta dry matter, crude protein, energy, Ca and total P utilization linearly increased (p<0.05); however, the serum ALP activity, jejunal $Na^+-K^+$-ATPase activity, and duodenal NaPi-IIb mRNA level (d 21) linearly decreased (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that ducks aged from 1 to 21 d fed diets with 0.22% nPP had poor growth performance related to poor intestinal digestion and absorption ability; but when fed diets with 0.40%, 0.46%, and 0.58% nPP, ducks presented a better growth performance, intestinal digestion and absorption function.