• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cytokine

Search Result 2,602, Processing Time 0.047 seconds

Signal Transduction of the Cytokine Receptor

  • Watanabe, Sumiko
    • Animal cells and systems
    • /
    • v.2 no.2
    • /
    • pp.153-164
    • /
    • 1998
  • Cytokines regulate proliferation, differentiation and functions of haemotopoietic cells. Each cytokine possesses a variety of activities on various target cells (pleiotropy) and various cytokines have similar and overlapping activities on the same target cells (redundancy). The nature of these cytokine activities predicts unique feature of cytokine receptors, namely, cytokine has multiple receptors, different cytokines share a common receptor, and different cytokine receptors are linked to common signaling pathways. cDNA cloning of genes for cytokine receptors revealed distinct sets of receptor family with different structural features. The cytokine receptor superfamily consists of a largest family, and contains more than twenty cytokine receptor subunits. This receptor has common structural features in both extracellular and intracellular regions without tyrosine kinase domain. Another striking feature of the receptor is to share common subunit of multiple cytokines, which partly explains the redundancy of activities of some cytokines. Recent studies revealed detailed signaling events of the cytokine receptor, the primary activation of JAK and subsequent phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of receptor, and various cellular proteins. Many SH2 containing adapter proteins play an important role in cytokine signals, and this system has similarities with tyrosine kinase receptor signal transduction. STAT may mainly account for cytokine specific functions as suggested by knockout mice studies. It is of importance to note that cytokine activates multiple signaling pathways and the balance and combination of related signaling events may determine the specificity of functions of cytokines.

  • PDF

Effect of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Mouse Model of Steroid-Induced Avascular Necrosis in the Femoral Head (ANFH)

  • Ryoo, Soyoon;Lee, Sukha;Jo, Seunghyun;Lee, Siyoung;Kwak, Areum;Kim, Eunsom;Lee, Jongho;Hong, Jaewoo;Jhun, Hyunjhung;Lee, Youngmin;Sobti, Anshul Shyam;Kim, Soohyun;Oh, Kwang-Jun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.394-400
    • /
    • 2014
  • Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is commonly observed in patients treated with excessive glucocorticoid (GC). Single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has shown to induce immune stimulatory factors. However, the effect of repeated administration of LPS on GC-induced ANFH has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this study was (i) to examine the cytokine profile induced by repeated LPS administrations and (ii) to test the effect of repeated LPS treatments on GC-induced ANFH. A mouse necrosis model of ANFH was designed by chronic GC administration with co-treatment of LPS. Mice body weights in the LPS/prednisolone (PDN) co-treated group were lower than that of the untreated control group, but spleen weights were greater than the control group. The levels of IL-6, $TNF{\alpha}$, and IL-33 in the liver and spleen of the LPS/PDN group were lower than the untreated control group, whereas $TNF{\alpha}$ level in the femoral head of the LPS/PDN group increased. Collectively, the effect of repeated LPS on the pathogenesis of GC-induced ANFH was associated with the $TNF{\alpha}$ level in the femoral head, but the pathogenesis did not correspond to cytokine levels in immune tissues.

Cytokine Synergism in Apoptosis: Its Role in Diabetes and Cancer

  • Lee, Myung-Shik
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.54-60
    • /
    • 2002
  • The effects of individual cytokine on apoptosis have been extensively studied. However, the effect of the cytokine combination, or the synergistic effect of cytokines on cell death, has not been widely studied, though synergism between cytokines has been documented in a variety of biological situations. In our effort to identify the final death effector molecule(s) in autoimmune diabetes, we inadvertently became interested in the cytokine synergism. We discovered that $IFN{\gamma}/TNF{\alpha}$ synergism, rather than the Fas ligand as currently believed, is responsible for the apoptosis of pancreatic islet cells both in vitro and in vivo. We also studied similar cytokine synergism in cancer cell deaths, and noted the similarities and dissimilarities between cancer cell death and islet cell death.

Expression on Echinostoma hortense Infection Manifestation on the Cytokine of the Splenocytes of BALB/c and C3H/HeN Mice

