• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cytokines

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Tumor Therapy Applying Membrane-bound Form of Cytokines

  • Kim, Young-Sang
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.158-168
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    • 2009
  • Tumor therapy using cytokines has been developed for last two decades. Several recombinant cytokines and tumor cell vaccines produced by cytokine gene transfer have been in clinical trials, but several side effects hamper routine clinical applications. Many cytokines are originally expressed as membrane-bound form and then processed to secretory form exerting paracrine effects. Though functional differences of these two types of cytokines are elusive yet, the membrane-bound form of cytokine may exert its effects on restricted target cells as a juxtacrine, which are in physical contacts. With the efforts to improve antitumor activities of cytokines in cancer patients, developing new strategies to alleviate life-threatening side effects became an inevitable goal of tumor immunologists. Among these, tumor cell vaccines expressing cytokines as membrane-bound form on tumor cell surface have been developed by genetic engineering techniques with the hope of selective stimulation of the target cells that are in cell-to-cell contacts. In this review, recent progress of tumor cell vaccines expressing membrane-bound form of cytokines will be discussed.

Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokine-induced Invasiveness of HT-29 Cells by Chitosan Oligosaccharide

  • Nam, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Mee-Kyung;Shon, Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.2042-2045
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    • 2007
  • The effect of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS, 1 kDa${\gamma}$, 10 ng/ml IL-$1{\alpha}$, and 25 ng/ml TNF-${\alpha}$) in HT-29 cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by these cytokines was inhibited by COS. COS pretreatment inhibited the invasiveness of cytokines-treated HT-29 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane in a dose-dependent manner. COS also inhibited cytokines-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity. This study shows that proinflammatory cytokines induce NO production, iNOS expression, and invasiveness of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. COS pretreatment inhibited cytokines-mediated NO production, iNOS expression, and invasiveness of HT-29 cells. These results provide sufficient information for the further development of COS as an antitumor metastatic agent for the treatment of colon cancer.

Sleep and Cytokine (수면과 시토카인)

  • Cyn, Jae-Gong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2005
  • Cytokines are the main regulatory molecules of not only immune system but also sleep system. Research on the role of cytokines on sleep has greatly been expanding since the first report of sleep-promoting effects of interleukin-1, the first cytokine molecule. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor are most widely studied among various cytokines. Studies over about twenty years demonstrate that most cytokines promote sleep but several cytokines inhibit sleep. Slow wave sleep is the main part that cytokines have effects on. Besides normal sleep physiology, cytokines have more major roles on pathophysiology of various sleep disorders. Obstructive sleep apnea is the representative sleep disorder that shows how deeply cytokines are involved in their pathophysiologic mechanisms of sleep disorders. Though there are many controversial issues on this topic, more mysterious part of normal sleep physiology and sleep disorders will be revealed in near future through thorough studies on sleep and cytokine.

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GP130 cytokines and bone remodelling in health and disease

  • Sims, Natalie A.;Walsh, Nicole C.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.8
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2010
  • Cytokines that bind to and signal through the gp130 co-receptor subunit include interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, oncostatin M (OSM), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), and ciliary neutrophic factor (CNTF). Apart from contributing to inflammation, gp130 signalling cytokines also function in the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Expression of each of these cytokines and their ligand-specific receptors is observed in bone and joint cells, and bone-active hormones and inflammatory cytokines regulate their expression. gp130 signalling cytokines have been shown to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Furthermore, cytokine and receptor specific gene-knockout mouse models have identified distinct roles for each of these cytokines in regulating bone resorption, bone formation and bone growth. This review will discuss the current models of paracrine and endocrine actions of gp130-signalling cytokines in bone remodelling and growth, as well as their impact in pathologic bone remodelling evident in periodontal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathies and osteoarthritis.

Role of Salvia miltiorrhiza for Modulation of Th2-derived Cytokines in the Resolution of Inflammation

  • Moon, Sun-Hee;Shin, Seul-Mee;Kim, Seul-Ah;Oh, Hee-Eun;Han, Shin-Ha;Lee, Seung-Jeong;Kim, Kyung-Jae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.288-298
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    • 2011
  • Background: Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including edema and arthritis; however, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of SM action remains unresolved. Methods: The effects of an ethanol extract of SM (ESM) on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and NO, and on anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, TGF-${\beta}$, and IL-1Ra have been studied in an attempt to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism in murine macrophages. Results: ESM inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via down-regulation of gene and protein expression whereas it increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, ESM inhibited the expression of the chemokines, RANTES and CX3CL1, as well as of inflammatory mediators such as TLR-4 and $11{\beta}$-HSD1. Conclusion: These results indicated that the regulatory effects of ESM may be mediated though the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, we speculate that ESM has therapeutic potential for inflammation-associated disorders.

