• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cultural Property

Search Result 469, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

Cultural Property in the territory of the North Korea considered from 'the law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on Protection of Cultural Property' (「문화유물보호법」을 통해 본 북한의 문화유산)

  • JI, Byong-Mok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.36
    • /
    • pp.39-67
    • /
    • 2003
  • In this paper we examine cultural properties of the North Korea from 'the law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on Protection of Cultural Property". This law was adopted the Resolution of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly of DPR of Korea in 1994. For our study, some other laws or rules established after the end of Japanese colonial occupation (1910-1945) in North Korea were examined. The policy on protection and conservation of cultural property in North Korea seems to have taken place a relatively rapid. The purpose of this law is to carry out the policy with a view to contributing to establishment of strict system and order for protection and management of cultural property, to their preservation in original state, to their proper inheritance and development, and to enhancement of national pride and confidence among the people. This law consists of 6 chapters (52 articles): (1) Fundamentals of the law on protection of cultural property, (2) Archaeological excavation and collection of cultural relics, (3) Evaluation and registration of cultural property, (4) Preservation and management of cultural property, (5) Restoration of cultural property, and (6) Guidance and control of cultural property protection. Nevertheless, it is difficult to find the evidence of efforts to exploit the cultural properties from an academic point of view in North Korea since the late 1980s.

A Study of the Cultural Legislation of Historic Properties during the Japanese Colonial Period - Related to the Establishment and Implementation of the Chosun Treasure Historic Natural Monument Preservation Decree (1933) - (일제강점기 문화재 법제 연구 - 「조선보물고적명승천연기념물보존령(1933년)」 제정·시행 관련 -)

  • Kim, Jongsoo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.53 no.2
    • /
    • pp.156-179
    • /
    • 2020
  • The Preservation Decree (1933) is the basic law relevant to the conservation of cultural property of colonial Chosun, and invoked clauses from the Old History Preservation Act (1897), the Historic Scenic Sites Natural Monument Preservation Act (1919), and the National Treasure Preservation Act (1929), which were all forms of Japanese Modern Cultural Heritage Law, and actually used the corresponding legal text of those laws. Thus, the fact that the Preservation Decree transplanted or imitated the Japanese Modern Cultural Heritage Law in the composition of the constitution can be proved to some extent. The main features and characteristics of the Preservation Decree are summarized below. First, in terms of preservation of cultural property, the Preservation Decree strengthened and expanded preservation beyond the existing conservation rules. In the conservation rules, the categories of cultural properties were limited to historic sites and relics, while the Preservation Decree classifies cultural properties into four categories: treasures, historic sites, scenic spots, and natural monuments. In addition, the Preservation Decree is considered to have advanced cultural property preservation law by establishing the standard for conserving cultural property, expanding the scope of cultural property, introducing explicit provisions on the restriction of ownership and the designation system for cultural property, and defining the basis for supporting the natural treasury. Second, the Preservation Decree admittedly had limitations as a colonial cultural property law. Article 1 of the Preservation Decree sets the standard of "Historic Enhancement or Example of Art" as a criteria for designating treasures. With the perspective of Japanese imperialism, this acted as a criterion for catering to cultural assets based on the governor's assimilation policy, revealing its limitations as a standard for preserving cultural assets. In addition, the Japanese imperialists asserted that the cultural property law served to reduce cultural property robbery, but the robbery and exporting of cultural assets by such means as grave robbery, trafficking, and exportation to Japan did not cease even after the Preservation Decree came into effect. This is because governors and officials who had to obey and protect the law become parties to looting and extraction of property, or the plunder and release of cultural property by the Japanese continued with their acknowledgement,. This indicates that cultural property legislation at that time did not function properly, as the governor allowed or condoned such exporting and plundering. In this way, the cultural property laws of the Japanese colonial period constituted discriminative colonial legislation which was selected and applied from the perspective of the Japanese government-general in the designation and preservation of cultural property, and the cultural property policy of Japan focused on the use of cultural assets as a means of realizing their assimilation policy. Therefore, this suggests that the cultural property legislation during the Japanese colonial period was used as a mechanism to solidify the cultural colonial rules of Chosun and to realize the assimilation policy of the Japanese government-general.

