• Title, Summary, Keyword: Curcumin

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Curcumin-Induced Apoptosis of A-431 Cells Involves Caspase-3 Activation

  • Shim, Joong-Sup;Lee, Hyung-Joo;Park, Sang-shin;Cha, Bong-Gee;Chang, Hae-Ryong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 2001
  • Curcumin a yellow pigment from Curcuma Tonga, has been known to possess antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties, as well as to induce apoptosis in some cancer cells. There have been, however, several contradictory reports that hypothesized curcumin (a hydrophobic molecule) can bind a membrane Gpid bilayer and induce nonspecific cytotoxicity in some cell lines. Why curcumin shows these contradictory effects is unknown. In A-431 cells, growth inhibition by curcumin is due mostly to the specific inhibition of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, as reported earlier by Korutla et al. Thus, we assumed that the cell death of A-431 by curcumin might be due to the specific induction of apoptosis. In this paper we clearly show that curcumin induces apoptosis in A-431 cells. The cureumin-induced cell death of A-431 exhibited various apoptotic features, including DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, the curcumin-induced apoptosis of A-431 cells involved activation of caspase-3-like cysteine protease. Involvement of caspase-3 was further confirmed by using a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, DEVD-CHO. In another study, decreased nitric oxide (NO) production was also shown in A-431 cells treated with curcumin, which seems to be the result of the inhibition of the iNOS expression by curcumin, as in other cell lines. However, 24 h after treatment of curcumin there was increased NO production in A-431 cells. This observation has not yet been clearly explained. We assumed that the increased NO production may be related to denitrosylation of the enzyme catalytic site in caspase-3 when activated. Taken together, this study shows that the cell death of A-431 by curcumin is due to the induction of apoptosis, which involves caspase-3 activation.

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Effects of Curcumin on the Pharmacokinetics of Loratadine in Rats: Possible Role of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein Inhibition by Curcumin

  • Li, Cheng;Choi, Byung-Chul;Kim, Dong-Ki;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.364-370
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of loratadine in rats. The effect of curcumin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was evaluated. Pharmacokinetic parameters of loratadine were also determined after oral and intravenous administration in the presence or absence of curcumin. Curcumin inhibited CYP3A4 activity with an IC50 value of 2.71 ${\mu}M$ and the relative cellular uptake of rhodamine-123 was comparable. Compared to the oral control group, curcumin significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and the peak plasma concentration by 39.4-66.7% and 34.2-61.5%. Curcumin also significantly increased the absolute bioavailability of loratadine by 40.0-66.1% compared to the oral control group. Consequently, the relative bioavailability of loratadine was increased by 1.39- to 1.67-fold. In contrast, curcumin had no effect on any pharmacokinetic parameters of loratadine given intravenously, implying that the enhanced oral bioavailability may be mainly due to increased intestinal absorption caused via P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibition by curcumin rather than to reduced renal and hepatic elimination of loratadine. Curcumin enhanced the oral bioavailability of loratadine in this study. The enhanced bioavailability of loratadine might be mainly attributed to enhanced absorption in the gastrointestinal tract via the inhibition of P-gp and reduced fi rst-pass metabolism of loratadine via the inhibition of the CYP3A subfamily in the small intestine and/or in the liver by curcumin.

Apoptotic Activity of Curcumin and EF-24 in HTB-41 Human Salivary Gland Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

  • Kim, Ji-Won;Lee, Seul Ah;Go, Dae-San;Park, Byung-Sun;Kim, Su-Gwan;Yu, Sun-Kyoung;Oh, Ji-Su;Kim, Chun Sung;Kim, Jeongsun;Park, Jong-Tae;Kim, Do Kyung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2015
  • Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a constituent of turmeric powder derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been shown to inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, a need exists to design more effective analogs because of curcumin's poor intestinal absorption. EF-24 (diphenyl difluoroketone), the monoketone analog of curcumin, has shown good efficacy in anticancer screens. However, the effects of curcumin and EF-24 on salivary gland epidermoid carcinoma cells are not clearly established. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin and EF-24 on cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human salivary gland epidermoid carcinoma cells. Our studies showed that curcumin and EF-24 inhibited the growth of HTB-41 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the potency of EF-24 was > 34-fold that of curcumin. Treatment with curcumin or EF-24 resulted in nuclear condensation and fragmentation in HTB-41 cells, whereas the control HTB-41 cell nuclei retained their normal regular and oval shape. Curcumin and EF-24 promoted proteolytic cleavages of procaspase-3/-7/-9, resulting in an increase in the amount of cleaved caspase-3/-7/-9 in the HTB-41 cells. Caspase-3 and -7 activities were detected in viable HTB-41 cells treated with curcumin or EF-24. These results suggest that the curcumin and EF-24 inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in HTB-41 human salivary gland epidermoid carcinoma cells, and that they may have potential properties as an anti-cancer drug therapy.