  • Ryang Yong-Suk;Cho Yoon-Kyung;IM Jee-Aee;Lee Kyu-Je;Kim Insik;Sung Ho-Joong
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.10 no.3
    • /
    • pp.219-230
    • /
    • 2004
  • This experiment was performed to examine the in vitro and in vivo affects of the two different haplotype strains of mice, BALB/c and C3H/HeN infected with Echinostoma hortense, and the manifestation of the profiles of cytokine in the splenocytes. In the in vitro experiment, the two mice's splenocytes were divided and stimulated with antigen of crude extracts and the antigen of excretory and secretory products of an adult warm and the manifestation of cytokine mRNA was verified with RT-PCR. As a result, the two different strains of mice both strongly manifested the Th2 cytokine rather than the Thl cytokine and in the case of the Th2 cytokine, the BALB/c mice manifested more strongly than the C3H/HeN mice. In the experiment using the ELISA method, the protem cytokine manifestation had the same result as the mRNA experiment. In the in vivo experiment, the mice was infected via oral route with the metacercaria of the Echinostoma hortense and the manifestation of cytokine was verified by RT-PCR and ELISA and the results were the same as the in vitro experiment. Therefore, in the two strains of BALB/c and C3H/HeN, the C3H/HeN showed a higher susceptivity to the Echinostoma hortense.

  • PDF

BIRB 796 has Distinctive Anti-inflammatory Effects on Different Cell Types

  • Ryoo, Soyoon;Choi, Jida;Kim, Jaemyung;Bae, Suyoung;Hong, Jaewoo;Jo, Seunghyun;Kim, Soohyun;Lee, Youngmin
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.13 no.6
    • /
    • pp.283-288
    • /
    • 2013
  • The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF${\alpha}$) and interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$ are crucial mediators involved in chronic inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory signal pathways regulate inflammatory cytokine expression-mediated by p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Therefore, considerable attention has been given to p38MAPK as a target molecule for the development of a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics. BIRB 796, one of p38MAPK inhibitor, is a candidate of therapeutic drug for chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of BIRB 796 on inflammatory cytokine productions by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different immune cell types. BIRB 796 reduced LPS-mediated IL-8 production in THP-1 cells but not in Raw 264.7 cells. Further analysis of signal molecules by western blot revealed that BIRB 796 sufficiently suppressed LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38MAPK in both cell types whereas it failed to block inhibitor of kappa B (I-${\kappa}B$) degradation in Raw 264.7 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory function of BIRB 796 depends on cell types.

Cytokines and Depression (사이토카인과 우울증)

  • Kim, Yong-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.175-185
    • /
    • 2008
  • Accumulating evidence has suggested the existence of reciprocal communication between immune, endocrine, and neurotransmitter system. Cytokine hypothesis of depression implies that increased pro-inflammatory cytokine such as -1, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IFN-${\gamma}$ in major depression, acting neuromodulators, play a key role in the mediation of behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neurochemical disturbances in depression. Concerning the relation between cytokines and serotonin metabolism, pro-inflammatory cytokines have profound effects on the metabolism of brain serotonin through the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase(IDO) that metabolizes tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT to neurodegenerative quinolinate and neuroprotective kynurenate. The neurodegeneration process is reinforced by the neurotoxic effect of the hypercortisolemia during depression. From this perspective, it is possible that efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of depression may, at least in part, rely on downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis. So, the use of cytokine synthesis inhibitors or cytokine antagonists may be a new treatment approach in depression. However, at present the question whether cytokines play a causal role in the onset of depression or are mere epiphenomena sustaining depressive symptoms remains to be elucidated. Nevertheless, cytokine hypothesis has created new perspectives in the study of psychological and pathophysiological mechanism that are associated with major depression, as well as the prospect for developing a new generation antidepressants.

  • PDF

Cytokines로 유방면역 증가

  • 손봉환
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
    • /
    • v.29 no.11
    • /
    • pp.641-645
    • /
    • 1993
  • 소 유방염에서 cytokine의 역할연구는 이제 시작단계이다. 근래 시험에서는 재결합 cytokine은 실세포 증가와 염증반응의 조절에 의하여 강화된 세균의 정화능력을 유방에 준다. 그리고 효과인자 세포의 보충결합 효과를 통하여 유방염의 결과를 조절하는 능력이 있다는 것을 제시한다. 현재 앞서가는 연구자들의 도전은 세균의 병원성 증가, 숙주반응이 유선에서 병원균 제거 요구 그리고 cytokine이 이들 반응을 조절할 수 있는 기전, 이들 사이의 상호기전을 더 이해하기 위한 것이다. 이 분야에서 앞으로의 발전은 시험보다 야외상태에서 전달되어지는 것이다. 그리고 효과적인 정보의 증가를 위하여 우리의 관심이 더 많아야 하는 것이고, 유선면역기능 조절이 소 유방염 관리를 위하여 앞으로 cytoki-ne의 치료응용에 큰 잠재력을 제시하는 것이다.

