• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cytokines

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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Flavonoids Kaempferol and Biochanin A-enriched Extract of Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) Grains in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells (마우스 대식 세포주 RAW264.7에 있어서 LPS처리에 의해 유도되는 염증반응에 대한 식용피(Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea)의 저해효과)

  • Lee, Ji Young;Jun, Do Youn;Yoon, Young Ho;Ko, Jee Youn;Woo, Koan Sik;Woo, Mi Hee;Kim, Young Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1157-1167
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    • 2014
  • In order to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of five selected cereal grains-proso millet, hwanggeumchal sorghum, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, and adlay-the inhibitory activities of 80% ethanol (EtOH) extracts obtained from the individual grains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation were investigated in RAW264.7 cells. The EtOH extract of barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) grains exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory activity than that of the other grains. When the EtOH extract of barnyard millet grains was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol, the majority of the anti-inflammatory activity was detected in the MC fraction, followed by the EtOAc fraction. Pretreatment with the MC fraction caused downregulation of the expression levels of iNOS- and COX-2-specific transcripts and proteins, as well as proinflammatory cytokine gene transcripts (IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-${\alpha}$) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, the MC fraction could suppress not only the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of cytosolic NF-kB, but also the LPS-induced activation of MAPKs, such as ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK. Further analysis of the MC fraction by HPLC identified kaempferol, biochanin A, and formononetin as the major phenolic components. Both kaempferol and biochanin A, but not formononetin, could exert anti-inflammatory effect at the same concentrations as those of the MC fraction. Consequently, these results indicate that kaempferol and biochanin A are among the most effective anti-inflammatory phenolic components in barnyard millet grains. This finding suggests that barnyard millet grains and the MC extract enriched in kaempferol and biochanin A could be beneficial functional food sources that have an anti-inflammatory effect.

Inhibitory Activities of Water Extracts of Black Ginseng on HCl/Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastritis through Anti-Oxidant Effect (흑삼 열수 추출물의 항산화 효과를 통한 염산/에탄올로 유발된 위염 억제 작용)

  • Kim, Min Yeong;Kwon, O Jun;Noh, Jeong Sook;Roh, Seong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.1249-1256
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    • 2016
  • Black ginseng (BG) obtained by a 9-fold steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to have anti-oxidative, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetes effects. The current study evaluated the protective effect of BG by steaming time in an HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritis model. BG was divided into four samples according to steaming-drying processing (Gin1, Gin3, Gin6, and BG). High performance liquid chromatography analysis, free radical scavenging activity, and total phenol and flavonoid contents were examined in ginseng and four BG samples. Compared with ginseng, BG showed a stronger radical scavenging effect and higher contents of total phenol and flavonoids. To evaluate the anti-gastritic effect of BG, mice were distributed into five groups: normal mice (N), acute gastritic mice with distilled water (CON), acute gastritic mice with 100 mg/kg of ginseng (Gin0), acute gastritic mice with 100 mg/kg of BG (BG), and acute gastritic mice with 10 mg/kg of sucralfate (SC). After 1 hour of pre-treatment with water, extracts (Gin0 and BG), or drug (SC), experimental groups except for N were orally administered 0.5 mL of 150 mM HCl/60% ethanol (v/v) mixture. Blood was collected 1 hour later from the heart, and gastric tissue was harvested. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in serum, and related protein expression was examined by Western blot assay. In HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritic mice, treatment with ginseng or BG improved mucosal damage in the histological evaluation. The serum ROS level significantly decreased in the BG-treated group compared with the CON group. Furthermore, expression of inflammatory cytokines significantly decreased in the BG-treated group compared with the CON group. Based on these results, antioxidant and anti-gastritic activities of ginseng were enhanced by streaming-drying processing, in part due to an increase in biological active compounds.

