• Title, Summary, Keyword: D/N value

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A Study of Fatigue Damage Model using Neural Networks in 2024-T3 Aluminium Alloy (신경회로망을 이용한 Al 2024-T3 합금의 피로손상모델에 관한 연구)

  • 홍순혁;조석수;주원식
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 2001
  • To estimate crack growth rate and cycle ratio uniquely, many investigators have developed various kinds of mechanical parameters and theories. But, thes have produced local solution space through single parameter. Neural Networks can perform patten classification using several input and output parameters. Fatigue damage model by neural networks was used to recognize the relation between da/dN/N/N(sub)f, and half-value breadth ratio B/Bo, fractal dimension D(sub)f, and fracture mechanical parameters in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy. Learned neural networks has ability to predict both crack growth rate da/dN and cycly ratio /N/N(sub)f within engineering estimated mean error(5%).

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HIGHER ORDER NONLOCAL NONLINEAR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR FRACTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

  • Khan, Rahmat Ali
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.329-338
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we study the method of upper and lower solutions and develop the generalized quasilinearization technique for the existence and approximation of solutions to some three-point nonlocal boundary value problems associated with higher order fractional differential equations of the type $$^c{\mathcal{D}}^q_{0+}u(t)+f(t,u(t))=0,\;t{\in}(0,1)$$ $$u^{\prime}(0)={\gamma}u^{\prime}({\eta}),\;u^{\prime\prime}(0)=0,\;u^{\prime\prime\prime}(0)=0,{\ldots},u^{(n-1)}(0)=0,\;u(1)={\delta}u({\eta})$$, where, n-1 < q < n, $n({\geq}3){\in}\mathbb{N}$, 0 < ${\eta},{\gamma},{\delta}$ < 1 and $^c\mathcal{D}^q_{0+}$ is the Caputo fractional derivative of order q. The nonlinear function f is assumed to be continuous.

THE MAXIMAL VALUE OF POLYNOMIALS WITH RESTRICTED COEFFICIENTS

  • Dubicks, Arturas;Jankauskas, Jonas
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2009
  • Let $\zeta$ be a fixed complex number. In this paper, we study the quantity $S(\zeta,\;n):=mas_{f{\in}{\Lambda}_n}\;|f(\zeta)|$, where ${\Lambda}_n$ is the set of all real polynomials of degree at most n-1 with coefficients in the interval [0, 1]. We first show how, in principle, for any given ${\zeta}\;{\in}\;{\mathbb{C}}$ and $n\;{\in}\;{\mathbb{N}}$, the quantity S($\zeta$, n) can be calculated. Then we compute the limit $lim_{n{\rightarrow}{\infty}}\;S(\zeta,\;n)/n$ for every ${\zeta}\;{\in}\;{\mathbb{C}}$ of modulus 1. It is equal to 1/$\pi$ if $\zeta$ is not a root of unity. If $\zeta\;=\;\exp(2{\pi}ik/d)$, where $d\;{\in}\;{\mathbb{N}}$ and k $\in$ [1, d-1] is an integer satisfying gcd(k, d) = 1, then the answer depends on the parity of d. More precisely, the limit is 1, 1/(d sin($\pi$/d)) and 1/(2d sin($\pi$/2d)) for d = 1, d even and d > 1 odd, respectively.

Derivations of Upper and Lower Bounds of the Expected Busy Periods for a Controllable M/G/1 Queueing Model Operating Under the Triadic Max(N, T, D) Policy (삼변수 Max(N, T, D) 운용방침이 적용되는 조정가능한 M/G/1 대기모형의 busy period 기대값의 상한과 하한 유도)

  • Rhee, Hahn-Kyou
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2011
  • Using the known result of the expected busy period for a controllable M/G/1 queueing model operating under the triadic Max (N, T, D) policy, its upper and lower bounds are derived to approximate its corresponding actual value. Both bounds are represented in terms of the expected busy periods for the dyadic Min (N, T), Min (N, D) and Min (T, D) and simple N, T and D operating policies. All three input variables N, T and D are equally contributed to construct such bounds for better estimation.