  • PDF

Cytokin and Its Role (Cytokin과 그 역할)

  • 김광혁
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.3 no.3
    • /
    • pp.136-142
    • /
    • 1993
  • Cytokine은 여러 가지 세포성 면역을 발현시키는 작용물질로서, 혹은 체액성 면역에 있어서 그 조절기능에 관여하는 작용물질로서 주목을 받고 있으며, 그 대부분은 직접적이거나 간접적으로 감염이나 종양에 대한 생체방어기구에 대하여 중요한 역할을 갖는 것이 밝혀지고 있다. Cytokine의 생체내에서의 역할은 감염 방어기구에 관여하고, 항종양 면역에 관여한다. 최근에는 cytokine과 내분비계의 호르몬이 상호작용을 하고 있다는 것이 밝혀지고 있다. 내분비계의 gormone과 cytokine 간에는 일방향성이 아니라 이방향성의 상호작용이 있다고 말할 수 있다.

  • PDF

Review : Clinical application and efficacy of herbal medicines by modulating cytokines in atopic dermatitis-induced animal model (동물모델에서 cytokine 조율을 통한 한약의 항아토피피부염 효능과 임상적 응용에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Yeong-Chul;Lim, Jung-Dae;Park, Yong-Ki;Yoon, Mi-Sook;Lee, Sun-Dong
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.33-44
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objectives : There is a pressing need to determine the clinical and scientific validity of herbal therapies for animal model with atopic dermatitis since some differences in systemic cytokine polarization between in animal model and in patients with atopic dermatitis has been reported. New studies for tang, medicinal herb itself or effective ingradients of medicinal herb showing anti-atopic dermatitis effectiveness are reviewed in terms of cytokine regulation. Methods : Those herbal therapies used to treat atopic dermatitis in animal model were introduced and the expression pattern of cytokine and the activity of mast cell were compared in both animal model and patients with atopic dermatitis. Results : In case of atopic dermatitis in human, there is a biphasic pattern of cytokine expression in atopic dermatitis, with acute skin inflammation associated with a predominance of IL-4 and IL-13 expression from Th2 cells, and chronic inflammation associated with increased IL-5 from Th2-cells and IFN-${\gamma}$ from Th1-cells. However, a pattern of cytokine expression in animal model with atopic dermatitis is not matched well to the biphasic pattern of cytokine expression in patients with atopic dermatitis. In addition, a kind of cytokine is different by animal model with atopic dermatitis. These differences would make herbal medicines, showing their effectiveness on atopic dermatitis, difficult to apply to patients with atopic dermatitis. Conclusion : The pattern of local cytokine expression plays an important role in modulating tissue inflammation, and in atopic dermatitis this pattern depends on the acuity or duration of the skin lesion. Thus, in order to develop medicinal herb itself or effective ingradients of medicinal herb showing anti-atopic dermatitis effectiveness, biphasic pattern of cytokine expression should be considered in animal model with atopic dermatitis.

Virus-like Particles Containing Cytokine Plasmid DNA (사이토카인 유전자 함유 바이러스 유사입자의 제조)

  • Oh, Yu-Kyoung;Son, Tae-Jong;Sin, Kwang-Sook;Kang, Min-Jeong;Kim, Jung-Mogg;Kim, Nam-Keun;Ko, Jung-Jae;Kim, Chong-Kook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
    • /
    • v.31 no.3
    • /
    • pp.185-190
    • /
    • 2001
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause cervical cancers. Human papillomavirus-like particles (VLP) have been studied as preventive vaccines of cervical cancers. To develop VLP as a therapeutic gene carrier, we studied the method to encapsulate cytokine genes in virus-like particles. HPV type 16 capsid L1 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into T vector. L1 gene was then inserted into baculovirus transfer vector. The clone of baculovirus encoding L1 gene was isolated and used to express L1 protein in Sf 21 insect cells. VLP were purified by CsCl density gradient and ultracentrifugation. VLP were disassembled to capsomer units by treatment of a reducing agent. Given that interleukin-2 (IL-2) genes have been used in anticancer gene therapy and as a molecular adjuvant, IL-2 cytokine plasmids were chosen as a model gene. IL-2 plasmids were incubated with the disassembled capsomer suspension. To reassemble the particles, the mixture of capsomers and cytokine plasmids was dialyzed. The disassembly and reassembly of VLP were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The entrapment of cytokine plasmids in reassembled VLP was tested by the stability of plasmids against DNase I. After treatment of reassembled virus-like particles with DNase I, discrete IL-2 DNA band was observed. Our results indicate that IL-2 cytokine plasmid (3.5 kb size) can be encapsulated in the virus-like particles, suggesting the potential of VLP as a gene delivery system. Moreover, VLP containing the adjuvant cytokine plasmids might function as more effective subunit vaccines.

  • PDF