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A study on procedure for classifying male muscular lower body somatotype from general anthropometric database

  • Lee, Minji;Chun, Jongsuk
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.585-595
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    • 2013
  • The most researches developing pattern of compression style sportswear were targeted at the live model that has muscular body build. The purpose of this study was developing a method for classifying men's lower body types in terms of muscular body build. The 3D human body scan data and body measurements of 30s of Size Korea were analyzed. The subjects (n=203) were men between the ages of 30 and 39 years. Men's muscular body build was classified with two key dimensions, thigh girth and calf girth. The subjects were divided into four groups. From each group, average subjects (n=42) whose height and weight were close to the mean value ($mean{\pm}1/2$ S.D.) were selected. 42 subjects were divided up as four groups. Group I (n=7) was thigh and calf developed body type. Group II (n=9) was thigh developed body type. Group III (n=11) was calf developed body type. Group IV (n=15) was thigh and calf undeveloped body type. Four groups had distinct different at widths (n=4), depths (n=4), and girths (n=9) dimensions. The results showed that the muscular men in their 30s could be defined by thigh and calf girths. The thigh developed muscular men had thigh girth over 60cm and the calf developed muscular men had calf girth over 38cm. From each group one representative was selected by 3D body scan figure.

NOTE ON THE MODULUS METHOD IN Rn

  • Chung, Bo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Chungcheong Mathematical Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2003
  • In this note, we introduce the concept of the modulus of a curve family in $R^n$ and examine some basic properties. And we study the boundary behavior of quasiconformal mappings on a domain $D{\subset}\bar{R}^n$ and present some geometric applications.

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Signal to Noise Ratio of the Announcement from Reinforced Sound System and Background Noise in Transportation Facility (교통시설에서의 스피커 안내음과 배경소음의 신호대잡음비)

  • Song, Han-Sol;Ryu, Jong-Kwan;Jin, Min-Gyu;Sung, Chang-Ju
    • 한국건축친환경설비학회 논문집
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the signal sound and announcement in transportation facilities such as subway and railway station, bus-terminal and airport. The result of survey in subway station showed that 82% of participants were dissatisfied with the signal sound and announcement. Acoustical characteristic and S/N of the signal sound and announcement were also analysed after measuring the signal sound, announcement, train arriving noise and background noise in transportation facilities. In the subway station, the S/N ratios ranged from - 14.4~13.8 dB and mostly were lower than 10 dB, which is suitable value for word recognition of elderly person. The S/N ratio in the railway station ranged from 0.7 to 5.7 dB, and the ratio in the bus terminal and airport was 8.4 dB and 9.2 dB, respectively. For the subway station, the S/N ratio in separated platform was 2 dB higher than that of island platform, and the ratio in platform with screen door was about 7 dB higher than that in platform without screen door.

A Clipping-free Multi-bit $\Sigma\Delta$ Modulator with Digital-controlled Analog Integrators (디지털 제어 적분형의 차단 현상이 없는 A/D 다중 비트 $\Sigma\Delta$ 변조기)

  • 이동연;김원찬
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics C
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    • v.34C no.4
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 1997
  • This paper proposes a multi-bit $\Sigma\Delta$ modulator arcitecture which eliminates signal clipping problem. To avoid signal clipping, the output values of intgrators are monitored and modified by a reference value. This oepration is recorded as a digital code to restore actual signal value. Due to the digital code, the substraction of feedback value from the multi-bit quantizer can be calculated by a digital adder and this simplifies dAC operation making the accurate DAC of conventional multi-bit $\Sigma\Delta$ modulator scheme unnecessary. These features make N-th modulator can be implemented by sharing an integrator among N stages to decrease the required chip area. As an experimental example, a 4th order .sum..DELTA. modulator with oversampling ratio of 64 was simulated to show over 130 DB SNR at rail-to-rail input sinusoidal signal.

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SOLUTIONS FOR A CLASS OF FRACTIONAL BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM WITH MIXED NONLINEARITIES

  • Zhang, Ziheng
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.1585-1596
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    • 2016
  • In this paper we investigate the existence of nontrivial solutions for the following fractional boundary value problem (FBVP) $$\{_tD_T^{\alpha}(_0D_t^{\alpha}u(t))={\nabla}W(t,u(t)),\;t{\in}[0,T],\\u(0)=u(T)=0,$$ where ${\alpha}{\in}(1/2,1)$, $u{\in}{\mathbb{R}}^n$, $W{\in}C^1([0,T]{\times}{\mathbb{R}}^n,{\mathbb{R}})$ and ${\nabla}W(t,u)$ is the gradient of W(t, u) at u. The novelty of this paper is that, when the nonlinearity W(t, u) involves a combination of superquadratic and subquadratic terms, under some suitable assumptions we show that (FBVP) possesses at least two nontrivial solutions. Recent results in the literature are generalized and significantly improved.