Curcumin modulates the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing by coordinating the expression of cytidine deamination to uridine editosome components in primary mouse hepatocytes

  • He, Pan;Tian, Nan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2019
  • Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa L., can reduce the concentration of low-density lipoproteins in plasma, in different ways. We had first reported that curcumin exhibits hypocholesterolemic properties by improving the apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA editing in primary rat hepatocytes. However, the role of curcumin in the regulation of apoB mRNA editing is not clear. Thus, we investigated the effect of curcumin on the expression of multiple editing components of apoB mRNA cytidine deamination to uridine (C-to-U) editosome. Our results demonstrated that treatment with $50{\mu}M$ curcumin markedly increased the amount of edited apoB mRNA in primary mouse hepatocytes from 5.13%-8.05% to 27.63%-35.61%, and significantly elevated the levels of the core components apoB editing catalytic polypeptide-1 (APOBEC-1), apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF), and RNA-binding-motif-protein-47 (RBM47), as well as suppressed the level of the inhibitory component glycine-arginine-tyrosine-rich RNA binding protein. Moreover, the increased apoB RNA editing by $50{\mu}M$ curcumin was significantly reduced by siRNA-mediated APOBEC-1, ACF, and RBM47 knockdown. These findings suggest that curcumin modulates apoB mRNA editing by coordinating the multiple editing components of the edito-some in primary hepatocytes. Our data provided evidence for curcumin to be used therapeutically to prevent atherosclerosis.

Antipruritic effect of curcumin on histamine-induced itching in mice

  • Lee, Han Kyu;Park, Seok Bum;Chang, Su-youne;Jung, Sung Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.547-554
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    • 2018
  • Itching is a common clinical symptom of skin disease that significantly affects a patient's quality of life. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors of keratinocytes and peripheral nerve fibers in skin are involved in the regulation of itching as well as pain. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin, which acts on TRPV1 receptors, affects histamine-induced itching in mice, using behavioral tests and electrophysiological approaches. We found that histamine-induced itching was blocked by topical application of curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. In ex-vivo recordings, histamine-induced discharges of peripheral nerves were reduced by the application of curcumin, indicating that curcumin acts directly on peripheral nerves. Additionally, curcumin blocked the histamine-induced inward current via activation of TRPV1 (curcumin $IC_{50}=523nM$). However, it did not alter chloroquine-induced itching behavior in mice, which is associated with transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). Taken together, our results suggest that histamine-induced itching can be blocked by topical application of curcumin through the inhibitory action of curcumin on TRPV1 receptors in peripheral nerves.

Efficacy of Curcumin in the Modulation of Anxiety Provoked by Sulfite, a Food Preservative, in Rats

  • Noorafshan, Ali;Vafabin, Masoud;Karbalay-Doust, Saied;Asadi-Golshan, Reza
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2017
  • Sulfites are used as food preservatives and excessive sulfite might disturb the body systems including the brain. Curcumin shows protective effects on the nervous system toxicity. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin in sulfite-induced anxiety in rats. Male rats were divided into five groups. The rats in groups I to V received distilled water (vehicle of sulfite, 1 mL/d), olive oil (vehicle of curcumin, 1 mL/d), curcumin (100 mg/kg/d), sulfite (25 mg/kg/d), and sulfite+curcumin, respectively, by daily gastric gavage for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks the rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze for anxiety. The results showed that concomitant treatment of curcumin during sulfite consumption prevented the reduction of the time spent in the open arm and entrance to the open arm (the indexes of anxiety). Besides, an increase was found in motor activity of the rats in the sulfite+curcumin group compared to the sulfite-treated animals. Exposure of sulfite in rats can induce anxiety, and curcumin can act as an anti-anxiety agent.

Enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin, a naturally occurring pigment in turmeric via cyclodextrin complexation

  • Kohli, K;Ali, J;Najmi, AK;Anwer, MT;Ansari, MJ
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.121-127
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    • 2007
  • Curcumin, a dietary pigment responsible for the yellow color of curry, has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects such as anti- inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, and anti-viral activity. In order to examine the potency of the curcumin in inflammation we used carrageenan induced rat hind paw odema model. As curcumin is practically water insoluble, it is hypothesized that pharmacological activity of curcumin could be improved by enhancing its water solubility. Water soluble complexes of curcumin with cyclodextrins were prepared and screened for greater solubility. Pure curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight along with curcumin complexes equivalent to 100 mg/kg body weight of pure curcumin were tested for the anti-inflammatory activity in Wister rats male rats using carrageenan induced hind paw edema model and compared with that of the reference compound diclofenac sodium at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. All the treatment groups showed statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with that of vehicle control and positive control.

Inhibitory Mechanism of Curcumin in Osteoclast Differentiation (파골세포의 분화에 커규민의 억제 작용기전)

  • Kwak, Han-Bok;Choi, Min-Kyu
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.796-801
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    • 2008
  • Bone is a dynamic tissue that is regulated by the balance between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Curcumin isolated from Kang-hwang (Turmeric) is widely used as a foodstuff, cosmetic, and medicine. However, the effect of curcumin isolated from Kang-hwang in osteoclast differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we sought to examine the role of curcumin in osteoclast differentiation. Here we show that curcumin greatly inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast precursors without cytotoxicity. RANKL induced the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mediated $I-{\kappa}B$ degradation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). However, RANKL-mediated p38 MAPK phosphorylation was inhibited by the addition of curcumin. Curcumin inhibited the mRNA expression of TRAP, c-Fos, and NFATc1 in BMMs treated with RANKL. Furthermore, the protein expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL was suppressed by curcumin treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin may have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation.

Curcumin Induces Apoptosis in SGC-7901 Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells via Regulation of Mitochondrial Signaling Pathways

  • Xue, Xia;Yu, Jin-Long;Sun, De-Qing;Kong, Feng;Qu, Xian-Jun;Zou, Wen;Wu, Jing;Wang, Rong-Mei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.3987-3992
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    • 2014
  • Curcumin, a polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa L. has been verified as an anticancer compound against several types of cancer. However, understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis is limited. In this study, the anticancer efficacy of curcumin was investigated in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. The results demonstrated that curcumin induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability. Apoptosis triggered by curcumin was visualized using Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD staining. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax that led to the cleavage of caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP was observed in SGC-7901 cells treated with curcumin. Therefore, curcumin-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells might be mediated through the mitochondria pathway, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of curcumin as a potential cancer therapeutic compound.

The Combined Effects of Curcumin Administration and 630 nm LED Phototherapy against DNCB-induced Atopic Dermatitis-like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice (BALB/c 마우스에서 DNCB-유도 아토피 피부염 유사병변에 대한 Curcumin 투여와 630 nm LED 광치료의 병용 효과)

  • Jekal, Seung-Joo;Park, Mi-Suk;Kim, Dae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.150-160
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    • 2017
  • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. It is characterized by eczematous lesions, skin dryness, and pruritus. The existing treatment drugs for AD have side effects, especially if the drugs are taken for extended periods. Therefore, new alternative therapies are necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of curcumin administration and LED irradiation on AD. AD-like lesions were induced in BALB/c mice by repeated application of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) to the shaved skin of the ear and neck. Thirty male BALB/c mice were divided into five groups: vehicle, DNCB, curcumin, LED, and curcumin+LED groups. Curcumin (0.1 g/kg/day) was administrated repeatedly during a period of 14 days (experimental period) and 630 nm LED irradiation ($5J/cm^2/day$) was performed in the acryl box once a day for 10 days, after inducing AD-like lesions via DNCB application. The severity of AD-like lesions was evaluated during the experimental period, using a modified SCORAD index. Both ear and neck skin tissues were examined histologically for epidermal thickness, mast cell, eosinophil counting, and dermal collagen density. Epidermal cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected using immunohistochemistry and TUNEL, respectively. These were all reduced in SCORAD index, epidermal thickness, collagen density, number of mast cell and eosinophil in dermis, and number of proliferating cell and apoptotic cell in epidermis by curcumin administration and 630 nm LED irradiation. Moreover, all parameters were significantly lower in the curcumin+LED group compared with the curcumin group and LED group. These results suggest that the combined therapy of curcumin and LED is more effective than a single treatment. We recommend that this can be a feasible alternative therapy to manage AD.