Antioxidative and Anticancer Effects of Doenjang Prepared with Bamboo Salt in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells (죽염된장의 항산화 및 HT-29 암세포에서 in vitro 항암 효과)

  • Shim, Jung-Ha;Park, Eui Seong;Kim, In-Suk;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.524-531
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    • 2015
  • Antioxidant activities and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt doenjang on HT-29 human colon cancer cells were studied. 3Y3B-D (three-year fermentation using three-time baked bamboo salt doenjang), 3Y9B-D (three-year fermentation using nine-time baked bamboo salt doenjang), 6Y3B-D (six-year fermentation using three-time baked bamboo salt doenjang), and 6Y9B-D (six-year fermentation using nine-time baked bamboo salt doenjang) were compared to C-D (commercial doenjang) and 3B-S (cooked soy beans prepared using three-time baked bamboo salt). There were no differences between experimental groups in pH, amino-type nitrogen, or ammonia-type nitrogen levels. 6Y9B-D showed the highest antioxidative effect, followed by 6Y3B-D, 3Y9B-D, and 3Y3B-D, in order. 6Y9B-D showed the highest total polyphenol concentration. 6Y9B-D showed the highest anticancer effect, as determined by MTT assay, as well as levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2, followed by 6Y3B-D, 3Y9B-D, and 3Y3B-D, in order. From the results above, 6Y9B-D showed the highest antioxidative and anticancer effects, followed by 6Y3B-D, 3Y9B-D, 3Y3B-D, C-D, and 3B-S.

Antioxidant activity and suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator of Corni fructus extracts in activated RAW 264.7 macrophage (산수유(Corni fructus) 분획 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 RAW 264.7 대식세포에서 염증매개물질 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Ye Jin;Son, Dae-Yeul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.876-882
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    • 2016
  • The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Corni fructus extracts (CEF, EtOAc extraction; CBF, buthanol extraction; CWF, water extraction) were investigated. The total phenolics of CEF (173.3 mg TAE/g) were significantly higher than those of CWF (26.7 mg TAE/g) and CBF (94.8 mg TAE/g). DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity of CEF (DPPH: $RH_{50}$; $25.1{\mu}g/mL$, ABTS: $RC_{50}$; $36.1{\mu}g/mL$) showed even higher than that of BHA and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ used as positive control. All three Corni fructus extracts in the concentration of $1{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$ were effective inhibitors of NO and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$). NO production was inhibited 71.3~92.2% by CEF, 76.8~85.5% by CBF and 74.4~96.9% by CWF, respectively. CEF, CBF and CWF ($1{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$) inhibited also pro-inflammatory cytokines like $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$ and IL-6 very effectively. $TNF-{\alpha}$ was inhibited up to 51.2% by CWF and $IL-1{\beta}$ was inhibited up to 67.1% by CEF. IL-6 was best inhibited by CEF up to 58.9%. This study suggested the potential of Corni fructus for use as an excellent antioxidant substance and inflammatory inhibiting mediators. Therefore CEF, CBF and CWF Corni fructus extracts may be used for therapeutic approach to various inflammatory diseases.

Antioxidant capacity and Raw 264.7 macrophage anti-inflammatory effect of the Tenebrio Molitor (갈색거저리(Tenebrio Molitor)의 항산화능과 Raw 264.7 대식세포의 항염증 효과)

  • Yu, Jae-Myo;Jang, Jae-Yoon;Kim, Hyeon-Jeong;Cho, Yong-Hun;Kim, Dong-in;Kwon, O-jun;Cho, Yeong-Je;An, Bong-Jeun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.890-898
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this paper is to investigate potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Tenebrio molitor. Macrophage cell response by outside stimulation leads expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6), $interleukin-1{\beta}$ ($IL-1{\beta}$), and trigger expression of genes which are affected by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), resulting in formation of inflammatory factors like nitric oxide (NO) and Prostaglandin $E_2$ (PGE2). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. In order to investigate anti-inflammatory agents, the inhibitory effects on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO in RAW 264.7 cells were examined. T. Molitor significantly decreased the production of NO in a dose-dependent manner, and also reduced the expression of iNOS, a COX-2 protein. As a result, the levels of protein such as $PGE_2$, iNOS, COX-2 and MARKs were significantly reduced compared to non-treated group in T. Molitor water extract (TDW) treated group. Also, antioxidant effect of T. Molitor were investigated using DPPH, ABTS+ and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity tests in cell-free system. Antioxidant activity of T. molitor was found low in the DPPH radical scavenging test while high in the ABTS+ and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity tests. These results show that TDW could be an effective anti-pro-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent.