Derivations of Upper and Lower Bounds of the Expected Busy Periods for the Triadic Min(N, T, D) Operating Policy applied to a Controllable M/G/1 Queueing Model (조정가능한 M/G/1 대기모형에 삼변수 Min(N, T, D) 운용방침이 적용될 때 busy period 기댓값의 상한과 하한 유도)

  • Rhee, Hahn-Kyou
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2010
  • Using the known result of the expected busy period for the triadic Min (N, T, D) operating policy applied to a controllable M/G/1 queueing model, its upper and lower bounds are derived to approximate its corresponding actual value. Both bounds are represented in terms of the expected busy periods for the dyadic Min (N, T), Min (N, D) and Min (T, D) and simple N, T and D operating policies. All three input variables N, T and D are equally contributed to construct such bounds for better approximations.

A study on the Plumbing system noise of closet bowl by water supply pressure (급수압에 따른 대변기 설비소음에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hang;Choi, Eun-Suk;Ko, Kwang-Pil;Gl, No-Gab;Lee, Tai-Gang;Kim, Sun-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2006
  • It appraises that use an indoor noise standard, a NC value which is a noise appraisal, a dB(A) value, a N value in foreign country because it doesn't yet ready an appraisal standard in domestic. Also, It appraises that the supply and drainage noise which could change water supply pressure, $4kg/cm^2,\;3kg/cm^2,\;2kg/cm^2,\;1.5kg/cm^2,\;1kg/cm^2$, bring about a noise and inquires how does noise level indicates according to each instruments. In case of a water supply pressure standard, $3kg/cm^2$, a C-605is $3{\sim}5dB(A)$ lower than another instruments in directly overhead stories. It appears that all of them is similar to level in directly under level except c-407(2)Analyzed the NC value, c-605is the lowest level, NC-50, of a water supply pressure, $4.0kg/cm^2$, c-407 is the highest level, NC-55.(3) In case of N value, which is one of water supply methods in Japan, it is the lowest level, N-55, of a water supply pressure, $4.0kg/cm^2$ same as NC value and C-407is the highest level, N-60.(4) In case of water supply that is likely to noise level, It appears 6dB(A) level gap each instruments, and C-605 is the lowest level, 63.9dB(A).

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THREE-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR HIGHER ORDER NONLINEAR FRACTIONAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

  • Khan, Rahmat Ali
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.31 no.1_2
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    • pp.221-228
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    • 2013
  • The method of upper and lower solutions and the generalized quasilinearization technique is developed for the existence and approximation of solutions to boundary value problems for higher order fractional differential equations of the type $^c\mathcal{D}^qu(t)+f(t,u(t))=0$, $t{\in}(0,1),q{\in}(n-1,n],n{\geq}2$ $u^{\prime}(0)=0,u^{\prime\prime}(0)=0,{\ldots},u^{n-1}(0)=0,u(1)={\xi}u({\eta})$, where ${\xi},{\eta}{\in}(0,1)$, the nonlinear function f is assumed to be continuous and $^c\mathcal{D}^q$ is the fractional derivative in the sense of Caputo. Existence of solution is established via the upper and lower solutions method and approximation of solutions uses the generalized quasilinearization technique.

Effects of Gas Composition in the Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Shelf-life of Longissimus dorsi of Korean Native Black Pigs-Duroc Crossbred during Refrigerated Storage