Improvement of cultural heritage disaster management - The Case of Sungnyemun's Collapse in Fire - (문화재 재난관리의 필요성과 발전방향 - 숭례문 화재사고사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Han, Beum-Deuk
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.8 no.10
    • /
    • pp.189-197
    • /
    • 2008
  • The present study purposed to assert the necessity of cultural property disaster control through analyzing the fire of the Sungnyemun and to suggest directions for the development of cultural property disaster control in the future. For these purposes, we reviewed literature such as research papers and books on cultural property disaster control, and presented problems in current cultural property disaster control and solutions for the problems through case study of the fire of the Sungnyemun. In a word, the fire of the Sungnyemun is a representative case showing difficulty in disaster prevention activities for wooden cultural properties. Accordingly, we need to recognize the necessity of cultural property disaster control and to prepare measures. For this, first, it is essential to reinforce preventive systems against cultural property disasters. Second, early actions should be taken in consideration of the characteristics of each cultural property. Third, for cultural property disaster control, it is important to maintain cooperative relations among the Cultural Properties Administration, National Emergency Management Agency, and relevant local self.governing bodies. Lastly, standards for cultural property fire protection systems should be tightened by improving related laws, and institutional bases should be intensified through preparing grounds for aggravated punishment for crimes against cultural properties such as arsons.

A Study of "Plans to Operate Exhibition Displays and Online Museums" to Utilize Korean Cultural Property Located Abroad (국외소재 한국문화재 활용을 위한 "디스플레이 전시와 온라인 박물관 운영 방안"에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Hee-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.16 no.12
    • /
    • pp.636-643
    • /
    • 2016
  • Several Korean cultural property-related foundations have investigated Korean cultural property located abroad with the help of international organizations owning Korean cultural objects and the investigation results serve as the basis of preservation/restoration, exhibition, and educational efforts. Korean cultural objects have been widely used abroad, for instance, for research and exhibition purposes, whereas in Korea, there are still only very few examples of using cultural property based on research results and accessibility to cultural property located abroad is also low. The aim of this study is to explore plans to utilize Korean cultural property located abroad in Korea, and exhibition displays and online museums can be good ways to utilize Korean cultural property located abroad. These will help increase access to Korean cultural property located abroad and find a variety of applications, including exhibitions, education.

A Basic Study for the Legal Definition of Cultural Property Terminology related to the Architecture (건축 문화재 용어의 법제도적 개념 정의를 위한 기초 연구)

  • Joo, Sang-Hun
    • Journal of architectural history
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.27-38
    • /
    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the legal definition and usage of cultural property term related to the architecture within the cultural property-related legal system and general legal system, and to present proper terminology and specific concepts that can be used for the architecture as cultural properties. In the current cultural property legislative system, terms about the architecture are diverse and obscure, and the definition of each term is different from the concept in the general legal system. In this context, this study presented the terminology of 'the architectural heritage' as 'a cultural property by construction act' to cover whole cultural properties related to Korean architecture. And the conceptual scope of the architectural heritage is divided into the technology and the performer related to the act, the record and the building related to the product. and Each concept needs to be specifically tailored to its object and scope. Systematic definition of terms for cultural properties related the architecture can positively influence systematization of cultural property preservation and management as well as empirical research and education on Korean architecture.

An Examination into the Illegal Trade of Cultural Properties (문화재(文化財)의 국제적 불법 거래(不法 去來)에 관한 고찰)