The role of cytokines in seizures: interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-1Ra, IL-8, and IL-10

  • Youn, Youngah;Sung, In Kyung;Lee, In Goo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.56 no.7
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    • pp.271-274
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    • 2013
  • Brain insults, including neurotrauma, infection, and perinatal injuries such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, generate inflammation in the brain. These inflammatory cascades induce a wide spectrum of cytokines, which can cause neuron degeneration, have neurotoxic effects on brain tissue, and lead to the development of seizures, even if they are subclinical and occur at birth. Cytokines are secreted by the glial cells of the central nervous system and they function as immune system mediators. Cytokines can be proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$ and IL-8 are proinflammatory cytokines that activate additional cytokine cascades and increase seizure susceptibility and organ damage, whereas IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-10 act as anti-inflammatory cytokines that have protective and anticonvulsant effects. Therefore, the immune system and its associated inflammatory reactions appear to play an important role in brain damage. Whether cytokine release is relevant for the processes of epileptogenesis and antiepileptogenesis, and whether epileptogenesis could be prevented by immunomodulatory treatment should be addressed in future clinical studies. Furthermore, early detection of brain damage and early intervention are essential for the prevention of disease progression and further neurological complications. Therefore, cytokines might be useful as biomarkers for earlier detection of brain damage in high-risk infants.

Banhabaikchulcheunma-tang Down-regulates LPS-induced Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines

  • Kim, Yun-Ha;Cho, Kwang-Ho;Moon, Byung-Soon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.192-198
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    • 2009
  • Banhabaikchulcheunma-tang (BBCT), a prescription composed of thirteen herbal mixtures, has been widely used in the treatment of brain disorders in Oriental Medicine. However, the mechanisms by which the formula affects on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cerebral infarction (CI) patients remain unknown yet. The levels of secretory protein of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interlukin (IL)-1b, and IL-6, were significantly increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 differentiated macrophage-like (THP-1/M) cells and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CI patients. However, pretreatment with BBCT significantly inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-a, IL-1b, and IL-6, in THP-1/M cells and PBMCs from CI patients with stimulus. Thus, these data indicate that BBCT may be beneficial in the cessation of inflammatory processes of cerebral infarction through suppression on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Review of Cytokines for Nursing Research (사이토카인을 활용한 간호학 연구방향에 대한 고찰)

  • Shin, Gi-Soo;Lee, Kung-Suk;Jeong, Jae-Sim
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Cytokines have widespread and potent effects across the life span. This study was carried out to understand about cytokines that influence nursing research and practice. Method: Journal publications rewied include cytokine topics on CINAHL and Korean nursing research from January 2000 to December 2006. Result: In this study, the specific and numerical expression of for the level of Cytokines as a physiological factor related to the disease clearly provides the patient's disease mechanism and manifestation of the symptoms. Also, it can be the basise of nursing research and evidence-based nursing intervention. Conclusion: The practical use of Cytokines has to be considered to set up the direction of the nursing research and the study of the standard manual of Cytokines is continuously required.

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Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

  • Roh, Sang-Gun;Suzuki, Yutaka;Gotoh, Takafumi;Tatsumi, Ryuichi;Katoh, Kazuo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2016
  • Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

Pycnogenol, a Standardized Extract of French Maritime Pine Bark, Inhibited the Transcriptional Expression of Th2 Cytokines by Suppressing $NF-{\kappa}B$ Activation in Primary Splenocytes of C57BL/6 Mice with Murine AIDS (Murine AIDS 감염쥐 splenocytes에서 $NF-{\kappa}B$의 활성화 억제를 통한 pycnogenol의 Th2 cytokines의 mRNA 발현 조절 효과)

  • Lee, Jeong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.829-834
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    • 2006
  • LP-BM5 murine leukemia retrovirus induces the immune dysfunction by imbalanced secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the murine AIDS model. In the present study, it was investigated whether pycnogenol (Pyc) administration could deactivate $NF-{\kappa}B$ to regulate the gene expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in C57BL/6 mice with murine AIDS. Treatment with Pyc for 12 weeks significantly inhibited the loss of body weight and enlargement of spleen and lymph node usually seen with AIDS. Moreover, Pyc increased the plasma level of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and $IFN-{\gamma}$, while reducing the plasma level of Th2 cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and $TNF-{\alpha}$. In primary culture of splenocytes, mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines was suppressed, but that of Th1 cytokines was not affected. The LP-BM5 retrovirus infection stimulated the cytoplasmic activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and nuclear translocation of $I-{\kappa}B$, whereas Pyc administration significantly reduced $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation and $I-{\kappa}B$ degradation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effect of Pyc on Th2 cytokines in mice with murine AIDS was dependent on suppression of the $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathway and was not dependent on $INF-{\gamma}$ level, which regulates Th2 cytokines.