• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cycle time

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The Yarding Productivity and Cost of Cable Yarding Operation by Yarder Attached on Trator -Using the Chuncheon Tower-yarder - (트랙터부착 집재기를 이용한 집재작업 분석 -춘천집재기를 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Won Sung;Han, Han-Sup;Kim, Yeong-Suk;Shin, Man Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.97 no.6
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    • pp.641-649
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and the operational costs of the Chuncheon Tower-yarder, a skyline yarding system used in Korea. Detailed time study data were collected from 4 thinning sites in Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) stands; one site for uphill yarding and three sites for downhill yarding. This study derived regression models to estimate the average cycle time (sec.) for uphill and downhill yarding. The average yarding cost was $12,844won/m^3$ for uphill yarding, while downhill yarding cost was $13,221won/m^3$. The average yarding time was 239 sec/cycle for uphill yarding, while downhill average yarding time was 274 sec/cycle. We found that uphill yarding productivity was higher when the operation system was examined under the same work conditions (i.e. standardized comparison) except yarding directions for both uphill yarding and downhill yarding.

An Elicitation Approach of Measurement Indicator based an Product line Context (Product Line의 컨텍스트 기반 측정 지표 도출 방법)

  • Hwang Sun-Myung;Kim Jin-Sam
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.13D no.4 s.107
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    • pp.583-592
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    • 2006
  • Software development based on product lines has been proved a promising technology that can drastically reduce cycle time and guarantee quality by strategically reusing quality core assets that belong to an organization. However, how to measure within a product line is different from how to measure within a single software project in that we have to consider the aspects of both core assets and projects that utilize the assets. Moreover, the performance aspects of overall project lines need to be considered within a product line context. Therefore, a systematic approach to measure the performance of product lines is essential to have consistent, repeatable and effective measures within a product line. This paper presents a context-based measurements elicitation approach for product lines that reflects the performance characteristics of product lines and the diversity of their application. The approach includes both detailed procedures and work products resulting from implementation of the procedures, along with their templates. To show the utility of the approach, this paper presents the elicited measurements, especially for technical management practices among product line practices. This paper also illustrated a real application case that adopt this approach. The systematic approach enables management attributes, i.e., measurements to be identified when we construct product lines or develop software product based on the product lines. The measurements will be effective in that they are derived in consideration of the application context and interests of stakeholders.

Experiment and Simulation of 4-bed PSA for Hydrogen Separation from Multi-Component Mixture Gases (다성분 혼합 기체로부터 수소 분리를 위한 4-bed PSA 실험과 전산 모사)

  • Yang, Se-Il;Park, Ju-Yong;Jang, Seong-Cheol;Choi, Do-Young;Kim, Sung-Hyun;Choi, Dae-Ki
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.414-422
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    • 2008
  • Adsorption experiments for $H_2$, $CH_4$, CO, $CO_2$ on activated carbon and zeolite 5A were performed by static volumetric method. A 4-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process was to study separation of hydrogen from multi-component mixture gases ($H_2$ 72.2%, $CH_4$ 4.06%, CO 2.03%, $CO_2$ 21.6%). Dual-site langmuir (DSL) isotherm showed good or fair agreement with the experimental results. The optimum height of activated carbon layer was 55 cm with breakthrough results on the packing ratio of activated carbon to zeolite 5A. In PSA process, the effects of the process parameters such as total cycle time ($T_c$), ${\Delta}P$ at the provide purge step and adsorption pressure on the PSA performance were studied experimentally and theoretically.

A Study on Design of Wind Blade with Rated Capacity of 50kW (50kW 풍력블레이드 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Man;Moon, Chae-Joo;Jung, Gweon-Sung
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.485-492
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    • 2021
  • The wind turbines with a rated capacity of 50kW or less are generally considered as small class. Small wind turbines are an attractive alternative for off-grid power system and electric home appliances, both as stand-alone application and in combination with other energy technologies such as energy storage system, photovoltaic, small hydro or diesel engines. The research objective is to develop the 50kW scale wind turbine blades in ways that resemble as closely as possible with the construction and methods of utility scale turbine blade manufacturing. The mold process based on wooden form is employed to create a hollow, multi-piece, lightweight design using carbon fiber and fiberglass with an epoxy based resin. A hand layup prototyping method is developed using high density foam molds that allows short cycle time between design iterations of aerodynamic platforms. A production process of five blades is manufactured and key components of the blade are tested by IEC 61400-23 to verify the appropriateness of the design. Also, wind system with developed blades is tested by IEC 61400-12 to verify the performance characteristics. The results of blade and turbine system test showed the available design conditions for commercial operation.