  • Cho, Boo-Keun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.37
    • /
    • pp.371-405
    • /
    • 2004
  • International circulation of cultural assets involves numerous countries thereby making an approach based on international law essential to resolving this problem. Since the end of the $2^{nd}$ World War, as the value of cultural assets evolved from material value to moral and ethical values, with emphasis on establishing national identities, newly independent nations and former colonial states took issue with ownership of cultural assets which led to the need for international cooperation and statutory provisions for the return of cultural assets. UNESCO's 1954 "Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict" as preparatory measures for the protection of cultural assets, the 1970 "Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property" to regulate transfer of cultural assets, and the 1995 "Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects" which required the return of illegally acquired cultural property are examples of international agreements established on illegal transfers of cultural assets. In addition, the UN agency UNESCO established the Division of Cultural Heritage to oversee cultural assets related matters, and the UN since its 1973 resolution 3187, has continued to demonstrate interest in protection of cultural assets. The resolution 3187 affirms the return of cultural assets to the country of origin, advises on preventing illegal transfers of works of art and cultural assets, advises cataloguing cultural assets within the respective countries and, conclusively, recommends becoming a member of UNESCO, composing a forum for international cooperation. Differences in defining cultural assets pose a limitation on international agreements. While the 1954 Convention states that cultural assets are not limited to movable property and includes immovable property, the 1970 Convention's objective of 'Prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property' effectively limits the subject to tangible movable cultural property. The 1995 Convention also has tangible movable cultural property as its subject. On this point, the two conventions demonstrate distinction from the 1954 Convention and the 1972 Convention that focuses on immovable cultural property and natural property. The disparity in defining cultural property is due to the object and purpose of the convention and does not reflect an inherent divergence. In the case of Korea, beginning with the 1866 French invasion, 36 years of Japanese colonial rule, military rule and period of economic development caused outflow of numerous cultural assets to foreign countries. Of course, it is neither possible nor necessary to have all of these cultural properties returned, but among those that have significant value in establishing cultural and historical identity or those that have been taken symbolically as a demonstration of occupational rule can cause issues in their return. In these cases, the 1954 Convention and the ratification of the first legislation must be actively considered. In the return of cultural property, if the illicit acquisition is the core issue, it is a simple matter of following the international accords, while if it rises to the level of diplomatic discussions, it will become a political issue. In that case, the country requesting the return must convince the counterpart country. Realizing a response to the earnest need for preventing illicit trading of cultural assets will require extensive national and civic societal efforts in the East Asian area to overcome its current deficiencies. The most effective way to prevent illicit trading of cultural property is rapid circulation of information between Interpol member countries, which will require development of an internet based communication system as well as more effective deployment of legislation to prevent trading of illicitly acquired cultural property, subscription to international conventions and cataloguing collections.

A Study on the Procedures of Investigating Environmental Influences to Wooden Cultural Property.(A critical review) (환경이 목조문화재에 미치는 영향에 관한 조사)

  • Kim, You Sun
    • Journal of Conservation Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.53-58
    • /
    • 1995
  • In order to establish the procedures for investigating environmental influences to wooden cultural property, existing study data were surveyed and necessary steps for performing the investigation works were presented to be applied for the future works in this country. Environmental factors which influence to the conservation of wooden cultural property should first be studied for items concerned with their damage situations. On basis of these data, laboratory works to yield the standard value for each factor should be conducted by means of testing samples exposed under laboratory simulated environmental conditions. Outdoor measurements may be followed for samples exposed to the open air at the site of that property. These data may be compared with those of laboratory standard value and overall evaluation for the factor influencing mostly tn the damage status of that property may further be conducted. Referring data obtained in this investigation, necessary measures to be taken for conserving that property may be able to be established.

  • PDF

Establishment of Old Imperial Estate and Cultural Property Management System -Focused on Inclusion of Imperial Estate as Cultural Property- (구황실재산 관리 제도에 대한 연구 -구황실재산의 문화재관리체계 편입 관련-)