  • Muhlisin, Muhlisin;Panjono, Panjono;Kim, Dong Soo;Song, Yeong Rae;Lee, Sung-Jin;Lee, Jeong Koo;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1157-1163
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to observe the effects of gas composition in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life of Longissimus dorsi of Korean Native Black Pigs-Duroc Crossbred ($KNP{\times}D$) during refrigerated storage. Muscle sample was obtained from the left side of carcass of seven months old of $KNP{\times}D$ barrow. The sample was sliced into 1 cm in thickness, placed on trays (two slices/tray) and filled with different gas composition, i.e. 0:20:80/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ (MAP1), 30:20:50/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ (MAP2) and 70:20:10/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ (MAP3). Other slices of sample were vacuum packed (VP) as a control. All packs were stored at $5{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. At 12 d of storage, pH value of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of MAP1 and pH value of MAP1 was higher (p<0.05) than that of VP. At 6 d of storage, redness ($a^*$) value of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than that of VP and MAP1 and, at 9 and 12 d of storage, redness value of MAP3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of VP, MAP1, and MAP2. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage, the 2- thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of MAP3 was higher than that of MAP2 and TBARS value of MAP2 was higher than that of VP and MAP1. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 d of storage, volatile basic nitrogen values of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of VP and MAP1. At 3 d of storage, total aerobic plate counts of MAP2 and MAP3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of VP and MAP1 and, at 6 d of storage, total aerobic plate counts of MAP3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of MAP1 and MAP2. However, there was no significant different total aerobic plate count among MAP1, MAP2, and MAP3 at 9 and 12 d of storage. There was no significant different total anaerobic plate count among MAP1, MAP2, and MAP3 during storage. It is concluded that the MAP containing 30:20:50/$O_2:CO_2:N_2$ gas composition (MAP2) might be ideal for better meat quality for $KNP{\times}D$ meat.

Roasting and Extruding Affect Nutrient Utilization from Soybeans in 5 and 10 kg Nursery Pigs

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.;Gugle, T.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.200-206
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    • 2000
  • Ninety nursery pigs were used in two metabolism experiments to determine the effects of roasting and extruding on the nutritional value of Williams 82 soybeans with (+K) and without (-K) gene expression for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Treatments for both experiments were: 1) soybean meal; 2) +K roasted; 3) +K extruded; 4) -K roasted; and 5) -K extruded. Diets were the soybean preparations (96.5% of the diet) with only vitamins and minerals added as needed to meet or exceed NRC recommendations. Daily feed allowance was 5% of initial BW given as three equal meals. In Exp. 1, 50 weanling pigs (4.7 kg average BW and 21 d average age) were used. Apparent values for N digestibility (p<0.001), biological value (p<0.09), percentage N retention (p<0.05), GE digestibility (p<0.001) and percentage ME (p<0.001) were greater for pigs fed extruded soybeans than pigs fed roasted soybeans. Also, N digestibility (p<0.05), biological value (p<0.03) and percentage N retention (p<0.04) were greater for pigs fed -K soybeans than those fed +K soybeans. In Exp. 2, 40 pigs (9.7 kg average BW and 35 d average age) were allowed to adjust to the nursery environment before use in the experiment. In general, the pigs in Exp. 2 (i.e., the older pigs) had greater utilization of nutrients from all of the soybean products than the younger pigs used in Exp. 1. Digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed -K soybeans than those fed +K soybeans and extruded soybeans had greater digestibilities of DM, N and GE than roasted soybeans (p<0.001). Also, percentage N retention (p<0.01) and percentage ME (p<0.001) for pigs fed extruded soybeans were greater than for pigs fed roasted soybeans. In conclusion, extruded and -K soybeans were greater nutritional value than roasted and +K soybeans for 4.7 and 9.7 kg nursery pigs.

Mechanical Properties of TiN and DLC coated Rod for Pedicle Screw System (TiN 및 DLC 코팅된 척추용 나사못 시스템 Rod의 기계적 특성 분석)

  • Kang, Kwan-Su;Jung, Tae-Gon;Yang, Jae-Woong;Woo, Su-Heon;Park, Tea-Hyun;Jeong, Yong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2017
  • In this study, surface morphology and mechanical property of TiN and DLC coated pedicle screw have been investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vickers hardness test, axial gripping, and axial torsional gripping capacity test. From the EDS and XRD results, the composition and crystal structure of TiN and DLC coated surface were verified. The hardness value was increased by TIN and DLC coating, and the DLC coating surface has the highest value. The gripping capacity also showed higher value for TiN and DLC coated specimen than that of non-coated (Ti alloy) surface. The surface morphology of gripping tested specimen showed rougher scratched surface from Ti alloy than TiN and DLC coated layer.