The Effects of Forest Healing Anti-aging Program on Physical Health of the Elderly: A Pilot Study (산림치유 항노화 프로그램이 노인의 신체적 건강에 미치는 효과: 예비연구)

  • Baek, Ji-Eun;Shin, Ho-jin;Kim, Sung-Hyeon;Kim, Jae Yeon;Park, Sujin;Sung, Si-Yoon;Cho, Hwi-young;Hahm, Suk-Chan;Lee, Min-Goo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2021
  • PURPOSE: Aging causes a decrease in muscle mass and a change in posture, which reduces motor function and makes it difficult to perform daily activities independently. As these factors are closely related to the deterioration of the quality of life, it is very important to prevent and manage negative changes in the musculoskeletal system. Forest healing is a nature therapy course that maintains and promotes health using various environmental factors in a forest. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the forest healing anti-aging programs on the physical health of the elderly. METHODS: Ten elderly people participated in this study, as part of a forest healing anti-aging program for two days. Functional fitness, muscle strength, gait function, and balance were evaluated before and after the program. RESULTS: The number of arm curls, chair stands, and steps in a 2-min walk significantly increased (p < .05). 8-feet up & go time was significantly decreased (p < .05). Biceps brachii, quadriceps femoris, and calf muscle strength were significantly increased (p < .05). Gait velocity and cadence were significantly increased (p < .05). Step length, stride length, step time, swing time, stance time, and cycle time were significantly decreased (p < .05). Reaching distance in the lateral directions was significantly increased (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The forest healing anti-aging program improves the physical health of the elderly.

Optimal Wrist Design of Wrist-hollow Type 6-axis Articulated Robot using Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 손목 중공형 6축 수직다관절 로봇의 최적 손목 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Hyeon Min;Chung, Won Jee;Bae, Seung Min;Choi, Jong Kap;Kim, Dae Young;Ahn, Yeon Joo;Ahn, Hee Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2019
  • In arc-welding applying to the present automobile part manufacturing process, a wrist-hollow type arc welding robot can shorten the welding cycle time, because feedability of a welding wire is not affected by a robot posture and thus facilitates high-quality arc welding, based on stable feeding with no entanglement. In this paper, we will propose the optimization of wrist design for a wrist-hollow type 6-Axis articulated robot. Specifically, we will perform the investigation on the optimized design of inner diameter of hollow arms (Axis 4 and Axis 6) and width of the upper arm by using the simulation of robot motion characteristics, using a Genetic Algorithm (i.e., GA). Our simulations are based on $SolidWorks^{(R)}$ for robot modeling, $MATLAB^{(R)}$ for GA optimization, and $RecurDyn^{(R)}$ for analyzing dynamic characteristics of a robot. Especially $RecurDyn^{(R)}$ is incorporated in the GA module of $MATLAB^{(R)}$ for the optimization process. The results of the simulations will be verified by using $RecurDyn^{(R)}$ to show that the driving torque of each axis of the writs-hollow 6-axis robot with the optimized wrist design should be smaller than the rated output torque of each joint servomotor. Our paper will be a guide for improving the wrist-hollow design by optimizing the wrist shape at a detail design stage when the driving torque of each joint for the wrist-hollow 6-axis robot (to being developed) is not matched with the servomotor specifications.

Design of the Condenser and Automation of a Solar Powered Water Pump (태양열 물펌프의 운전 자동화 설계)

  • Kim Y. B.;Son J. G.;Lee S. K.;Kim S. T.;Lee Y. K.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.141-154
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    • 2004
  • The solar powered water pump is very ideal equipment because solar power is more intensive when the water is more needed in summer and it is very helpful in the rural area, in which the electrical power is not available. The average so]ar radiation energy is 3.488 kWh/($m^2{\cdot}day$) in Korea. In this study, the automatic control logic and system of the water pump driven by the radiation energy were studied, designed, assembled, tested and analyzed for realizing the solar powered water pump. The experimental system was operated automatically and the cycle was continued. The average quantity of the water pumped per cycle was about 5,320 cc. The cycle time was about 4.9 minutes. The thermal efficiency of the system was about $0.030\%$. The pressure level of the n-pentane vapour in flash tank was 150$\%$450 hPa(gauge) which was set by the computer program for the control of the vapour supply. The pressure in the condenser and air tank during cycles was maintained as about 600 hPa and 1,200 hPa respectively. The water could be pumped by the amount of 128kg/($m^2{\cdot}day$) with the efficiency of $0.1\%$ and the pumping head of 10 m for the average solar energy in Korea.

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The Study on the Long-term Reliability Characteristics of Ribbon Joint: Solar Cell Ribbon Thickness and Solder Compositions (태양전지 Ribbon 두께와 조성에 따른 Ribbon접합부의 장기 신뢰성 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Yu-Jae;Kang, Min-Soo;So, Kyung-Jun;Lee, Jae-June;Shin, Young-Eui
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.88-94
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, Thermal Shock tests were performed varying the composition of the solder and ribbon thickness (A-type:0.2mm/60Sn40Pb, B-type:0.25mm/60Sn40Pb, C-type:0.2 /62Sn36Ag2Pb, D-type:0.25mm/62Sn36Ag2Pb) for evaluating the long-term reliability about Ribbon junction of Silicon solar cells. Thermal Shock test condition was performed during the 600cycles having $-40^{\circ}C{\sim}85^{\circ}C$ temperature range each 15 minutes; One cycle time was 30min. As a result, the initial efficiency of the A-type, B-type, and C, D-type were showed 15.0%, 15.4% and 15.8% respectively. After thermal shock test, the efficiency decreasing-rate of each type were as follow that A-type was 13.8%, B-Type was 15.4%. C-Type and D-Type was 15.3% and 16.2%, respectively. Also, degradation of surface changes and I-V characteristic curves were showed that the series resistance of the A, C-type was increased. Also, current lowering starting point of C-type shown 0.05volt[v] earlier than that of A-type. And B, D-type shown characteristics of composite lowering efficiency such as increase of series resistance, decrease of parallel resistance and cell damage. Therefore Initial solderability and efficiency of specimens using the solder with SnAgPb were superior. But, It has inferior the long-term reliability. The test was confirmed that as the ribbon thickness increases, long-term reliability of solar cell will decrease.