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Myricetin from Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Flowers in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 Raw264.7 cell에서 Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. Flower으로부터 분리한 myricetin에 의한 염증 억제효과)

  • Choi, Moo-Young;Hong, Shin-Hyup;Cho, Jun-Hyo;Park, Hye-Jin;Jo, Jae-Bum;Lee, Jae-Eun;Kim, Dong-Hee;Kim, Byung-Oh;Cho, Young-Je
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1245-1252
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    • 2016
  • As a research of inflammation inhibitory activity using natural resource, the inflammation inhibitory activity by purified active compound from Rhododendron mucronulatum flower was experimented. Rhododendron mucronulatum flower components were purified and separated with Sephadex LH-20 and MCI gel CHP-20 column chromatography, Purified compound was confirmed as myricetin by $^1H-NMR$, $^{13}C-NMR$ and Fast atom bombardment (FAB)-Mass spectrum to have inhibition activity on inflammatory factors secreted by Raw 264.7 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Myricetin inhibited nitric oxide (NO) expression in a concentration dependent manner, approximately 40% inhibition was observed at a concentration of $50{\mu}M$. The inhibition effect of myricetin on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression was 20% and 80%, respectively, at a concentration of $25{\mu}M$. Myricetin also inhibited expression of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$, interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6 and prostaglandin $E_2(PGE_2)$ in a concentration dependent manner; a concentration of $50{\mu}M$, 70%, 80%, 80% and 95% inhibition was observed, respectively. Therefore myricetin isolated from Rhododendron mucronulatum flowers is expected to have an anti-inflammatory effect in Raw 264.7 cell induced by lipopolysaccharides. The results can be expected myricetin from Rhododendron mucronulatum flower to use as functional resource for anti-inflammatory activity.

Effect of Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium on the In Vitro Maturation and Embryonic Development of Parthenogenetic Embryos in Pigs (Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium 첨가가 돼지난자의 체외성숙 및 단위발생란의 초기배 발육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Dae-Jin;Hwang, In-Sul;Kwak, Tae-Uk;Oh, Keon Bong;Ock, Sun-A;Chung, Hak-Jae;Im, Gi-Sun;Hwang, Seongsoo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2015
  • The addition of growth factors and cytokines to in vitro culture (IVC) media could affect embryo development and the quality of the resulting blastocysts. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of porcine induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC)-culture conditioned medium (CM) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and development of parthenogentic embryos (parthenotes) in pigs. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) or activated oocytes were cultured in IVM or IVC medium supplemented with 0 (control), 25, or 50% of stem cell medium (SM) or CM, respectively. The maturation rate of CM-25% group was significantly improved when compared with control group (p<0.05), but that was not different among SM or CM groups. Blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher in CM-25% group (29.2%) than that of control (20.7%), SM-50% (19.6%) and CM-50% (23.66%, p<0.05). Cell number and the apoptotic cell index in blastocysts was significantly lower in SM-25% than in CM-25% group (p<0.05). The embryo quality related genes, OCT4, KLF4, TERT and ZFP42, were significantly increased in CM-25% group compared with control (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of 25% of CM to IVM and IVC medium positively influences not only the developmental potential also quality of parthenotes in pig.

