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The study on the scattering ratio at the edge of the block according to the increasing block thickness in electron therapy (전자선 치료 시 차폐블록 두께 변화에 따른 블록 주변 선량에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Zi On;Gwak, Geun Tak;Park, Ju Kyeong;Lee, Seung Hun;Kim, Yang Su;Kim, Jung Soo;Kwon, Hyoung Cheol;Lee, Sun Young
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The purpose is to clarify the effect of additional scattering ratio on the edge of the block according to the increasing block thickness with low melting point lead alloy and pure lead in electron beam therapy. Methods and materials: $10{\times}10cm^2$ Shielding blocks made of low melting point lead alloy and pure lead were fabricated to shield mold frame half of applicator. Block thickness was 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 (mm) for each material. The common irradiation conditions were set at 6 MeV energy, 300 MU / Min dose rate, gantry angle of $0^{\circ}$, and dose of 100 MU. The relative scattering ratio with increasing block thickness was measured with a parallel plate type ion chamber(Exradin P11) and phantom(RW3) by varying the position of the shielding block(cone and on the phantom), the position of the measuring point(surface ans depth of $D_{max}$), and the block material(lead alloy and pure lead). Results : When (depth of measurement / block position / block material) was (surface / applicator / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.33 nC(+0.33 %), 15.28 nC(0 %), 15.08 nC(-1.31 %), 15.05 nC(-1.51 %), 15.07 nC(-1.37 %) as the block thickness increased in order of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 (mm) respectively. When it was (surface / applicator / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.19 nC(-0.59 %), 15.25 nC(-0.20 %), 15.15 nC(-0.85 %), 14.96 nC(-2.09 %), 15.15 nC(-0.85 %) respectively. When it was (surface / phantom / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.62 nC(+2.23 %), 15.59 nC(+2.03 %), 15.53 nC(+1.67 %), 15.48 nC(+1.31 %), 15.34 nC(+0.39 %) respectively. When it was (surface / phantom / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.56 nC(+1.83 %), 15.55 nC(+1.77 %), 15.51 nC(+1.51 %), 15.42 nC(+0.92 %), 15.39 nC(+0.72 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / applicator / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 16.70 nC(-10.87 %), 16.84 nC(-10.12 %), 16.72 nC(-10.78 %), 16.88 nC(-9.93 %), 16.90 nC(-9.82 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / applicator / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 16.83 nC(-10.19 %), 17.12 nC(-8.64 %), 16.89 nC(-9.87 %), 16.77 nC(-10.51 %), 16.52 nC(-11.85 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / phantom / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 17.41 nC(-7.10 %), 17.45 nC(-6.88 %), 17.34 nC(-7.47 %), 17.42 nC(-7.04 %), 17.25 nC(-7.95 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / phantom / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 17.45 nC(-6.88 %), 17.44 nC(-6.94 %), 17.47 nC(-6.78 %), 17.43 nC(-6.99 %), 17.35 nC(-7.42 %) respectively. Conclusions: When performing electron therapy using a shielding block, the block position should be inserted applicator rather than the patient's body surface. The block thickness should be made to the minimum appropriate shielding thickness of each corresponding using energy. Also it is useful that the treatment should be performed considering the influence of scattering dose varying with distance from the edge of block.

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Studies on Cocoon Filament Size Deviation in Multivoltine Breeds and Multivoltine ${\times}$ Bivoltine Hybrids of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

  • Rao, D.Raghavendra;Singh, Ravindra;Kariappa, B.K.;Dandin, S.B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.273-277
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    • 2004
  • Variation in the size of the silk filament will determine the uniformity and quality of the silk reeled. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the filament size variation in 6 multivoltine parental breeds and 9 multivoltine ${\times}$ bivoltine hybrids in all three seasons of a year. All multivoltine breeds and multivoltine ${\times}$ bivoltine hybrids showed variation in filament size throughout its length from the outer layer to inner layer. Results of the present study indicated that the size of the filament decreased from outer to inner layer. The decrease in filament size was sudden in some breeds/hybrids whereas it was gradual in other. Relationship between filament length to that of slope, average filament size to slope, and maximum filament size to slope was determined based on regression analysis. Regression analysis revealed significant positive correlation between slope vs average filament length (r=0.92$^{**}$) in multivoltine${\times}$bivoltine hybrids. Among parental breeds, 96C showed lowest slope of the curve (b-value: -0.00428) and 96A showed highest slope of the curve (b-value: -0.00269). Among 9 hybrids, PM${\times}$N $B_4$ $D_2$ recorded lowest slope value (b-value: -0.00328) and BL24${\times}$N $B_4$ $D_2$ showed highest value for slope of the curve (b-value: -0.00234). The breed 96C, which showed lowest slope value can be utilized for future breeding programmes to breed strains with less size deviation. Three multivoltine${\times}$bivoltine hybrids viz., PM${\times}$N $B_4$ $D_2$, 96E${\times}$CSR19 and BL67${\times}$CS $R_{101}$ , which showed less slope values (b-values: -0.00328, -0.00300 and -0.00297 respectively) can be utilized for commercial exploitation to produce uniform silk.k.