Application of ECVAM as a Indicator for Monitoring National Environment in Korea (국토환경 모니터링 지표로서의 국토환경성평가지도 활용방안)

  • Kim, Eunyoung;Jeon, Seong-Woo;Song, Wonkyong;Kwak, Jaeryun;Lee, June
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.3-16
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    • 2012
  • Objectives of the Korean Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) is to evaluate environmental value used in comprehensive environmental information in order to encourage eco-friendly land use and management. The first research was conducted in 2001 to establish the evaluation items and the criteria of the ECVAM, and the first nationwide map was established in the period of 2003 to 2005. The maps are updated annually to reflect environmental changes of land. The evaluation items and the criteria have been modified based on feasibility studies to improve the accuracy of the maps. This study re-evaluated the ECVAMs from 2005 to 2010 with criteria used in current environment and analyzed the changes in the area of the maps in 6 years. This is also an investigation on the maps whether they are appropriate as an index for sustainable environmental monitoring. The result shows that the 1st grade level of the ECVAM area with the highest conservation value had been expanding since 2005. These changes were analyzed in terms of updating the 4th Forest Map (2008) produced once every 10 years, reflecting the new legal protected areas such as Baekdudaegan Protected Area(2010), and the environmental/ecological assessment items such as the National Ecological Network (2009). This mean the ECVAM are a monitoring index that integrates individual environmental indexes including the increase of forest age and diameter due to sustainable management of forest areas, and the change of conservation areas. Therefore, ECVAM can be used as a new index integrating national environmental indicators for monitoring changes of national environment and policy. In order to utilize the ECVAM, improving accuracy and reducing renewal cycle time of thematic maps are required.

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A Study on Web-based Technology Valuation System (웹기반 지능형 기술가치평가 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Tae-Eung;Jun, Seung-Pyo;Kim, Sang-Gook;Park, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.23-46
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    • 2017
  • Although there have been cases of evaluating the value of specific companies or projects which have centralized on developed countries in North America and Europe from the early 2000s, the system and methodology for estimating the economic value of individual technologies or patents has been activated on and on. Of course, there exist several online systems that qualitatively evaluate the technology's grade or the patent rating of the technology to be evaluated, as in 'KTRS' of the KIBO and 'SMART 3.1' of the Korea Invention Promotion Association. However, a web-based technology valuation system, referred to as 'STAR-Value system' that calculates the quantitative values of the subject technology for various purposes such as business feasibility analysis, investment attraction, tax/litigation, etc., has been officially opened and recently spreading. In this study, we introduce the type of methodology and evaluation model, reference information supporting these theories, and how database associated are utilized, focusing various modules and frameworks embedded in STAR-Value system. In particular, there are six valuation methods, including the discounted cash flow method (DCF), which is a representative one based on the income approach that anticipates future economic income to be valued at present, and the relief-from-royalty method, which calculates the present value of royalties' where we consider the contribution of the subject technology towards the business value created as the royalty rate. We look at how models and related support information (technology life, corporate (business) financial information, discount rate, industrial technology factors, etc.) can be used and linked in a intelligent manner. Based on the classification of information such as International Patent Classification (IPC) or Korea Standard Industry Classification (KSIC) for technology to be evaluated, the STAR-Value system automatically returns meta data such as technology cycle time (TCT), sales growth rate and profitability data of similar company or industry sector, weighted average cost of capital (WACC), indices of industrial technology factors, etc., and apply adjustment factors to them, so that the result of technology value calculation has high reliability and objectivity. Furthermore, if the information on the potential market size of the target technology and the market share of the commercialization subject refers to data-driven information, or if the estimated value range of similar technologies by industry sector is provided from the evaluation cases which are already completed and accumulated in database, the STAR-Value is anticipated that it will enable to present highly accurate value range in real time by intelligently linking various support modules. Including the explanation of the various valuation models and relevant primary variables as presented in this paper, the STAR-Value system intends to utilize more systematically and in a data-driven way by supporting the optimal model selection guideline module, intelligent technology value range reasoning module, and similar company selection based market share prediction module, etc. In addition, the research on the development and intelligence of the web-based STAR-Value system is significant in that it widely spread the web-based system that can be used in the validation and application to practices of the theoretical feasibility of the technology valuation field, and it is expected that it could be utilized in various fields of technology commercialization.