Effects of Initial EC Values on Seedling Growth and Utilization of Minerals in Hydroponic Rice Seedling Raising (벼 수경육묘에서 양액의 EC 초기 설정에 따른 묘 생육과 무기성분의 이용)

  • 김영광;홍광표;정완규;손길만;송근우;강진호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to develop a technology for raising seedlings hydroponically using the bed in which the seedlings grew in nutrient solution without soil. In order to establish the optimum EC value of nutrient solution, six initial EC values (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 dS/m and control) of Yoshida's hydroponic solution were examined. Seedling height and dry weight increased with increasing below EC up to 3.0 dS/m, but showed no significant increase at higher than EC 3.0 dS/m. Nutrient solution with initial EC of 3.0 dS/m was good to be dropped down nearly to 1 dS/m after 15-day seedling culture. But those with initial EC of 4.0 and 5.0 dS/m were judged not appropriate because of high EC value in waste nutrient solution. Utilization efficiency of minerals of nutrient solution and rice endosperm was higher on the whole at initial EC of 2.0-3.0 dS/m. Considering seedling growth and utilization efficiency of supplied nutrient solution, initial EC is judged to be suitable at 3.0 dS/m.

Work function variation of doped ZnO nanorods by Kelvin probe force microscopy

  • Ben, Chu Van;Hong, Min-Chi;Yang, Woo-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.446-446
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    • 2011
  • One dimensional (1-D) structures of ZnO nanorods are promising elements for future optoelectronic devices. However there are still many obstacles in fabricating high-quality p-type ZnO up to now. In addition, it is limited to measure the degree of the doping concentration and carrier transport of the doped 1-D ZnO with conventional methods such as Hall measurement. Here we demonstrate the measurement of the electronic properties of p- and n-doped ZnO nanorods by the Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods with intrinsic n-doped, As-doped p-type, and p-n junction were grown by vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Individual nanowires were then transferred onto Au films deposited on Si substrates. The morphology and surface potentials were measured simultaneously by the KPFM. The work function of the individual nanorods was estimated by comparing with that of gold film as a reference, and the doping concentration of each ZnO nanorods was deduced. Our KPFM results show that the average work function difference between the p-type and n-type regions of p-n junction ZnO nanorod is about ~85meV. This value is in good agreement with the difference in the work function between As-doped p- and n-type ZnO nanorods (96meV) measured with the same conditions. This value is smaller than the expected values estimated from the energy band diagram. However it is explained in terms of surface state and surface band bending.

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Distribution and Source Identification of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs in Sediments from the Geum River (금강 수계 퇴적물 중 PCDD/Fs 및 Co-PCBs의 농도 분포와 발생원 해석)

  • Park, Jong-Eun;Kim, Jong-Guk;Ahn, Sung-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.900-906
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    • 2011
  • To investigate concentration and sources of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs in sediments, total 52 sediment samples were measured at 17 sites in Geum River. As a result of analysis, total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs were ranged from not detected (N.D.)~193.47 pg/g-d.w. (mean value: 84.52 pg/g-d.w) and 0.34~359.19 pg/g-d.w (mean value: 114.65 pg/g-d.w.) respectively. Also, toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs were ranged from N.D.~5.12 (mean value: 0.88) pg I-TEQ/g-d.w and N.D.~0.58 (mean value: 0.09) $WHO_{2005}$-TEQ pg/g-d.w. respectively. The upstream indicate the highest concentration and as it goes to the downstream, it has tendency to decrease. Higher chlorinated compounds were dominant in most of site which detected PCDD/Fs. Occurrence of Co-PCBs isomer patterns appear similar to each sampling site was found. The isomer patterns showed similar between sediment and PCB products. The principal component analysis also showed that the samples contained the characteristics of PCBs products.

Embedding algorithms among hypercube and star graph variants (하이퍼큐브와 스타 그래프 종류 사이의 임베딩 알고리즘)

  • Kim, Jongseok;Lee, Hyeongok
    • The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2014
  • Hypercube and star graph are widely known as interconnection network. The embedding of an interconnection network is a mapping of a network G into other network H. The possibility of embedding interconnection network G into H with a low cost, has an advantage of efficient algorithms usage in network H, which was developed in network G. In this paper, we provide an embedding algorithm between HCN and HON. HCN(n,n) can be embedded into HON($C_{n+1},C_{n+1}$) with dilation 3 and HON($C_d,C_d$) can be embedded into HCN(2d-1,2d-1) with dilation O(d). Also, star graph can be embedded to half pancake's value of dilation 11, expansion 1, and average dilation 8. Thus, the result means that various algorithms designed for HCN and Star graph can be efficiently executed on HON and half pancake, respectively.

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REMARK ON AVERAGE OF CLASS NUMBERS OF FUNCTION FIELDS

  • Jung, Hwanyup
    • Korean Journal of Mathematics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.365-374
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    • 2013
  • Let $k=\mathbb{F}_q(T)$ be a rational function field over the finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$, where q is a power of an odd prime number, and $\mathbb{A}=\mathbb{F}_q[T]$. Let ${\gamma}$ be a generator of $\mathbb{F}^*_q$. Let $\mathcal{H}_n$ be the subset of $\mathbb{A}$ consisting of monic square-free polynomials of degree n. In this paper we obtain an asymptotic formula for the mean value of $L(1,{\chi}_{\gamma}{\small{D}})$ and calculate the average value of the ideal class number $h_{\gamma}\small{D}$ when the average is taken over $D{\in}\mathcal{H}_{2g+2}$.