Characteristics of TiAlN Film on Different Buffer Layer by D.C Magnetron Sputter (D.C magnetron sputter법으로 증착된 TiAlN의 중간층에 따른 특성연구)

  • Kim, Myoung-Ho;Lee, Doh-Jae;Lee, Kwang-Min;Kim, Woon-Sub;Kim, Min-Ki;Park, Burm-Su;Yang, Kook-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.558-563
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    • 2008
  • TiAlN films were deposited on WC-5Co substrates with different buffer layers by D.C. magnetron sputtering. The films were evaluated by microstructural observations and measuring of preferred orientation, hardness value, and adhesion force. As a process variable, various buffer layers were used such as TiAlN single layer, TiAlN/TiAl, TiAlN/TiN and TiAlN/CrN. TiAlN coating layer showed columnar structures which grew up at a right angle to the substrates. The thickness of the TiAlN coating layer was about $1.8{\mu}m$, which was formed for 200 minutes at $300^{\circ}$. XRD analysis showed that the preferred orientation of TiAlN layer with TiN buffer layer was (111) and (200), and the specimens of TiAlN/TiAl, TiAlN/CrN, TiAlN single layer have preferred orientation of (111), respectively. TiAlN single layer and TiAlN/TiAl showed good adhesion properties, showing an over 80N adhesion force, while TiAlN/TiN film showed approximately 13N and the TiAlN/CrN was the worst case, in which the layer was destroyed because of high internal residual stress. The value of micro vickers hardness of the TiAlN single layer, TiAlN/TiAl and TiAlN/TiN layers were 2711, 2548 and 2461 Hv, respectively.

Strain characteristics of Ag sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting tapes according to bending mode (굽힘모드에 따른 Ag 시스 Bi-2223 초전도장척 테이프의 굽힘 변형률 특성)

  • Shin, H.S.;Choi, S.Y.;Ko, D.K.;Ha, H.S.;Ha, D.W.;Oh, S.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.50-54
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    • 2002
  • Influences of bending strain on the critical current ($I_c$) in Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting tapes at 77K were investigated. The effect of bending mode on the bending strain characteristics was discussed in viewpoints of sample geometry, n-value and damage morphology. Especially, in this paper, we reported the $I_c$ behavior in Ag alloy sheathed Bi-2223 multifilamentary superconducting tapes under hard bending. As a result, $I_c$ degradation behavior of the hard bending appeared remarkably than the case of easy bending, but it did not influence greatly on the n-value.

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Frequency and Input Impedance Selective Antenna Using Lumped Element for Multi-band Handhold Terminals (집중형 소자를 이용한 공진 주파수 및 입력 임피던스 선택형 다중 대역 튜너블 안테나)

  • Jung, Byung-Woon
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, multi-band internal antenna which can adjust both resonant frequency and input impedance of antenna as using lumped inductor between shoring plate and ground plane is proposed. The structure of proposed antenna consists of PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna) structure and half-wavelength loaded line structure and has two shorting plates and one feeding plate. One shorting plate is shared. The operating frequency bands of designed antenna are GSM, GPS in the PIFA structure and DCS, US-PCS, W-CDMA in half-wave loaded line structure as varying the inductor value in 2.2nH, 3.3nH, and 4.7nH. As varying the inductor value in the shared shorting plate, input impedance of antenna is varied. To minimize the gain variation of antenna as adding lumped element, the inductor value is restricted at maximum of 6.8nH. The maximum gain of proposed antenna is measured as -1.60dBi in the GSM band, -1.16dBi in the GPS band, and 1.41dBi in the DCS/US-PCS/W-CDMA band.