  • Kim, Jongsoo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.53 no.1
    • /
    • pp.64-87
    • /
    • 2020
  • The cultural property management system of Korea was established based on the modern cultural assets acts and the old imperial estate management system enacted during the Japanese occupation. Academics have researched the cultural property management system oriented on the modern cultural assets acts, but few studies have been conducted into the old imperial estate management system, which is another axis of the cultural property management system. The old imperial estate was separated from the feudal capital by the Kabo Reform, but was dismantled during the colonial invasion of Japan and managed as a hereditary property of the colonial royal family during the Japanese colonial period. After establishment of the government, the Imperial Estate Act was enacted in 1954 and defined the estate as a historical cultural property managed by the Imperial Estate Administration Office. At this time, imperial estate property that was designated as permanent preservation property was officially recognized as constituting state-owned cultural assets and public goods in accordance with Article 2 of the Act's supplementary provisions during 1963, when the first amendment to the Cultural Property Protection act was implemented. In conclusion, Korea's cultural property formation and cultural property management system were integrated into one unit from two different sources: modern cultural assets acts and the old imperial estate property management system. If the change of modern cultural assets acts was the process of regulating and managing cultural property by transplanting and applying regulations from Japan to colonial Joseon, the management of the imperial estate was a process by which the Japanese colonized the Korean Empire and disposed of the imperial estate. Independence and the establishment of the government of the Republic of Korea provided the opportunity to combine these two different streams into one. Finally, this integration was completed with the establishment of the Protection of Cultural Properties Act in 1962.

A Study on the Methods of Fire-Safety in Cultural Property Wooden Buildings (목조 문화재 건축물의 화재 방재를 위한 조사 연구)

  • Chang, Hyung-Soon;Cho, Won-Seok;Kim, Heung-Gee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture
    • /
    • v.10 no.4
    • /
    • pp.25-32
    • /
    • 2008
  • The prevention of disasters in cultural property is very important management and historical duties. The reason can't be measured values with monetary scale of our contemporary. Therefore, this paper was considered fire-safety as one of terrible threat-disasters about the wooden buildings. This research deal with 47 cases cultural property wooden building by whole investigation(field survey and interview) in Gangnung province. The most buildings have basic fire extinguisher; ABC powder. A few buildings are rarely installed fire extinguishing equipments; outdoor fire hydrant, heat sensor, ground sprinkler, CO2-hose-reel. But these state is very insufficient for the fire-safety in cultural property wooden buildings. Specially as particular attention in province, forest fire of regional characteristic have close relation with cultural property fire. The majority of factor against forest and building fire is to provide monitoring and security system; CCTV, Fence, Sensor, Alarm and paid guard man against incendiary. Ultimately it is necessary to construct comprehensive disaster prevention system with the organic cooperation such as National Emergency Management Agency, Cultural Heritage Administration, Forest Service, local government officials and regional citizen.

  • PDF

Study on the Formulation of the Cultural Property Policy during the Japanese Colonial Period -with the Focus on the Composition of the Committee and Changes in the Listing of Cultural Properties- (일제강점기 문화재 정책 형성과정 연구 -위원회 구성과 목록 변화를 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Chun-Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.51 no.1
    • /
    • pp.100-125
    • /
    • 2018
  • The Japanese colonial authority investigated and institutionalized Korea's cultural properties for the purpose of governance. This process was conducted by Japanese officials and scholars, and systematized after making some changes. The Reservation Rule (1916) and the cultural properties designated in 1934 were actually the starting point for Korea's current cultural property policy. In the view of lineup of 'committee' that consider all of cultural property and changing of 'cultural property list', this study discusses the cultural property policy implemented by Joseon's Government-General, which can be summarized as follows. First, Joseon's Government-General formed a committee (Preservation Society) to formulate the cultural property policy, and had the policy implemented by appointing Governor officials who accounted for more than half the total number of officials of the institution. Although some Koreans were concerned about this, they had no influence on the matter. Second, the cultural properties listed by Joseon's Government-General are divided into three periods according to the lists. The compilation of the first list was led by Sekino Tadashi, who represented the grading system (1909~1916); while that of the second list (1917~1933) was led by Guroita Gatsumi, who represented listing (1917~1933). Guroita Gatsumi tried to erase Sekino Tadashi's list by formulating the cultural property policy and the list - a situation that was revealed in the system and the actual contents of the list. The third list was made as a list of designated cultural properties in 1934. This list also reflected the results of Sekino Tadashi investigation of the important cultural properties at existing temples that had been excluded from the previous regulations (1934~1945). In this way, a basic framework for the listing of Korean cultural properties was established in 1934.