Effects of Lycopene on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism, Glucose Transport and Pro-Inflammatory Related Genes in Chickens (라이코펜 첨가 급여가 닭의 지방대사, 포도당 수송 및 친염증 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, In Surk;Moon, Yang Soo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2015
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lycopene on hepatic metabolic- and immune-related gene expression in laying hens. A total of 48 25-week-old White Leghorn hens were randomly allocated into four groups consisting of four replicates of three birds: control (basal diet), T1 (basal diet + 10 mg/kg of tomato powder-containing lycopene), T2 (basal diet + 10 mg/kg of micelles of tomato powder-containing lycopene), and T3 (basal diet + 10 mg/kg of purified lycopene). Chickens were fed ad libitum for 5 weeks, and then total RNA was extracted from the livers for quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR${\gamma}$) expression was decreased in the liver of chickens after lycopene supplementation (P<0.05). Micellar lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of PPAR${\gamma}$ target genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acids synthase (FASN) in the T2 group (P<0.05). Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and C/EBP-${\alpha}$ were also downregulated in hens fed with micellar lycopene (P<0.05). Glucose transporter 8 (GLUT-8) was upregulated in the T2 and T3 groups (P<0.05). However, the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) was not changed by lycopene supplementation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor ${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were downregulated by lycopene supplementation (P<0.05). These data suggest that the type of lycopene supplementation is critical and that micelles of tomato powder-containing lycopene may play an important role in the modulation of lipid metabolism and immunity in chickens.

Immunomodulatory Activity of Water Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa in Macrophages (유근피 추출물이 대식세포 면역조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Da Hye;Kang, Hye-Joo;Choi, Yung Hyun;Chung, Kyung Tae;Lee, Jong Hwan;Kang, Kyung Hwa;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kim, Byung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2016
  • The root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as edema, infection and inflammation. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, as part of our ongoing screening program to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of new compounds from traditional medicinal resources, we investigated the effects of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) on immune modulation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were evaluated. Although the release of IL-1β remained unchanged in UME-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, the productions of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased, along with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL-10 expression at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. UME treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) indicating that UME activated macrophages through the activation of NF-κB, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-treatment with UME significantly attenuated the production of NO, but not TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells suggesting that UME may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of UME may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages.

Characterizations of Kefir Grains in Fermented Whey and Their Effects on Inflammatory Cytokine Modulation in Human Mast Cell-1 (HMC-1) (Kefir grain에 의한 유청발효액의 특성과 human mast cell-1 (HMC-1)에서 염증 cytokine 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Ji Yoon;Park, Young W.;Renchinkhand, Gereltuya;Han, Jung Pil;Bum, Jin Woo;Paik, Seung-Hee;Lee, Jo Yoon;Nam, Myoung Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.689-697
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    • 2016
  • Kefir is an acidic-alcoholic fermented milk product originating from the Caucasian mountains. Kefir has long been known for its probiotic health benefits, including its immunomodulatory effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the properties of a fermented whey product and to examine the effects of kefir grains on the in vitro immune-modulation of human mast cell-1 (HMC-1). The results showed that the whey fermented by kefir grains contained the maximum lactic acid bacteria and yeast for 16 hr by 1.83×108 and 6.5×105 CFU/ml, respectively, and lactose and whey proteins were partially hydrolyzed. The experimental whey fermented by kefir grains exhibited an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on the HMC-1 line for 8, 16, and 24 hr, and this effect induced the expression of interleukin (IL)-4 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, but not for 48 hr by RT-PCR in HMC-1 cells. In addition, the same phenomenon was observed for the expression of IL-8 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by the kefir-fermented whey during the same periods of 8-48 hr under the same conditions. These cytokines resulted in the production of IL-4 at 20-25 ng in HMC-1 cells for 8, 16, and 24 hr, whereas 5 ng was produced for 48 hr by the fermented whey. In contrast, IL-8 was produced at 15-20 ng in HMC-1 cells during 4, 8, 16, and 24 hr, while 7 ng was produced at 48 hr. It was concluded that the whey fermented by kefir grains possesses a potential anti-inflammatory function, which could be used for an industrial application as an ingredient of functional foods and pharmaceutical products.