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Manure Based Duckweed Production in Shallow Sink : Effect of Genera on Biomass and Nutrient Yield of Duckweed under the Same Nutritional and Management Conditions

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Sultana, N.;Huque, K.S.;Huque, Q.M.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.686-693
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    • 2000
  • Biomass yield, nutritive value and nutrient utilization efficiency of different genera of duckweed (DW, Lemnaceae) under the same nutritional and management conditions were studied. Three genera of DW namely: Lemna perpusilla, Spirodela polyrhiza and Woljfia arrhiza, were cultivated in 18 plastic sinks each of $59{\times}54{\times}35cm^3$ size. Each sink contained approximately 80 L of water and was charged once with 6.648 kg of anaerobically fermented cow dung effluent. The seed rate for Spirodela, Lemna and Wolffia were 600, 400 and $600g/m^2$ respectively. Duckweed were harvested at 48 hours intervals. Media total N concentration for Lemna and Wolffia gradually increased with time. Growth of duckweed was measured by subtracting the inoculum from the total biomass production. Growth of Spirodela ceased within 4 days but Lemna and Wolffia continue to grow up to 34 days. Bio-mass yield was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Wolffia (906 kg/ha/d) than Lemna (631 kg/ha/d). Dry matter (DM) yield was very similar in Lemna (14.80 kg/ha/d) and Wolffia (14.57 kg/ha/d). The N content was non-significant higher in Lemna (5.45%) than Wolffia (5.00%) and Spirodela (4.6%). The crude protein (CP, $N{\times}6.25$) yield was non-significantly higher in Lemna (4.83 kg/ha/d) than Wolffia (4.32 kg/ha/d). The acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was the highest in Wolffia (28.59%), followed by Spirodela (19.47%) and Lemna (12.39%). Utilization efficiency of CP was 273 and 314% respectively for Wolffia and Lemna. However, similar efficiency values for Spirodela was only 1.5%. Considering the bio-mass yield, nutritive value and nutrient utilization efficiency, production performance of DW were in the order of Lemna>Wolffia>Spirodela under the present experimental conditions.

Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy of InXGa1-XN Films on C-plane Sapphire Substrates (플라즈마분자선에피탁시법을 이용한 C-면 사파이어 기판 위질화인듐갈륨박막의 에피탁시 성장)

  • Shin, Eun-Jung;Lim, Dong-Seok;Lim, Se-Hwan;Han, Seok-Kyu;Lee, Hyo-Sung;Hong, Soon-Ku;Joeng, Myoung-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Yao, Takafumi
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.185-189
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    • 2012
  • We report plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of $In_XGa_{1-X}N$ films on c-plane sapphire substrates. Prior to the growth of $In_XGa_{1-X}N$ films, GaN film was grown on the nitride c-plane sapphire substrate by two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. For the growth of GaN, Ga flux of $3.7{\times}10^{-8}$ torr as a beam equivalent pressure (BEP) and a plasma power of 150 W with a nitrogen flow rate of 0.76 sccm were fixed. The growth of 2D GaN growth was confirmed by $in-situ$ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) by observing a streaky RHEED pattern with a strong specular spot. InN films showed lower growth rates even with the same growth conditions (same growth temperature, same plasma condition, and same BEP value of III element) than those of GaN films. It was observed that the growth rate of GaN is 1.7 times higher than that of InN, which is probably caused by the higher vapor pressure of In. For the growth of $In_xGa_{1-x}N$ films with different In compositions, total III-element flux (Ga plus In BEPs) was set to $3.7{\times}10^{-8}$ torr, which was the BEP value for the 2D growth of GaN. The In compositions of the $In_xGa_{1-x}N$ films were determined to be 28, 41, 45, and 53% based on the peak position of (0002) reflection in x-ray ${\theta}-2{\theta}$ measurements. The growth of $In_xGa_{1-x}N$ films did not show a streaky RHEED pattern but showed spotty patterns with weak streaky lines. This means that the net sticking coefficients of In and Ga, considered based on the growth rates of GaN and InN, are not the only factor governing the growth mode; another factor such as migration velocity should be considered. The sample with an In composition of 41% showed the lowest full width at half maximum value of 0.20 degree from the x-ray (0002) omega rocking curve measurements and the lowest root mean square roughness value of 0.71 nm.

Holographic Data Grating formation of Ag/AsGeSeS thin films (Ag/AsGeSeS 박막의 홀로그래픽 데이터 격자 형성)

  • Yeo, Cheol-Ho;Lee, Ki-Nam;Kyoung, Shin;Lee, Young-Jong;Chung, Hong-Bay
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.92-95
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    • 2005
  • The silver photodoping effect in amorphous AsGeSeS chalcogenide thin films for holographic recording has been investigated using a HeNe laser ($\lambda$=632.8 nm). The chalcogenide films prepared in this work were thinner in comparison with the penetration depth of recording light ($d_p$=1.66 mm). The variation of the diffraction efficiency $(\eta)$ in amorphous chalcogende films exhibits a tendency, independently of the Ag photodoping. That is, n increases relatively rapidly at the beginning of the recording process, reaches the maximum $({\eta}_{max})$ and slowly decreases. In addition, the value of ${\eta}_{max}$ depends strongly on chalcogenide film thickness(d) and its peak among the films with d = 40, 80, 150, 300, and 633 nm is observed at d = 150 nm (approximately 1/2n), where n is refractive index of the chalcogenide (n=2.0). The ${\eta}$ is largely enhanced by Ag photodoping into the chalcogenides. In particular, the value of hmax in a bilayer of 10-nm-thick Ag/150-nm-thick AsGeSeS film is about 1.6%, which corresponds to ~20 times in comparison with that of the AsGeSeS film (without Ag).

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Studies on Percentage of Nitrogen Derived from Fertilizer ( P. N. D. F. ) and A-Value in Seuveral Forage Corps (수종의 사료작물에 대한 비료유래 질소율과 A-value에 관한 연구)

  • 김무성;윤익석;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 1985
  • Effects of nitrogen incorporated with 15N-nitrogen, which was applied to grown alone and in mixture with grass and legumes of forage crops, on the yield of dry matter, total nitrogen content, percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (P.N.D.F.), A-value were studied, and the results obtained are as follows: 1. With nitrogen for the yield of dry matter was highly effective only to orchardgrass and were also effect to the early stages of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil in case of a mixed sowing. 2. Alone and mixed sowings showed the yield of dry matter in decreasing order of alfalfa<red clover>orchardgrass>birdsfoot trefoil, and orchardgrass + alfalfa>orchardgrass + red clover>orchardgrass + birdsfoot trefoil, respectively. 3. In case of grown alone, orchardgrass gave higher percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (P.N.D.F.) than legume, whereas in case of grown in mixture it was in reverse order throughout the plots. It appears likely that orchardgrass was rather supplied soil nitrogen by legume then by nitrogen application. And P.N.D.F. was getting smaller in the latter stage of all forage crops in case of grown alone. In case of grown in mixture, however, and inconsistent P.N.D.F. was obtained from orchardgrass. 4. The A-value in case of grown alone was decreased in order of alfalfa>red clover>orchardgrass>birdsfoot trefoil. In contrast, however, the A-value in case of grown in mixture wes decreased in order of orchardgasss+alfalfa (3:7)>orchardgrass+red clover (3:7)>orchardgrass+red clover (3:7)>orchardgrass+alfalfa(5:5)>orchardgrass+birdsfoot trefoil (5:5)>orchardgrass+red clover (5:5)>orchardgrass+birdsfoot trefoil (3:7).

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A study on the accuracy evaluation of dental die models manufactured by 3D printing method (3D 인쇄방법으로 제작된 치과용 다이 모델의 정확도 평가연구)

  • Jang, Yeon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of the 3D printed die models and to investigate its clinical applicability. Methods: Stone die models were fabricated from conventional impressions(stone die model; SDM, n=7). 3D virtual models obtained from the digital impressions were manufactured as a 3D printed die models using a 3D printer(3D printed die models;3DM, n=7). Reference model, stone die models and 3D printed die models were scanned with a reference scanner. All dies model dataset were superimposed with the reference model file by the "Best fit alignment" method using 3D analysis software. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent t-test and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). Results: The RMS value of the 3D printed die model was significantly larger than the RMS value of the stone die model (P<.001). As a result of 2-way ANOVA, significant differences were found between the model group (P<.001) and the part (P<.001), and their interaction effects (P<.001). Conclusion: The 3D printed die model showed lower accuracy than the stone die model. Therefore, it is necessary to further improve the performance of 3D printer in order to apply the 3D printed model in prosthodontics.